Union carbide


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Union Carbide disaster

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Union carbide

  1. 2. <ul><li>Two cliches are generally used in accidents </li></ul><ul><li>“ An accident waiting to happen” </li></ul><ul><li> -This applies </li></ul><ul><li>“ We were lucky it wasn’t worse” </li></ul><ul><li> -This does not apply </li></ul><ul><li> It could have been worse </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Started in 1969 in bhopal </li></ul><ul><li>Phosgene, Monomethlyamine, Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) and the pesticide Carbaryl, also known as Sevin. </li></ul><ul><li>Taken over by DOW Chemicals in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>DOW refused Union Carbide’s Liabilities in Bhopal, India. </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li>41 T Of MIC and its reaction products released </li></ul><ul><li>Cold winter midnight of 2 nd -3 rd Dec. 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Between 00:40 and 02:30 AM approx. </li></ul><ul><li>At 30m (100ft) height </li></ul><ul><li>Moved as a 10m (30ft) high wall </li></ul><ul><li>Covered residential areas, main hospitals, railway station, 65 sq. km. area (25 sq. miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 8000 immediate deaths, over 200,000 suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12,000 more died since, over 120, 000 still suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Uc contiued to deny any long-term effects </li></ul>
  4. 7. <ul><li>The plant was over desinged by 150%, at the insistance of the Head Quarters and against the advice of the UC personnel in Bhopal. This led to the loss and cost cuttings due to lower capacity utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized early warning system and data logger were not incoporated into the design </li></ul><ul><li>Process design allowed for long-term storage of very large quantities of MIC in tanks </li></ul><ul><li>A non-MIC route could have been chosen as was used by UC earlier </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>A continuous reactor design could have done away with MIC storage. Any reactor leak would have released a few kg, not tons of MIC and would not have affected beyond the boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Water sprays were designed to reach only 12-15 meters although the gases from the flare were released at 30 meters. </li></ul><ul><li>Jumper line design modification connected relief-value vent header and the process-vent header, allowing water into the storage tank, </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Maximum allowable scrubber pressure was 15 psi while the rupture disc allowing the gas to come into the scrubber was set at 40 psi. </li></ul><ul><li>A single stage, manual safety system was used in place of an electronically controlled four-stage back-up safety system used in other similar plants </li></ul><ul><li>The design did not provide a backup system to divert escaping MIC to an effluent area for quick neutralization as in Bayer’s MIC plant </li></ul>
  7. 17. <ul><li>Respiratory Disorders – Irritation to the lungs, causing coughing and/or shortness of breathing. Higher exposure caused build up of fluids (pulmonary edema). Caused Asthama. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer Hazard – Caused mutation (genetic changes). It caused cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive Hazard – Association between exposure to Methyl Isocyanate and miscarriages. It may damage the growing fetus.May also affect fertility in men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Traces of many toxins were found in the Brest Milk of mothers and were inturn transmitted to the recepient babies. </li></ul>
  8. 23. <ul><li>After the Bhopal Disaster, the company went out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>They were bought by Dow Chemical in 1999 </li></ul>
  9. 24. <ul><li>What was wrong with the Bhopal plant? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the plant properly sited? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the Bhopal area ready for the such a plant? </li></ul><ul><li>Could the Bhopal area local bodies deal with the disaster of the magnitude </li></ul>
  10. 25. <ul><li>Should UCC’s assets seized and sold off to compensate Bhopal victims? </li></ul><ul><li>In such cases, should there be such a thing as limited liability? </li></ul><ul><li>What more can UCC or DOW chemical a do? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the Indian Government bear a substantial portion of the responsibility? </li></ul><ul><li>Should criminal cases be brought against local Government official as well as Warran Anderson? </li></ul>
  11. 26. <ul><li>Direct Result of Bhopal Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>All major chemical company signed on </li></ul><ul><li>Objective to make the chemical industry serve society better </li></ul>
  12. 27. <ul><li>Our industry creates products and services that make life better for people around the world – both today and tomorrow . </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits of our industry are accompanied by enduring commitments to responsible care in the management of chemicals worldwide . </li></ul><ul><li>We will make continuous progress toward the vision of no accidents, injuries or harm to the environment and will publicly report our global health, safety and environmental performance </li></ul>
  13. 28. <ul><li>We will lead our companies in ethical ways that increasingly benefit society, the economy and the environment while adhering to the following principles: </li></ul><ul><li>To seek incorporate public input regarding our products and operations </li></ul><ul><li>To provide chemicals that can be manufactured, transported, used and disposed of safely. </li></ul><ul><li>To make health, safety, the environment and resource conservation critical considerations for all new and existing products and processes. </li></ul>
  14. 29. <ul><li>To provide information on health or environmetal risks and pursue protective measures for employees, the public and other key stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>To operate our facilities in a manner that protects the environment and the health and safety of our employees and the public. </li></ul><ul><li>To work with customers, carriers, suppliers, distributors and contractors to foster the safe use, transport and disposal of chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>To support education and research on the health, safety and environmental effects of our products and processes to foster the safe use, transfer and disposal of chemical </li></ul>
  15. 30. <ul><li>To lead in the development of responsible laws, regulations and standards that safeguard the community, workplace and environment. </li></ul><ul><li>To practice Responsible Care by encouraging and assisting others to adhere to these principles and practices </li></ul>