Cradle to Cradle Design


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Designing for eco-efficiency in the package goods industry.
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Cradle to Cradle Design

  1. 1. white paper | June 2007Cradle to Cradle Designdesigning for eco-efficiency in thepackage goods industry
  2. 2. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 1The Ripple Effect of SustainabilityThe alarming recent decline in bee populations across the UnitedStates and Europe represents a potential environmentalcatastrophe that could collapse the food chain and eventually wipeout humanity. Many dont realize how vital the bee is in maintaininga balanced eco-system. In fact, according to experts, if bees were tobecome extinct, humanity would perish in just four short years.The plight of the bees is just one example of the negative impactthat humans are having on the environment. Another one isconsumer-packaging waste.We would like to share with you some very preliminary ideas andprocesses that can assist your organization in establishing asustainable advantage in the marketplace, ensuring, among otherthings, that bee populations continue to strive.This information has been gathered from a wide range of resourcesand organizations that have led and embraced sustainable businesspractices and environmentally driven change. Also included isinformation to help you sell the idea of developing a sustainableplatform within your organization. In the Process section, we haveoutlined a series of steps to help your organization evaluate itssustainability opportunities. We will provide further insights as ourfirm conducts an international study on sustainable packaging."If the beedisappeared off thesurface of theglobe, then manwould only havefour years of lifeleft. No more bees,no more pollination,no more plants, nomore animals, nomore man."Albert Einstein
  3. 3. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 2Sustainability: The New Competitive, Meaningful AdvantageThe 21st-century packaging industry will be characterized byincreasing globalization, revolutions in information technology,rapid process and product innovations, and a skeptical, hard-to-target consumer base. There are also population and social factorsthat are profoundly changing the marketplace. But the marketplacecannot survive for long on a planet already reaching ecologicallimits with ozone depletion, loss of bio-diversity, poor water qualityand management, and climate change. These changes are forcingthe consumer packaged goods industry to rethink businessstrategies and develop materials, products and industrial processesand services that are more eco-efficient.Environmental concerns are evident in the increasinglyenvironmentally conscious marketplace, and are being felt in thepackaged goods and manufacturing sectors, driven by retailers’need to meet consumers’ demands. Over the years, a growingpercentage of consumers have become aware of the impact of theirpurchasing habits on the environment. They now evaluate theenvironmental efficiency of a package as part of their buyingdecision, considering factors such as over-packaging,biodegradability, and environmentally friendly manufacturingprocesses. Perhaps the strongest sign of the growing importance ofsustainable packaging and products is consumers’ willingness to paya premium for environmentally friendly products.In Cradle to Cradle, William McDonough and Michael Braungartargue that the conflict between industry and the environment isnot an indictment of commerce, but an outgrowth of purelyopportunistic design. The design of products and manufacturingsystems growing out of the Industrial Revolution reflected the spiritof the day—and yielded a host of unintended, yet tragicconsequences.Today, with our growing knowledge of the living earth, packagedesign can reflect a new spirit of sustainability.
  4. 4. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 3Packaging Waste: a Growing Concern for the EnvironmentBecause of its large volume, packaging waste tends to be veryvisible. Approximately 70% of primary packaging is used for foodand drink. Once the product is used, the packaging is oftendiscarded, covered in residues of the original contents.A recent UK study identified that an estimated 9.3 million tons ofwaste packaging was generated in 2001. Of this, 5.1 million tonscame from households, and the remaining 4.2 million tons fromcommercial and industrial sources.Waste has clearly become a problem in the developed countries.Landfill capacities are decreasing, and the average consumerproduces between 250 and 620 kilograms of household waste peryear. About 25 to 30% of this is packaging waste. Although theEuropean community has initiated stringent targets, consumers aregenerating significantly higher levels of waste; so much so thatrecycling alone will not eliminate current environmental issues.Packaging waste represents about 17% of municipal solid waste byweight, and 3% of total waste in Europe (EC, Dec 2001). From 1997to 2001, packaging waste increased by 7% across the EU. From2000 to 2008, EU packaging waste is expected to increase by 18%(from 65 to 77 million tons) (EEA, 2004). Similar trends are evidentin Australia and the UK.With a growth in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from thesourcing, manufacturing and distribution of packaging, recycling isno longer our primary concern. Packaging consumes resourcesduring production (raw materials), increases transportation costs(the larger the package, the fewer the units that make up ashipment) and must be disposed of (energy to dispose or recycle).It also increases solid waste.In addition to improved environmental performance, many ‘green’products work as well or better than traditional products, and caneven save money. Switching to safer cleaning products, for example,can reduce incidents of allergic reactions, asthma, burns, eye
  5. 5. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 4damage, major organ damage, and cancer connected with thehazardous chemicals used in many traditional cleaning products.Buying 100% recycled-content paper can reduce energy use by44%, decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 37%, cut solid wasteemissions in half, decrease water use by 50%, and practicallyeliminate wood use. Similarly, energy-efficient vehicles andrenewable energy cut greenhouse gas emissions and harmful airpollutants while lessening our dependence on imported oil.Organizations can benefit from similar ecological and economicadvantages by switching to environmentally friendly purchasing,processes and products. Overall, the implementation andintegration of green purchasing concepts constitutes a system-wideprocess reform that contributes to an organization’s reduction inecological footprint (cumulative associated ownership to globalecological damage, stemming from a demand for natural resourcesto sustain economic and social balance).Sustainability Awareness and Action are Low Within thePackaging IndustryA 2006 study analyzed the levels of awareness and adoption ofsustainability among Packaging Digest readers.About 80% of total study participants expressed at least somefamiliarity with the topic of sustainability in the packaging industry.However, only 8% mentioned being extremely familiar with thetopic. Most respondents felt that emphasis on sustainable packaginghas increased within the last year, and about two-thirds mentionedthat they have taken at least some action related to sustainabilitywithin that same time frame. However, there was no significantpercentage of participants taking any one action towardsustainability, suggesting that there is still no real consensus in thepackaging industry when it comes to sustainability activities.
  6. 6. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 5More respondents view sustainability as an environmental versuseconomic initiative at present. They also find it more important forsustainability activities to meet market criteria for performance andcost, more so than environmental targets.As a sign of its growing importance, sustainable design was seen asa very or somewhat important factor in packaging decisions. In fact,87% of respondents mentioned at least some percentage of theircurrent customers are asking for or requiring sustainable packaging.Of all respondents, about two-thirds have some metric in place formeasuring their success with sustainability. However, there was noreal unity among answers, as source reduction, the most commonmetric, is only used by 13% of participants.On the topic of additional resources needed to help reachsustainability goals, the most common answer reflected the needfor more information (11%). Again, this suggests a very fragmentedunderstanding of the definition of sustainability in the packagingindustry.There were no significant differences between responses frommanufacturers and end users in the study. Some noteworthyobservations emerged in a few areas. First, slightly more end usersview sustainability as an economic initiative.Secondly, manufacturers have slightly more customers who ask foror require sustainable packaging, versus customers who don’t.Lastly, end users viewed manufacturers, educational institutions,and trade shows as moderately credible sources of information onsustainability.
  7. 7. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 6Sustainability, the Evolution of RecyclingThe recent increase in public awareness of sustainability issues hasled to a shift in consumer thinking. Whereas in the past shopperssought to protect the environment through recycling, their focus isnow on choosing products with packaging sourced, manufacturedand distributed in environmentally friendly ways. Severalorganizations, such as Wal-Mart, are making a priority of goinggreen. Brands are finding a new opportunity to communicate theecological attributes of their packaging now that the retailer hasintroduced its Packaging Scorecard, ranking brands on greenhousegas emissions, recycled content and other package developmentfactors.Since launching the program last year, Wal-Mart reports “activeuse” of the scorecard, with more than 2,270 vendors alreadylogging on to its website, and at least 117 products entered into thesystem—numbers the retailer expects will increase in the comingyear as brands gain a better understanding of the scorecard andtheir own packaging capabilities.037.575.0 112.5150.0493025242468067606662544745Meets market crteria for performance and costIs benefcial, safe and healthy for indivduals and communties throughout its life cycleIs made from materials in all probable end-of-life scenariosIs physically designed to optimize materials and energyIs manufactured using clean producton technologies and best practicesMaximizes the use of renewable or recycled source materialsIs effectively recoved and utilized in bological and/or industrial crade-to-cradel cyclesIs sourced, manufactured, transported and recycled using renewable energy
  8. 8. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 7Wal-Mart and other retailers are responding to the growing trendthat has consumers demanding and willing to pay more for greenproducts. In a Canadian study conducted in 2001 at ConcordiaUniversity by Michel Laroche, Jasmin Bergeron and Guido Barboro-Forleo, 57% of females and 40% of males said they would pay apremium for green products. The study found females, thetraditional shopper of the household, are more environmentallyconcerned than males. It suggested that these individuals are moreinclined to think of how a ruined environment may negativelyimpact not only their partner, but also their children’s future. Thestudy did not differentiate between participants’ education levels,household incomes, home ownership and work status.The Concordia University study suggests a consumer’s degree ofeco-literacy is not an indicator of his or her intent to purchasegreen products. Consequently, shoppers with a high awareness ofecological issues have the same levels of purchase intent as thosewith a lower awareness.Consumers willing to pay more for green products feel that today’secological problems are severe, that corporations do not actresponsibly toward the environment, and that behaving in anecologically favorable way is important. They place a highimportance on security and warm relationships with others, andoften consider ecological issues when making a purchase.Finally, the research reveals that 80% of consumers who are morelikely to spend more for green products say they refuse to buyproducts from companies that are accused of being polluters.However, respondents who claimed to recycle and buyenvironmentally friendly products were not always those willing topay more for green goods.13.1% of the study’srespondents arewilling to pay a higherprice for greenproducts.
  9. 9. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 8What are carbon footprints?Carbon footprints measures the amount of carbon emissionsproduced by the things we do. From flying, to driving our cars, tothe things we buy, every one of us leaves a carbon footprint on theenvironment.In total, the Carbon Trust estimates that the UK emits 648 milliontons of carbon emissions every year. This means each person in theUK can be linked to an average of 11 tons of carbon emissionsannually.Walkers Cheese & Onion Crisps feature carbon footprint onpackagingPepsi recently acquired the UK’s leading potato chip brand, Walkers.The organization took a leadership role in environmentalsustainability by featuring the carbon footprint of their product onits packaging.Walkers carbon footprint figure was calculated by drawing up amap of the key stages in their supply chain—from sowing potatoand sunflower seeds, to getting the chips into stores, to finallydisposing of the packaging. The carbon figure expresses the totalcalculated output of carbon emissions connected with this lifecycle.Converting the energy consumption involved in each of the lifecyclestages into the resulting amount of carbon emissions, then addingup each stage’s figures, leads to a final carbon footprint calculationof 75 g.Walkers is one example of an organization that is not onlyenvironmentally conscious, but committed to raising awareness ofthe importance of ecologically responsible business practices. Thecarbon footprint feature on their packaging suggests Walkers hastaken steps to minimize waste and emissions in all of theirmanufacturing and distribution stages. Consumers have taken noteof this.
  10. 10. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 9Moving from efficient to Eco-efficient Packaging: the key tosustainabilityThe President’s Council on Sustainable Development defined eco-efficiency as the production, delivery, and use of competitivelypriced goods and services, coupled with the achievement ofenvironmental and social goals. Key to the fundamentals of eco-efficiency is the strong alignment between environmentalperformance and shareholder value, and the consideration of thefull life cycle or cradle-to-cradle product cycle (raw materials,manufacturing, use, and end-of-life).The definition of eco-efficiency coincides with the definition ofsustainability, namely meeting your needs while not compromisingthe ability of future generations to meet theirs (BruntlandCommission). The concept of eco-efficiency has been recognized bythe government of Canada as a key mechanism for industry tocontribute to sustainable development.Recently, the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committeeon Industry noted that eco-efficiency is an important businesspractice and management tool, whereby innovations in technology,production, processes, product design and business organizations
  11. 11. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 10and practices can lead to lower unit costs, improved productquality, lower environmental-related liability, less material usage anda less adverse impact on the environment.Organizations such as Walmart, BASF, Compaq Computer,DaimlerChrysler, Shell Canada, Canfor, Noranda, Airbus, 3M, GE, BPAmoco, Alcan and Weyerhaeuser have all embraced eco-efficiencyprograms to improve their competitive advantage, and participatedin a related study conducted by Five Winds International in 2000.The study analyzed the practices of organizations that hadintegrated eco-efficiency within their business as part of theircompetitive advantage.The results indicated that companies which anticipate andimplement eco-efficient practices do so to get ahead of the packwith market and regulatory trends, to reduce costs, to gaincompetitive advantage, and to ensure long-term profitability andsustainability. In addition, these organizations had realized thatcapital markets now factor in environmentally friendly andsustainable practices when evaluating a firm.For example, the AMP Capital Sustainable Share Fund uses asustainable approach to investing, integrating financial analysis withenvironmental, social and governance factors shaping companies’future growth prospects. The Fund invests primarily in companieslisted on the Australian Securities Exchange.Green investorsSocially responsible investing (SRI) has gained some visibility andcredibility in the eyes of individual and institutional investors, andstock portfolios managed following SRI principles are rapidlygrowing in world markets. The “2003 Report on SociallyResponsible Investing Trends in the United States” reveals that thevalue of socially screened portfolios now exceeds $2 trillion. Thisrepresents a 240% growth since 1995, 40% faster than all
  12. 12. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 11professionally man-aged assets. The report identifies 200 ethicalmutual funds in operation, compared to 55 in 1995.In Canada, this ethical boom has been matched, according to asurvey conducted by the Social Investment Organization in 2002.The survey shows that more than $50 billion Canadian is nowmanaged in a socially responsible fashion in Canadian stock markets.The recent launch of several new SRI financial indexes, such as theDow Jones Sustainability Indexes in the U.S., FTSE4 Good Indexesin Europe, and the Jantzi Social Index in Canada, is an additionalsign of the rise in popularity of ethical investing. Ethical or sociallyresponsible investing reflects a broader philosophical movementcommitted to sustainable development and the advancement ofhuman rights. Promoters of socially responsible investing believethat directing or reallocating money toward firms embracing thisphilosophy is an important step in the achievement of a bettersociety.Wal-Mart’s Sustainability ProgramAs part of its sustainability program, Wal-Mart plans to measure its60,000 worldwide suppliers on their ability to develop packagingand conserve natural resources. This initiative, scheduled to begin in2008, is projected to reduce overall packaging by 5%. In addition toreducing and preventing millions of pounds of trash from reachinglandfills, the initiative is projected to save 667,000 metric tons ofcarbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere. This is equal to213,000 trucks off the road annually, and saving 323,800 tons ofcoal and 66.7 million gallons of diesel fuel from being burned. Thisinitiative will also create $10.98 billion in savings, just from a 5%reduction in 10% of the global packaging industry.
  13. 13. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 12Wal-Mart alone is poised to save $3.4 billion. “Packaging is whereconsumers and suppliers come together and can have a real impacton both business efficiency and environmental stewardship,” saidWal-Mart CEO H. Lee Scott. “Even small changes to packaging havea significant ripple effect.Improved packaging means less waste, fewer materials used, andsavings on transportation, manufacturing, shipping and storage.”Wal-Mart’s Packaging Scorecard tool will allow buyers to haveinformation about packaging alternatives or more sustainablepackaging materials in one location.Key Drivers Motivating Adoption of Eco-efficiencyinitiativesThe aforementioned Five Winds study clearly shows that while eco-efficiency does not address all social, economic and environmentalconsiderations encompassed by sustainable development, it is animportant and necessary step in moving toward more sustainablepatterns of production and consumption. The practice of eco-efficiency encompasses a range of approaches, from simple changesThe study identified a range ofsupporting drivers that shouldbe taken into considerationwhen developing an eco-efficiency program:1. Brand Image2. Competitive Advantage3. Cost Reduction4. Customer Relations5. Employee Relations6. Regulatory Relations7. Innovation8. Legislation9. Liability10. Long-term Profitability andAccess to Capital11. New Markets12. Environmental Performance13. Standards (ISO, etc.)14. Supplier Relations
  14. 14. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 13to more innovative solutions. The companies studied fell into threecategories of environmental management:Market DrivenThe decision to become eco-efficient is either driven by regulatoryrequirements, or motivated by customer expectations and desires.Competitive AdvantageThe company uses its eco-efficient capabilities to create marketswhere it has sole or leadership market position.SustainableThis is the pinnacle of eco-efficient achievement, where theorganization proactively integrates economic growth, health andsafety, and environmental and social well being into its operations.The goal is to gain a competitive advantage and long-term viability.Eco-efficiency ToolsThe study clearly identified eco-efficiency as a key enabling conceptand tool for companies to gain a competitive advantage. Thesuccess of a company’s eco-efficiency program depends on thechosen strategic approach, and on its degree of implementation,which is affected by several factors: management commitment andsupport, internal capacity including management systems and tools,financial resources, and customer requirements.Key tools used to implement eco-efficiency programs include thefollowing:Management SystemsAll surveyed companies had adopted environmental managementsystems. These are either specific systems or hybrid approaches thatincorporate sustainable development and security.
  15. 15. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 14Life Cycle ToolsThe majority of companies went beyond their own operationalboundaries to examine the life cycle aspects of their products, andof the materials contained in those products.Supplier Management ProgramsFor some companies in the study, particularly manufacturers,working with their suppliers is a key aspect of improving the overallenvironmental performance of their products, as well as managingrisks and reducing costs.Design for EnvironmentSeveral companies integrated environmental considerations into theproduct development process. This leads to improvedenvironmental performance, elimination of risk and liability, betterchoices with respect to selection of materials and processes, and insome cases enhanced quality and performance.Corporate Environmental Reporting and CommunicationImplementation of an open communication program that providedtransparency was seen by some as a key activity in buildingrelationships with communities and regulators.Other activities included training and awareness-raising, eco-labeling, greenhouse gas trading pilots, forest certification programssuch as the Forest Stewardship Council, auditing, and assuranceprograms.Forest Stewardship CouncilThe Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an internationalorganization that brings people together to find solutions thatpromote responsible stewardship of the world’s forests.FSC is a stakeholder-owned system for promoting responsiblemanagement of forests.
  16. 16. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 15Through consultative processes, it sets international standards forresponsible forest management.It accredits independent third-party organizations that can certifyforest managers and forest product producers to FSC standards.Its trademark provides international recognition to organizationsthat support the growth of responsible forest management.Its product label allows consumers everywhere to recognizeproducts that support the growth of responsible forestmanagement worldwide.Over the past 13 years, over 90 million hectares in more than 82countries have been certified according to FSC standards, whileseveral thousand products are produced using FSC-certified woodand carrying the FSC trademark. FSC operates through its networkof National Initiatives in 43 countries.Critical Elements Impacting Eco-efficiency ChangesWith the help of various studies and pertinent market information,as well as our extensive expertise in branding and package design,we have identified eight key areas that impact the viability andintegration of a sustainable eco-efficiency program within consumerpackaged goods organizations:
  17. 17. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 16Critical Elements impacting Eco-efficiency changesThe diagram in the previous page presents the key elements thatshould be taken into consideration to ensure a successful eco-efficient packaging initiative:Supplier NetworkWith today’s just-in-time manufacturing practices, companies relyheavily on their vendors and supply chain partners. These entitiescan significantly impact a sustainability program in the ways theysource, manufacture and distribute component products thatsupport the manufacturing process.Product SourcingWorking with primary producers to ensure your company developsor sources environmentally friendly products is an expedient way tocreate eco-efficiency. Initiatives can range from selecting fair-tradevendors, to sourcing products from accredited environment-conscious suppliers, to collaborating with suppliers to establishstandards for eco-efficient growing and sourcing of raw materials.ManufacturingCompanies can review current manufacturing processes to identifyshort and long-term solutions for reducing waste, cutting energyusage, and optimizing plant efficiency.PackagingWhile a product of manufacturing, packaging generates the mostlandfill waste and should be the focus of its own eco-efficiencyprogram. Waste reduction can be applied in a range of areas, fromthe amount and type of materials used in the packaging process, tothe inks used on the final label.DistributionIdentifying cost-effective distribution systems that allow for areduction in energy use can make a significant difference for theenvironment.
  18. 18. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 17SystemsYou can develop systems to track and benchmark the evolution ofyour eco-efficiency program. Use them to evaluate progress, assessimmediate needs and shape long-term goals.HRThe success of a program is directly linked to the buy-in andsupport of the organization’s staff. Identifying knowledge gaps andeducational opportunities is a crucial step in ensuring the programis properly implemented at all levels of the manufacturing process.CommunicationEffectively sharing knowledge and accomplishments is vital inmaintaining interest and support, ultimately contributing to thesuccess of your organization’s eco-efficiency program.The Product Sustainable Life CycleAccording to the Sustainable Packaging Coalition, design has ahuge impact on the entire packaging supply chain, from materialsourcing to material recovery. The Coalition offers a set of stepsthat apply to the sourcing and manufacturing of packaging as partof a sustainable eco-efficiency program.Each step is an opportunity to identify potential improvements inthe sustainability of the product’s life cycle. When used inconjunction with the eight elements of an eco-efficientorganization, these steps will maximize the success of yoursustainability program.
  19. 19. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 18The ProcessTo help your organization implement a successful eco-efficiencyprogram, consider a five-step process incorporating key milestonesand deliverables:Although the process is linear in approach, implementation iscircular—the program is repetitious and includes a re-assessmentupon completion of the first wave of changes.The success of the program will depend on ensuring all participantshave a clear understanding of the steps, deliverables and theircontribution to the process.
  20. 20. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 19
  21. 21. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 20The GoalsThe goals consist of a range of opportunities:• Reduce energy, waste and costs• Increase value for shareholders and investors• Differentiate your organization from competitors• Anticipate future regulations• Create innovative new products or processes• Open new markets• Attract and retain the best employees• Improve your image for shareholders and the public• Reduce legal risks and insurance costs• Contribute to a higher quality of lifeThe ProcessStep One: Charter DevelopmentAssign divisional and functional members to asustainability leadership team.Establish a clearly defined charter for the team to follow:• The charter should cover:• Background/Case for Action• Project Scope• Project Objectives• Team Structure (RASCI Chart)• Project Structure/Governance• Project Timelines• Success Criteria• Project Assumptions• Constraints• End Product DescriptionThis process would culminate in a presentation to seniormanagement for approval.
  22. 22. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 21TIMING: two to three weeksStep Two: AssessmentConfirm key consumer, trade, governmental, and competitivetrends.Identify industry best practices and their relevance to yourorganization.Review Pepsi international best practices and their relevance toCanada.The assessment should be conducted via online research with thebroader organization and key suppliers, as well as one-on-oneinterviews with key stakeholders.Review the organization’s current sustainable capabilities as theyrelate to:• Supplier Network• Product Sourcing• Manufacturing• Packaging• Distribution• Systems• HR• CommunicationDevelop strategic implications to lay the foundation for asustainable program.TIMING: four to eight weeks
  23. 23. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 22Step Three: Identifying MetricsBased on the assessment stage, identify sustainable metrics for:• Short-term• Long-term• Internal capabilities• External capabilitiesIdentify measurement tools.Present recommendations and establish alignment.TIMING: two to three weeksStep Four: ProgrammingHaving identified key metrics, develop an implementation plan thatcovers the following matrix:
  24. 24. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 23Identify short and long-term initiatives within the matrix, based ona five-year plan.TIMING: two to three weeksStep Five: ImplementationWithin the sustainability matrix, establish commitments for each ofthe key departments within your organization to ensure supportand alignment:• Town hall meetings• Workshops• Clearly defined action plan with investment implications• Cross-functional team structureThis phase is on going. The sustainability matrix needs to beupdated as projects are completed and new opportunities emerge.TIMING: four to eight weeksStep Six: EvaluationThis ‘sustainability tune-up’ will ensure strategies and action plansdeliver on the key metrics.Since new legislation and market dynamics impact the plan,conduct a yearly evaluation to ensure action plans meet statedgoals.TIMING: two to three weeks, yearly
  25. 25. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 24The AuditIn order to clearly understand opportunities and potential gaps,consumer packaged goods organizations need to initiate an auditof their current state within all facets of the company. What followsis a series of questions that will assist in identifying both short-termand long-term opportunities.Your first step toward eco-efficiency should be the formation of aneco-efficiency committee that would provide leadership anddirection to the organization. This group would be made up of awide cross-section of organization members to ensure fairassessment of both challenges and opportunities.This sample audit is a starting point in leveraging a sustainabilityplatform for your organization, and will need adjustments to meetyour specific requirements.
  26. 26. white paper | June 2007 | Cradle to Cradle Design | 69For more information, contact:Jean-Pierre Lacroix, PresidentShikatani Lacroix387 Richmond Street EastToronto, OntarioM5A 1P6Telephone: 416-367-1999Email: