(Asia, continued from page 26)

immolations by Tibetans protesting China’s increasingly repressive policies in Tibet contr...


ince introducing economic reforms in 1978, China has undergone a
phenomenal economic transformation, ...
Middle East & North Africa

courtesy of Flickr user DVIDSHUB under the Creative Commons license.


Middle East & North Africa

Applied Social Science Forum, Tunisia


stablished in 2006 in Tunis, the Applied Social
Latin America & Caribbean

San Lorenzo, a small town surrounded by sea inlets and mangrove swamps, is a gateway into Ecuad...
recriminalizing libel, and new restrictions on the internet and on
freedom of assembly. These measures presented a new set...



he Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is one of Africa’s most unstable countries and


We are free, where everything’s allowed and love comes first…



-lyrics from Euphoria, the ...
Latin America
and the

We are entrepreneurs of knowledge, builders of democracy,
our social revolt is expres...
Latin America & Caribbean

Asociación Civil Transparencia, Peru


eru’s Asociación Civil Transparencia was
founded in 19...

ussian government backlash against civil society as a whole and democracy assistance in
particular has made Russ...



There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the
Marguerite Sullivan, Marius Dragomir, David Sasaki,
David Kaplan). These and the rest of CIMA’s reports
are available for ...
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NED Annual Report 2012 Highlight Spreads


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  1. 1. (Asia, continued from page 26) immolations by Tibetans protesting China’s increasingly repressive policies in Tibet contributed to a greater sense of urgency in the Tibetan community’s struggle for freedom and human rights. The Endowment worked with Tibetan activists in exile and supported programs focusing on free flow of information, human rights protection, and civic and democracy education. ASIA ASIA Freedom of information was a key focus for the Endowment’s North Korea program, which supported organizations working to spread access to alternative information and introduce democratic ideals and values to empower North Korea’s isolated population. While North Korea remains one of the world’s most repressive societies, members of the international community, including defectors and activists in South Korea, are making impressive progress in providing alternative news and information inside North Korea through the spread of technology and digital media. Pakistan’s civilian government made a number of important strides towards strengthening democratic processes in 2012, including passing amendments restoring the federal parliamentary character of the Constitution and guaranteeing the rights to information and education. Despite these gains, Pakistan faced a number of significant challenges, including ethnic and religious divisions, pervasive corruption, and extremist violence. The Endowment continued to support long-term grassroots education and community organizing efforts by civil society groups to address these challenges and to increase public awareness of democratic norms and values and promote an active civic culture. Elsewhere in South Asia, the Endowment increased its efforts to address the deterioration of the political environment in Sri Lanka. Previously one of the subregion’s most democratic countries, Sri Lanka has experienced no peace dividend after the conclusion of its nearly three-decade long civil war, and the Rajapakse government has centralized power in the executive and clamped down on civil society and independent media. In Southeast Asia, the Endowment maintains modest support for programs in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, where Endowment partners worked to address corruption and strengthen key democratic institutions like labor unions and political parties. In Vietnam, the Endowment supported a small number of organizations assisting activists and working to expand space for independent political activity in the face of an increasing number of government crackdowns and restrictions on civil society. Explore the 2012 Grants section that follows to better understand where NED has focused its resources. To learn more about these grantees, visit our website at www.NED.org. The Antenna Foundation (AF) in Nepal produces radio programs that provide local perspectives on Nepal’s political transition and local governance. AF also trains reporters and producers of local stations in the development of feature stories (which are then incorporated into the radio programs) as well as in the use of the Right to Information Act to further their investigative work. 28 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 29
  2. 2. COUNTRY IN FOCUS S ince introducing economic reforms in 1978, China has undergone a phenomenal economic transformation, now ranking as the world’s second largest economy. But China’s ability to continue reaping the gains of economic reform will be tested by the relative lack of political reform, which has left the government ill-prepared to manage increasing demands for political participation. To maintain its grip on power, the Chinese government employs a system of sophisticated and tech-savvy political controls which are highly effective at curbing freedoms of speech and association. But despite such controls, citizens continue to demand fundamental rights, many of which are protected under the constitution. The rapid expansion of internet and social media usage along with a vibrant grassroots movement has created opportunities for citizens to call for improved accountability and address abuses of power, laying the foundation for the emergence of a rights-based reform agenda. ASIA ASIA CHINA To support these efforts, the Endowment partners with organizations such as the China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group to support Chinese rights defense lawyers representing democracy activists facing unfounded criminal accusations or other harassment. Another NED partner, the Center for International Private Enterprise, promotes free and open debates on property rights, raises public awareness of the need for transparency, and encourages citizen input on economic policies and laws. In addition, several NED grantees raised awareness about ‘re-education’ through labor camps, contributing to the government’s 2013 announcement of its intention to abolish the camps over the next decade. The Endowment also maintains support for minority rights. The Chinese government continues to incite ethnic hatred through propaganda and censorship. The application of law is racially biased, frequently leading to extreme discrepancies in sentencing for minorities. Large-scale militarization and surveillance of Tibet grew in 2012 in response to more than 100 selfimmolations since 2009. The World Uyghur Congress (WUC) continued its efforts to highlight the Chinese government’s treatment of Uyghurs, organizing an advocacy campaign in Geneva during the UN Human Rights Council meetings, which remains one of the few policy outlets around the world where their voice can be heard. Although the government continues to harass and repress activists, Chinese civil society activists continue to advocate and create opportunities for reforms. Government repression means that activists in China will need continued international support, and the Endowment is proud to assist their efforts to build a stronger foundation for democratic progress in China. 30 | National Endowment for Democracy Tiananmen Square, Beijing, site of the bloody 1989 crackdown on peaceful student protests; image courtesy of Flickr user asirap under the Creative Commons license. 2012 Annual Report | 31
  3. 3. Middle East & North Africa courtesy of Flickr user DVIDSHUB under the Creative Commons license. COUNTRY IN FOCUS IRAQ A lthough Iraq has so far successfully handled the end of a decade of U.S. security presence, its democracy is highly fragile. Iraqis confront on-going violence, rights violations, widespread corruption, organized crime, and rooted fiefdoms – but the country benefits from a developed civil society, which is committed to participation in the political process and defending its achievements. Middle East & North Africa A strong civil society helps ensure education for young girls in Iraq; image Sectarian violence has made political compromise difficult, but broad-based coalitions have nonetheless been able to effectively advocate for legislative reform at the provincial and national levels. At the provincial level, civil society has introduced new mechanisms that have persuaded officials and political party leaders to respond to citizen demands. In 2012, the Iraqi Human Rights Watch Society, for example, convened 15 meetings between citizens and officials to discuss human rights and hosted debaters from Iraq’s diverse communities and political groups in three radio broadcasts on human rights education. The Al-Najah Center for Training and Development trained 100 young people in political and policy advocacy skills to support national campaigns on reforms. With violence once again on the rise in Iraq, NED grantees face new challenges on multiple fronts, including ensuring their basic security. NED is amplifying its support to help civil society advocate for better governance, a more representative system, and the defense of democratic freedoms. 80 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 81
  4. 4. Middle East & North Africa Applied Social Science Forum, Tunisia E stablished in 2006 in Tunis, the Applied Social Science Forum (ASFF) promotes public policy research, conducts public opinion polling, trains young researchers, and encourages public policy debate on critical issues facing Tunisia. ASSF has built a reputation for serving leaders and scholars with high-quality research on social science and public policy, linking scholars, legislators, and practitioners in a discussion of public policy and the policy making process. In 2012, after having been in the works for a couple of years, NED support enabled ASSF to launch its popular Local Governance Barometer, a research tool designed to measure the performance of local government institutions. This tool was modeled on the Local Governance Barometer formulated by the South Africa-based Institute for Democracy in Africa (IDASA), a past NED grantee. become widely followed by policymakers and advocates. NED support also allowed ASSF to train 24 young researchers on opinion research techniques and analysis, including polling, surveys, data analysis, report writing, electoral mapping analysis, and models of public opinion research, with a focus on how research findings are used to inform the policy process. The goal of these Barometers is to build public accountability, good governance, and increased public participation for improved public service delivery. ASSF’s Local Governance Barometer has Middle East & North Africa GRANTS IN FOCUS Through its work, ASSF highlights the benefits of opinion research by translating public opinion into detailed guidance on how to design, modify, and improve policy making in Tunisia. NED support also allowed ASFF to publish the first issue of its Arabic language newsletter, Public Opinion, which featured articles on youth and politics, and Salafism and demoratic transition. The newsletter, poll results, and research studies are disseminated widely to civil society organizations, academics, policy makers, and advocates. They are also available to the public on ASSF’s website, www.ASSForum.org. Image courtesy of Flickr user Gwenael Piaser under the Creative Commons license. 82 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 83
  5. 5. Latin America & Caribbean San Lorenzo, a small town surrounded by sea inlets and mangrove swamps, is a gateway into Ecuador for refugees fleeing political violence in Colombia. Asylum Access Ecuador advocates for policies that protect refugee rights in accordance with international standards. Photo courtesy of Asylum Access Ecuador / Sandra ten Zijthoff. ECUADOR D emocracy in Ecuador continued to deteriorate in 2012. With presidential and legislative elections scheduled for early 2013, President Correa took steps to limit media coverage of political campaigns, while making extensive use of the state apparatus to promote his own reelection. Judicial reforms also undermined the independence of the judiciary and contributed a weakened rule of law and a general climate of fear and intimidation. Attacks against independent media and civil society continued. Over the last few years, traditional power brokers in Ecuadorian democracy – such as political parties, unions, the media, and indigenous organizations – have been weakened and lost public credibility and influence. Citizen participation in public affairs remains low, and a highly polarized atmosphere leaves little room for constructive dialogue. In light of these challenges, NED focused on maintaining democratic space for civil society, promoting transparency around the 2013 national elections, and building bridges of understanding among political, civil and media actors. NED partners worked to strengthen freedom of expression as well as bolster accountability and citizen participation in the political process. NDI educated political parties on complicated new electoral regulations so that they could re-register and participate in the 2013 elections. Participación CiudadanaEcuador monitored the use of public resources on media advertising ahead of the 2013 elections to draw public attention to government control over the public discussion – aggressive, state-run advertising campaigns successfully vilified political opponents and promoted the Correa Administration’s agenda. Fundación Ciudadanía y Desarrollo monitored the attendance, voting record and performance of national legislators, and held candidate 68 | National Endowment for Democracy Latin America & Caribbean COUNTRY IN FOCUS forums with legislators seeking reelection. Movimiento Mi Cometa trained citizens to monitor judicial reforms initiated in 2011, and developed a set of indicators to measure judicial transparency. Mi Cometa also established a new Transparency and Probity Award to provide yearly recognition to judges who perform with honesty. Fundamedios continued to report on direct and indirect threats against journalists, and denounce freedom of expression violations before domestic and international audiences. IRI facilitated strategic platforms for citizens, political parties, local governments and civil society activists to discuss issues related to local governance and public policy. These and many other organizations are working under the growing shadow of authoritarian rule, with little relief in sight. But NED will continue to stand with democracy and civil society activists in their efforts to inform the public and reverse Ecuador’s democratic decline. 2012 Annual Report | 69
  6. 6. recriminalizing libel, and new restrictions on the internet and on freedom of assembly. These measures presented a new set of challenges to the Endowment’s grantees in Russia, and with the exit of USAID, the funding situation became acute even for many of Russia’s most well-established NGOs. NED helped grantees address legal hurdles and developed individualized strategies to support their work. The Russian NGOs demonstrated considerable courage, resilience, and creativity in meeting the challenges created by the new legislation. The strength and professionalism of the NGO sector coupled with the growing public demand for government transparency holds out hope for future growth and expansion of the Russia’s civil society. Armenian voters look for their names on publicly displayed voter lists at a precinct in Ararat on election day in May 2012; image courtesy of flickr user Neil Simon under the Creative Commons license. EURASIA EURASIA (Eurasia, continued from page 38) In Kazakhstan, the government continued to intimidate and imprison opposition leaders, journalists, and even ordinary people who engaged in public protest. Over 40 independent media outlets were shut down in 2012. Despite the pressure, NED grantees like International Legal Initiative Public Foundation monitored court cases dealing with freedom of assembly and the Kazakhstan International Bureau of Human Rights and Rule of Law operated a Legal Defense Center to advise and represent human rights victims. NED also worked to help civil society capitalize on political openings and there were bright points in the region. Georgia passed a milestone in October 2012 when, for the first time in its history, power was transferred peacefully through free elections. NED grantees were active across a range of issues: Association “Studio Re” produced 22 television shows featuring balanced and informed public debate, while the Georgian Young Lawyers Association litigated serious electoral violations. Kyrgyzstan also conducted legitimate, credible elections, and though the Parliament is still a weak institution, the government is pursuing ambitious democratic reform projects. In fact, Kyrgyzstan may represent the most promise for democratic development in Central Asia in the near term. NED supported organizations across the country, but especially those in the volatile southern region (such as Spravedlivost – see page 44), where ethnic violence and human rights abuses against minorities remain some of the country’s most serious challenges. NED supported human rights, independent media, and NGO development in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and in Armenia, civil society partners are mobilizing on local governance and topical issues ahead of national elections in 2017. Explore the 2012 Grants section that follows and visit our website at www. NED.org to learn more about grantees across the region. 40 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 41
  7. 7. COUNTRY IN FOCUS T CONGO he Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is one of Africa’s most unstable countries and NED’s highest priority on the continent. NED has supported civil society organizations there for over 20 years and, today, funds over 40 projects promoting human rights, good governance, and conflict resolution in nine of Congo’s 11 provinces. In 2012, Association Paysanne pour le Développement Rurale et Communautaire (APDIK) expanded radio coverage in the remote High Plateau region of the volatile South Kivu Province to reduce community-based conflicts. Making innovative use of solar panels where permament electricity is absent, APDIK set up Internet access for the local community and produced radio programs promoting inter-ethnic cooperation. The Reseau d’Education Civique au Congo (RECIC) continued its work bringing local elected officials closer to their constituents in Kinshasa, the capital city that is home to as many as 15 million people. It was able to organize citizens at the commune-level to discuss their grievances and then bring them to local officials, who are notoriously corrupt and have little accountability to the population. Astrid Banza (right) is head of Jeunes Paysans en Action (JPA), which promotes women’s leadership in the Kukaya district of Bas-Congo Province. In 2012, JPA held workshops and public debates on women’s issues, and was able to train approximately 120 grassroots activists in lobbying strategies to get more women involved in the decision-making processes of local governments and carve out greater space for women to participate in society. AFRICA AFRICA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE With NED support, organizations like APDIK, RECIC, and JPA have fostered greater community harmony, strengthened respect for human rights, and improved dialogue between the government and its citizens. Corrupt governance has left the country’s democratic institutions in shambles, but these organizations have helped close the gap between citizens and their government, improve inter-ethnic relations, and promote the rights of the marginalized. NED’s support for these groups funds their activities and provides both much-needed institutional support as well as moral support in an oppressive environment. 16 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 17
  8. 8. Eurasia “ We are free, where everything’s allowed and love comes first… GRANTS IN FOCUS ” -lyrics from Euphoria, the winning Eurovision entry performed by Loreen S wedish pop star Loreen swept last year’s Eurovision competition in Baku with her song “Euphoria,” but the mood across the region darkened in 2012. Governments accelerated repressive policies and engaged in new tactics to squash civil society, trends typified by Eurovision host country Azerbaijan, which engaged in widespread crackdowns, property seizures, and arrests. NED worked with “Sing for Democracy,” a coalition of Azeri NGOs that used the media attention of the Eurovision Song Contest to shine a spotlight on human rights abuses in Azerbaijan. The Aliyev government wanted to sweep abuses under the carpet, but local groups reached out to Eurovision winner Loreen and others to galvanize media attention; grantees again successfully drew international attention with the “Expression Online” campaign during the Internet Governance Forum (also in Baku) in November. These campaigns gave civil society activists valuable experience in forming coalitions, and taught them the influence they could wield when they work together. American-Georgian Initiative for Liberal Education, Georgia G eorgia made dramatic democratic progress as an incumbent party accepted electoral defeat and peacefully transferred power for the first time since the fall of the Soviet Union. Many factors contributed to this historic development but a pivotal role was played by a renewed wave of youth activism, sparked in protest to graphic evidence of prison abuse. The American-Georgian Initiative for Liberal Education (AGILE) played an important role in supporting the this youth movement, and encouraging young people to organize and advocate for their causes. AGILE pursued thoughtful, analytical discussions with youth throughout the country on democratic values, the role of leadership, and balance of power among branches of government. These discussions provided an opportunity for students throughout the country to place current developments in a larger context and then develop practical responses. AGILE’s activities encouraged participants to promote reform within their communities: two are shown here demonstrating against the surprise May 28, 2013, firing of the National Exams Center director, who had been a major force behind Georgia’s recent progress towards reducing corruption in higher education. NED is proud to stand with the youth of Georgia as they engage in the democratic process. Russia was another country with a darkening political mood. Acting counter to public demands, the Russian Federal Duma passed draconian legislation restricting human rights and the ability of civil society organizations to receive support from abroad. Other measures included (continued on page 40) 38 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 39
  9. 9. Latin America Caribbean “ ” and the We are entrepreneurs of knowledge, builders of democracy, our social revolt is expressed by our perseverance. - Hans Tippenhauer (via Twitter), President, Fondation Espoir (Haiti) GRANTS IN FOCUS Centro de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres, Mexico L ucha Castro wants justice. The state of Chihuahua, which includes the notorious city of Ciudad Juárez, has the highest female murder rate in Mexico, and a level of impunity that has left the bulk of these murders unsolved. Sexual violence is also widespread. But in an environment that encourages silence, Castro, a Mexican social activist and lawyer, had to speak out when mothers of murdered girls began to approach her for legal help. She shifted her focus away from housing law and cofounded the Centro de Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres (CEDEHM, Center for Women’s Human Rights, pictured marching here). Now, with NED support, Castro and CEDEHM work to secure justice for women who have been victims of violence in Chihuahua. CEDEHM also offers legal and psychological support to women victims, and educates the authorities involved in processing these cases that all violence against women is a human rights violation. “Speaking out makes me a target,” says Castro, who is regularly harassed and threatened by organized crime, the military, and others, but she presses on with her work in what is widely regarded as Mexico’s most dangerous state. In 2012, Castro received the International Award of the Year from the Human Rights Association of Spain. The award was presented at a January ceremony in Madrid, with the commendation that Castro has stood strong “for many years in her work as a lawyer and activist defending human rights and democratic ideals, primarily for women of Ciudad Juárez and Chihuahua,” and that she “epitomizes the struggle of women and organizations that support them to promote their right to a dignified life free of violence.” NED is proud to stand with Castro in her struggle. 64 | National Endowment for Democracy T he Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region is one of contrasts, running the gamut from state failure to solid democracies. What unites NED grantees in the region is their inner conviction that dedication and perserverance can result in peaceful, democratic societies. This inner conviction is powerfully present in Cuba’s community of democracy activists, which in 2012 faced ongoing harassment, intimidation, assaults and detentions. The year started with the death of imprisoned dissident Wilman Villar Mendoza following a 51-day hunger strike. In the spring, hundreds were detained ahead of the papal visit. In June, leading dissident Oswaldo Payá Sardiñas and young democracy activist Harold Cepero were killed in a mysterious car accident. But at the Seventh Assembly of the World Movement for Democracy in October, Cuban activists bravely introduced “For Another Cuba,” a citizen initiative to lobby their government for ratification of the covenants of the United Nations, with the hope that implementation could create a scenario for the island’s transition to democracy. This inner conviction also fuels grantees in the fragile state of Haiti. NED supported local involvement in the reconstruction process after the devastating 2010 earthquake and strengthened the ability of local organizations to better interact with the international donor (continued on page 67) 2012 Annual Report | 65
  10. 10. Latin America & Caribbean Asociación Civil Transparencia, Peru P eru’s Asociación Civil Transparencia was founded in 1994 by a small group of Peruvian professionals and academics. They knew that the simple act of holding elections was not enough to ensure a freedom in a country beset by political violence and corruption, and recognized the need for an independent, neutral and vocal election watchdog. The work they did in the closely-watched April 2000 Presidential election – which included training and fielding almost 20,000 volunteers and observers – changed the course of the country’s democracy, 70 | National Endowment for Democracy and established Transparencia as a leading voice on democratic development. Today in Peru, Transparencia works to consolidate and secure the democratic progress the country has made during the two decades since their founding. In 2012, with NED support, the organization worked with two key committees in the legislature – the Special Committee to Strengthen Legislative Representation and the working group that was reviewing electoral and political party reform – to improve transparency and compile a manual of best practices for crafting good legislation. The Transparencia technical team promoted ongoing communication between experts, advisors, and congressmen and parliamentarians, and held workshops on ways to strengthen and improve the legislative process. Transparencia also identified the need for informed, insightful reporting on the part of the media. In partnership with a local university, Transparencia offered a certificate program for journalists covering the legislature, focusing on the structure, workings and functions of Congress. With six day-long sessions over three months, legislative and media experts trained almost 50 reporters and created a network of communicators with a deeper understanding of the workings of their democracy. Transparencia defines its mission as “trabajar para conseguir que la democracia tenga vigencia en nuestras instituciones y en el ejercicio que los ciudadanos hacen de sus derechos,” which translates to “working towards the validity of democracy in our institutions and in the ability of citizens to exercise their rights.” NED is proud to support this mission and help Transparencia and organizations like it to strengthen the effectiveness of institutions in young democracies. Latin America & Caribbean GRANTS IN FOCUS 2012 Annual Report | 71
  11. 11. RUSSIA R ussian government backlash against civil society as a whole and democracy assistance in particular has made Russia a priority country for the Endowment. The government’s actions are in response to a historic surge of civil society activity in the country that peaked between December 2011 and May 2012. Fraudulent parliamentary elections in December 2011 inspired an outburst of citizen activism, not only in the form of mass rallies against electoral manipulation, but also in the organization of a diverse range of civic initiatives driven by Russia’s emerging youthful middle class. These newly minted activists enthusiastically dedicated themselves to reform efforts such as vote monitoring and anti-corruption advocacy as well as online journalism and social activism projects, including natural disaster relief. All of these activities represent an extremely promising development for Russian civil society and an important opportunity for increased Endowment engagement as many new groups have turned to the NED for support. EURASIA EURASIA COUNTRY IN FOCUS But the Kremlin reacted with a series of politically-motivated trials and a set of laws aimed at stifling the country’s emerging civil society. Russian judges have convicted independent politicians on minimal or non-existent evidence. To intimidate potential protestors, a group of ordinary citizens who participated in a May 2012 demonstration are being tried on concocted charges carrying long jail terms. Of equal concern is new legislation specifically targeting Russian NGOs and the mechanisms of democracy assistance. Since May 2012, the Russian government has passed a series of new laws in this area, most notoriously the so-called “foreign agents” law. This legislation requires groups engaging in vaguely-defined “political activity” to implicate themselves with the sinistersounding label of “foreign agent” – a clear attempt to delegitimize the NGO sector within Russian society. Russia’s NGOs have responded with professionalism, courage, and conviction. They have challenged the new laws in the courts (in some cases winning rare victories against Russia’s compromised judiciary) and they continue to speak out. In developing its strategy for Russia, NED prioritizes legal assistance and NGO-building to defend civil society and provide support for organizations as they adjust to new demands and requirements. NED works closely with Russian grantees to develop appropriate responses on a case by case basis. Promoting freedom of information is also central to NED’ Russia strategy; the ability to publicize the ongoing crackdown is essential to Russians’ ability to push back against repressive government actions. Despite enormous pressure, NED grantees in Russia remain committed to their work and the demand for Endowment support continues to grow. Opposite: a Russian protestor holds a sign that says, “Check your vision. United Russia, Party of Swindlers and Thieves,” a popular insult of the ruling party. 42 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 43
  12. 12. Africa “ ” There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires. – Nelson Mandela Democracy faced enormous challenges in Africa in 2012, with the collapse of one formerly peaceful democracy, the rise of authoritarian models of development, imminent state failures, and looming political violence. NED grantees responded with determination, resourcefulness, and courage, even at the risk of death. In Somalia, 18 journalists were murdered, including Hassan Osman Abdi, the director of the independent Shabelle Media Network. Overall, seven of those killed in 2012 worked with three of the nine NED-supported media outlets and projects. Despite these tragedies, Somali organizations successfully pressed on and NED was proud to continue supporting independent media, journalist training, and human rights groups advocating for greater democratic accountability in the country. Violence flared in the wake of Nigeria’s democratic 2011 elections and Boko Haram extremists threatened to further inflame tensions, but NED’s civil society partners adopted an impressive range of strategies to promote tolerance, monitor human rights abuses, encourage political reform, and increase accountability. NED grantees such as the YMCA, YOSPIS, YIAGA, and Youngstars educated youth about democracy and encouraged their civic participation using social media, internships in state government, voluntarism, and school democracy clubs. Other grantees used various means to promote women’s political participation, such as COGEN, Kebetkache, WARDC, and WACI; and CIPE strengthened the role of business women in policy making. In the aftermath of Cote d’Ivoire’s civil war, the newly-elected government failed to seriously address the problem of impunity and the need for national reconciliation, but NED’s eight partners united to produce a major report on the past ten years of human rights abuses. In the prelude to elections in Kenya, political violence threatened to negate the gains of a new constitution; NED supported civil society projects advocating (continued on page 15) CHEAD, Nigeria GRANTS IN FOCUS T he Centre for Human Empowerment, Advancement and Development (CHEAD) has been a NED grantee since 2008, and it works to reduce the number of extra-judicial killings in southeast Nigeria. Vigilante groups were initially encouraged by local merchants to combat spiraling crime rates in the region, and they still enjoy a measure of public support, despite a track record of brutal torture and killings. CHEAD collects and circulates reports of these vigilante killings, and organizes public tribunals in collaboration with the National Human Rights Commission of Nigeria. CHEAD Executive Director Amaka Biachi is pictured here addressing women’s groups in Abia state. 12 | National Endowment for Democracy 2012 Annual Report | 13
  13. 13. Marguerite Sullivan, Marius Dragomir, David Sasaki, David Kaplan). These and the rest of CIMA’s reports are available for free download at http://cima.ned. org/publications. ADVISORY COUNCIL Esther Dyson Stephen Fuzesi, Jr. William A. Galston Suzanne Garment Mark Helmke Ellen Hume Jerry Hyman Alex S. Jones Shanthi Kalathil Susan King Craig LaMay Caroline Little Richard Lugar Eric Newton William Orme Dale Peskin Adam Clayton Powell III Monroe E. Price Adam Schiff Kurt Wimmerichard Winfield 92 | National Endowment for Democracy M ore journalists were killed around the world in 2012 than in any other year since 1995. In this dangerous environment, the Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) at the National Endowment for Democracy worked to strengthen the support, raise the visibility, and improve the effectiveness of independent media development throughout the world. The Center provides information, builds networks, conducts research, and highlights the indispensable role independent media play in the creation and development of sustainable democracies. CIMA works to achieve these goals through discussions, original reports, and catalyst activities. Discussions CIMA organizes panel discussions, working groups, and roundtables featuring practitioners and academics to investigate important issues in international media. CIMA held 12 public events in 2012 on topics including Clear and Present Danger: Attempts to Change Internet Governance and Media Law Reform 2.0: Advancing Press Freedom and Independent Media Around the World. Summaries as well as video and audio reordings of CIMA events can be found at http://cima.ned.org/events. Reports CIMA commissions research reports on key topics in media development and also publishes papers summarizing some of its events and working groups. The Center published 13 reports in 2012, including Calling the Shots: How Ownership Structures Affect the Independence of News Media; Is There a Link Between Media and Good Governance? and Dangerous Work: Violence Against Mexico’s Journalists and Lessons from Colombia. The launch event for Empowering Independent Media (see sidebar) is pictured here (l-r: Thomas Melia, Sarah Mendelson, Barbara Haig, Catalyst Activities In October, CIMA was the lead organizer of the first global donors-only meeting on media assistance at the Pocantico Conference Center of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in New York. It was attended by representatives from 25 major donor organizations, who discussed their funding activities in media development. The meeting participants agreed that the rapid growth and changes in the field of media development require new practices in the community, including enhancing informationsharing mechanisms to improve coordination and opportunities for collaboration within the donor community. CIMA also maintains a comprehensive bibliographic database of media assistance resources with more than 1,300 items. On its website, CIMA has posted country profiles detailing the status of independent media in countries around the world and comparing media freedom indexes. These can be accessed at http://cima.ned.org/. CIMA also gathers articles from numerous news sources on developments in media (traditional and digital) and distributes them via a Media News mailing and a weekly Digital Media Mash Up. Sign up for these and other CIMA mailings, and follow CIMA on Facebook and Twitter, at http:// cima.ned.org/about-cima/follow-cima. C IMA released the second edition of its report, Empowering Independent Media: U.S. Efforts to Foster a Free Press and an Open Internet Around the World, at an event marking World Press Freedom Day on May 1, 2012. David E. Kaplan, an investigative journalist and media consultant, edited the report. Empowering Independent Media finds that U.S. international efforts to bolster independent media and an open Internet have had significant impact yet are challenged by too little funding, growth in online censorship and surveillance, and rising attacks on journalists. Drawing on original research as well as CIMA’s earlier reports, it examines seven core areas of media development: funding, digital media, sustainability, media law, safety of journalists, education, and monitoring and evaluation. The report makes several recommendations to strengthen independent media around the world, including: increasing funding; improving coordination among donors and implementers; building the capacity of citizen journalists; embedding digital media and project evaluation into all programs; and putting greater emphasis on business skills, the legal environment, community radio, and investigative journalism. 2012 Annual Report | 93