Pmp study: time


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  • This course contains: A slide on why TM is important to the PM About 25 pages on tools and methods of schedule development A section on managing the schedule The six PMI processes for TM with their inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs Some study tips
  • Time Management is an important knowledge area to understand for the PMP exam. A number of questions on the exam will be based on TM methods and processes
  • There are five planning and one controlling process in Time Management. You might want to use the following trick for remembering them: ‘ DOES E-Scheduling’ D – Definition (Activity) O- Ordering (sequencing) E – Estimating (resource) S – Schedule Development E – Estimating (Duration) S – Schedule Control
  • One schedule development output is the Gantt or Bar chart It shows durations and can contain percent complete information It is a good tool for communicating with management
  • Project Network Diagrams display activity sequences and dependencies. They are tools used in ordering (activity sequencing). Three types: AOA: Diagram where activities are represented by arrows AON: The boxes (or nodes) represent the activities and the arrows show dependencies GERT: Is a diagramming method used to show iterations and conditional branching
  • AOA is a legacy of the construction Industry
  • GERT: Used for Conditions and Looping Won’t be asked to calculate a GERT problem on the exam
  • Note: CPM and Monte Carlo Simulation are Schedule Development Tools in the PMBOK 3 rd Edition. PERT (three point estimate) is an analytical technique that is used when the underlying activity duration is uncertain These Math Analysis tools are used for determining theoretical early and late start dates without regard to resource pool considerations. You will be asked to calculate the critical path and do a PERT problem on the exam
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) is a schedule network analysis technique that focuses on calculating FLOAT Calculates theoretical early start & finish and late start & finish without regard to resource limitations Performs forward & backward pass analysis through network paths Activities on the Critical Path contain zero float
  • This slide shows an AOA diagram The dummy activity (dependency) D-C must occur before activity C-Finish
  • Float / Slack: the amount of time an activity may be delayed before is moves the critical patch Forward Pass: Used to calculate the Early Finish of an activity EF = ES + Duration -1 Backward Pass: Used to calculate the Late Start LS = LF – Duration + 1 Free Float: Amount of time an activity may slip before it impacts the Early Start of a subsequent activity
  • EF = ES + Duration - 1
  • LS = LF – Duration + 1
  • Float = LF – EF or LS – ES (see table on page 21) for calculations
  • To solve a CP problem you do the following: Determine the Paths Do a forward pass (and determine the critical path) Do a backward pass Determine the float 1. In this example there are 3 paths Start – A – B – C – Finish Start – D – C – Finish Start – D – E – F – Finish 2. Using the Forward pass formula (EF = ES + Duration -1 ) EF(A) = 1 + 7 – 1 = 7 So ES(B) = the next day or 8 The critical path is: Start – D – C – Finish (56 days) 3. Using the Backward pass formula (LS = LF – Duration + 1) LS(F) = 56 – 14 + 1 = 43 4. Calculating Float FL(A) = LF – EF or LS – ES = 14 – 7 = 7 or 8 – 1= 7 FL(C) = 0 So activity C is on the critical path Free Float: Is the time an activity may slip before affecting the early start of a subsequent activity FF(B) = 29 – 21 – 1 = 7. So slipping activity B by more than 7 days affects activity C’s early start date
  • Note: Some text books assume a project starts on Day 0 instead of Day 1. In this case the formulae need to be tweaked as shown in the example   Question: Why doesn’t ESC = EFB? (because C picks up it’s ES from task D)
  • Pert uses a weighted average duration estimate to calculate activity durations Pert is a “Three Point Estimate” technique Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Memorize the formula for the exam More accurate than CPM because more estimates are involved. It uses an expected value) instead of a most likely value
  • Pert Standard Deviation tells us how diverse our estimates are Task Variance is the square of Standard Deviation
  • Monte Carlo is a schedule development tool used to predict likely outcomes and identify schedule risk Good for analyzing convergent paths
  • Lead is a term used in Finish to Start relationships. You can start before previous activity finishes. Example: In a relay race, the runner begins sprinting before the baton is handed off Lag Example: If you pour concrete, you must wait three days to cure before subsequent activity can start
  • Dependency Determination is used to determine sequencing among activities Discretionary Example: Paint before put down carpet
  • Free and Total Float were described in earlier slides.
  • Note: In PMBOK 3 rd Edition, Compression Techniques are schedule Development Tools and Techniques Three Schedule Compression Techniques Re-estimating: Eliminate risk and re-estimate Crashing: Increase costs (add people) Fast-Track: Increase Risks (Doing sequential tasks in parallel)
  • PMI Defines Hammock as a summary activity
  • We developed the schedule, now for managing the schedule Schedule Control is a controlling process
  • The point of Schedule Control is that the PM should be out in front of the project and influence changes before they affect the project
  • We develop our schedule (the plan)
  • Execute the plan = Do the work
  • Then we compare actuals to the plan to get a variance
  • Determine the causes and focus on what can be done to correct
  • What can be done to correct ? Fast Track (increase risk) Crash (increase cost) Work OT Change scope
  • The tools help quantify cost and schedule A lot more on performance measurement concepts in the cost and communications knowledge areas Some terms: Planned Value, Earned Value, Actual Cost Schedule Variance, etc.
  • The Activity Definition process decomposes the WBS deliverables (work packages) into smaller components called schedule activities. “These activities provide the basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring & controlling the project work”. D OES E-Scheduling D – Activity Definition (all about the activity list)
  • Note: Expert Judgment was moved from an Activity Definition Input to an Activity Definition Tool and Technique in the 3 rd Edition
  • Decompose the WBS work packages into more granular activities list Rolling Wave Planning (A form of Progressive Elaboration ) Work in the near term is planned at a low level of detail; whereas, work far in the future is planned at a high level. Detailed planning of work to be performed within one or two periods in the future is done as work is being completed during the current period Planning Component – When insufficient definition of the Scope prevents decomposition of a branch of the WBS into work packages, the last component in that branch can be used to develop a high-level schedule. The summary activities used for these components may not support detailed estimating, scheduling, executing and controlling. Two Components: Control Account (formerly called Cost Accounts) Management control points above the work package level are used as the basis for planning. All work and effort performed within a control account is documented in a control account plan . A control account is a management control point where the integration of scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule takes place. Control accounts may contain one or more work packages Planning Package – WBS component below a control account, with known work content, but without detailed schedule activities. Used for planning known work that does not have detailed schedule activities. Above a work package.
  • Activity List Does not include activities that are not required as part of the project scope Includes a scope of work description for each activity to ensure team members understand the work to be completed Used in the schedule module and is a component of the project management plan Activity Attributes Activity identifier, activity code, description, predecessor, successor, leads, lags, imposed dates, resource requirements, constraints, assumptions, geography, required effort, etc. Used in the schedule module
  • Activity Sequencing focus is on the development of the Network Diagram Involves identifying and documenting the relationships among schedule activities Logically order proper precedence relationships as well as leads and lags D O ES E-Scheduling O: Ordering (sequencing)
  • Project Scope Statement: contains the Product Scope Description, which includes product characteristics that can affect activity sequencing (e.g., layouts and interfaces) Milestones - events that need to be part of the activity sequencing to assure that requirements will be met
  • Schedule Network Templates – can contain a entire project or a portion. Portions are sometimes called sub network or fragment network Dependency Determination – to define sequencing among activities Mandatory Dependencies “Hard Logic” Discretionary Dependencies “Preferred Logic/Soft Logic” External Dependencies (e.g., governmental, environmental, hardware delivery) Applying Leads and Lags Lead – allows acceleration of the successor activity (finish to start with a head start) Lag – delays successor activity (finish to start, but have to wait) (concrete curing)
  • The main outputs of Activity Sequencing are the Project Network diagram and updates to activities
  • Activity Resource Estimating is a new process in the Third Edition – It involves estimating the type and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity Resources are person, equipment or materiel DO E S E-Scheduling E – Estimating (resource)
  • Each activity is evaluated to determine how long it will take. ADE requires: An estimate of the amount of work required to complete the activity An estimate of resources A determination of the number of work periods DOES E -Scheduling E – Estimating (duration)
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors – commercial estimating databases, government Historical Information Archived similar projects Project Team knowledge Activity Resource Requirements Resource Capabilities – The duration of a task is dependent on the capabilities of the resources assigned Junior staffer takes longer than a senior staffer Material resources may only be available on a limited basis
  • Analogous Estimating : Is most reliable when the previous activities are similar and team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise Parametric /Quantitatively-Based Durations - Estimates based on measurable quantities of work to be perform (e.g. lines of code, number of drawings, tons of steel, etc.) Reserve Either a percentage of the estimate or a fixed number of work periods Can be reduced or eliminated concurrent with risk
  • The schedule serves as a baseline against which progress can be tracked Iterative – Schedule development continues throughout the project as work progresses, the PMP changes, and risk events occur or disappear DOE S E-Scheduling S – Schedule Development
  • Org Process Assets example: Calendar of working days or shifts that establishes dates on which schedule activities are worked Scope Statement : Assumptions and constraints that can impact development of the schedule Constraints – external factors that limit project options. Two major categories of time constraints are: Imposed Dates e.g. situational, contractual, legal. Start no earlier than or Finish no later than Key Events or Milestones – especially regarding events beyond the project but that impact the it Project Management Plan Contains the schedule management plan, project scope management plan, risk management plan etc. These plans guide schedule development For example: The risk register the project risk and risk response plans needed to support schedule development
  • Schedule Compression – shortens schedule without changing project scope Crashing : Adds cost Fast-track: Working previously identified sequential tasks in parallel adds risk What-if simulation includes Monte Carlo Analysis Calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions Typically results in a distribution of probable results
  • Resource Leveling: A schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule model that has already been analyzed by the CPM. Used to keep resources levels constant during specific periods of the project Instead of using 3 headcount in first month and nine in the next; use 6 HC for two months Often results in a projected duration that is longer than the preliminary project schedule Produces a ‘resource-constrained’ scheduled CCM : Critical Chain Method Combines deterministic and probabilistic approaches to account for limited resources. Method de-conflicts resources that are needed to meet the schedule. Resources do not multi-task After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined. The result is an “ Altered Critical Path” CCM uses non-work, ‘duration buffer’ activities. Once the buffer activities are determined, the planned activities are scheduled to their latest planned start and finished dates. Instead of managing the total float, CCM focuses on the buffer activity durations and the resources applied to planned schedule activities
  • At a minimum, should include assumptions and constraints Nature and amount of additional detail depends on the size, type, complexity, novelty of the project
  • At a minimum, should include assumptions and constraints Nature and amount of additional detail depends on the size, type, complexity, novelty of the project
  • DOES E- S cheduling S – Schedule Control
  • Rates are parametric estimates
  • Critical Chain Management takes into account RCP
  • Pmp study: time

    1. 1. Project TimeManagement®Sponsored byIntel PMP®TeamThis publication is a derivative work of “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge”(PMBOK® Guide), which is copyrighted material of and owned by, the Project Management InstituteInc. (PMI®), copyright 2004. This publication has been developed and reproduced with the permissionof PMI®. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is strictly prohibited. The derivative work is thecopyrighted material of and owned by, Intel, copyright 2005.IU Item #: 019727AIU Rev. 3, March 2007
    2. 2. 2PMP®Study Series TimePurpose• Review the Time Management Knowledge Area• Discuss how TM is represented in the PMP exam• Offer PMP exam preparation ideas• Provide references for additional study“PMBOK” and “PMP” are services and trademarks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. which isregistered in the United States and other nations.This class does not substitute for comprehensive learningand professional experience on this topic. It will not teachyou how to manage time on a project.
    3. 3. 3PMP®Study Series TimeAdministration• There will be no breaks in the two hour sessions. Ifyou need a to take a break, please quietly do so andre-join the presentation.• Hold all questions to the end. This helps ensure allmaterial gets covered.• Please limit your questions to the PMBOK®. Intel’susage (or non-usage) of this material is outside thescope of the presentations.• Put phone on mute except for asking questions.• We encourage discussion about how Intel uses ordoesn’t use this material outside of thepresentations.
    4. 4. 4PMP®Study Series TimePresentation Materials• This material is intended for educational purposes only. Thematerial is based on the information from the PMBOK®and is tobe used as a study aid for the PMP exam. This material isintended to act as a study aid and not to take the place of thePMBOK®which you can purchase from the PMI®website and isrequired text. This study aid is provided "As Is" and is notintended to stand alone, but to be used in conjunction with thematerials provided and required by the PMI®. Any student usingthis as their only material to prepare for the test shall do so attheir own risk. Any reproduction of this material, eitherinternally or externally, is prohibited.•“PMI,” is a trademarks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. which is registered in the United States andother nations.
    5. 5. 5PMP®Study Series TimeOutline• Why Time Management is important to the projectmanager• The Tools and Methods of Schedule Development• Managing The Schedule• Major TM processes in the Project ManagementLifecycle• Study tips for Time Management on the PMP exam
    6. 6. 6PMP®Study Series TimeWhy Time Management Matters• In the PMI model, Time is theonly one of the “Triple Constraints”typically owned by theProject Manager• Time Management contains the processes for ScheduleDevelopment and Control• The outputs of Time Management are elements of keeninterest in communications to Senior Management andother Stakeholders
    7. 7. 7PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Methods & Tools for ScheduleDevelopment• The bulk of information in the Time Management area ofknowledge pertains to the systematic creation of the projectschedule• A variety of methods are available to work through these basicsteps:Activity DefinitionActivity DefinitionCreating a detailed list of the discreet tasks neededto accomplish the projectActivity SequencingActivity Sequencing Determining the best ordering of the defined tasksActivity ResourceActivity ResourceEstimationEstimationEstimating the types and quantities of resourcesrequired to perform each schedule activityActivity DurationActivity DurationEstimationEstimationEliciting valid estimates for the time needed toperform each taskScheduleScheduleDevelopmentDevelopmentSynthesizing individual tasks, durations anddependencies into a holistic view of the project
    8. 8. 8PMP®Study Series Time• The number and variety of tools used in Time Managementoften creates confusion among stakeholders• These next few slides amplify more complex methods and toolsthat will also be a part of the Tools & Techniques of the TimeManagement ProcessesImportant Methods & Tools for ScheduleDevelopment (Cont.)
    9. 9. 9PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools for Schedule Development:Gantt Charts• A Gantt chart is a time-phased graphical display of activity durations• It is also referred to as a bar chart• Weak planning tool, but effective for reporting• A Gantt Chart is NOT a complete schedule!Task I.D.sFromW.B.S.Task Names from W.B.S. Calendar w/appropriate resolutionBars showDurationOf tasks
    10. 10. 10PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools for Schedule Development:Network Diagrams• A schematic display of the sequential andlogical relationships of the activities whichcomprise a project• Three common types exist:– Activity On Arrow (AOA)– Activity On Node (AON)– Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique(GERT)
    11. 11. 11PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Network Diagrams:Activity On Arrow Diagrams• Also called Arrow Diagramming Method• Circles show start/end of activities• Arrows represent activities and dependencies• Only show start to finish relationships• May use “Dummy” activities– Represented as dotted lines– Demonstrate additional dependenciesAEBDCFDummyActivityStart FinishFinish-to-StartThe From activity(A) must finishbefore the Toactivity (B) canstartBA
    12. 12. 12PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Network Diagrams:Activity On Node Diagrams• AON is also referred to as the PrecedenceDiagramming Method (PDM)• Boxes are used to represent tasks• Arrows show dependencies• AON adds additional relationships:Start-to-StartThe From activity (A)must start before theTo activity (B) canstartABStart-to-FinishThe From activity (A)must start before theTo activity (B) canfinishABFinish-to-FinishThe From activity (A)must finish before theTo activity (B) canfinishAB
    13. 13. 13PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Network Diagrams:GERT Diagrams• Very seldom used method (also seldom on PMPexam)• Only method that allows loopingActivity 1 Activity 2
    14. 14. 14PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools for Schedule Development:Math Analysis Tools• Three math analysis tools for duration estimationand/or schedule development are– Critical Path Method (CPM)– Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)– Monte Carlo Simulation• These are VERY prominent in the PMP Exam• Estimation method questions can be included in boththe Planning and Controlling process areas• All three methods are based on “rolling up” activitydurations into a project duration estimate(s)
    15. 15. 15PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method• Estimates project duration by rolling up single estimates of eachin-line activity on a precedence diagram• The path with Zero float (therefore the longest path) is theCritical Path• The start, end and duration of the Critical Path equals the start,end and duration estimate for the project• Delays experienced with any activity on the critical pathtranslate directly into delays of the project• Accelerating non-critical tasks do not shorten the schedule
    16. 16. 16PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method (Cont.)• Let’s look at the Paths:– A+B+C = 7wks– D+E+F = 7wks– D+C = 8wks = Critical Path!• If the Critical Path is 8 weeks long, the estimatedduration of our project is also 8 weeksA1wkE1wkB2wksD4wksC4wksF2wksDummyActivityStart Finish
    17. 17. 17PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method (Cont.)• Other values calculated in CPM include:– Early Start and Early Finish: the soonest a task can begin or end– A Forward Pass is used to calculate Early Start and Early Finish– Late Start and Late Finish: the latest a task can begin of endwithout effecting the project duration– A Backward Pass is used to calculate Late Start and Late Finish– Slack or Float is the difference between the amount of timerequired for a task and the amount available for itLate Finish – Early Finish = SlackorLate Start – Early Start = Slack– For The Critical Path: Float = 0, E.S. = L.S. and E.F. = L.F.
    18. 18. 18PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method (Cont.)Forward Pass on A+B+C (EF = ES + Duration – 1)A1wkE1wkB2wksD4wksC4wksF2wksDummyActivityStart FinishTask Early Start Duration Early FinishA Day 1 1wk Day 7B Day 8 2 wks Day 21C* Day 29 4 wks Day 56* Task C is in the Critical Path
    19. 19. 19PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method (Cont.)Backward Pass on A+B+C (LS = LF – Duration + 1)A1wkE1wkB2wksD4wksC4wksF2wksDummyActivityStart FinishTask Late Start Duration Late FinishA Day 8 1wk Day 14B Day 15 2 wks Day 28C Day 29 4 wks Day 56
    20. 20. 20PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method (Cont.)Slack/Float on A+B+C yields (Remember that the Critical Path = 8wks):A1wkE1wkB2wksD4wksC4wksF2wksDummyActivityStart FinishTask FloatA 1 wkB 1 wkC 0 wk
    21. 21. 21PMP®Study Series TimeA1wkE1wkB2wksD4wksC4wksF2wksDummyActivityStart FinishES1Duration7EF7Task IDALS8Slack7LF14ES8Duration14EF21Task IDBLS15Slack7LF28ES29Duration28EF56Task IDCLS29Slack0LF56ES1Duration28EF28Task IDDLS1Slack0LF28ES29Duration7EF35Task IDELS36Slack7LF42ES36Duration14EF49Task IDFLS43Slack7LF56Calculations for CPM Exercise:
    22. 22. 22PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Critical Path Method: Day 0 StartSome texts assume a project starts Day 0 instead of Day 1. In this case:EF = ES + DurationDo not add one to represent the next days Early Start (ESB = EFA)Task Early Start Duration Early FinishA Day 0 1 wk Day 7B Day 7 2 wks Day 21C Day 28 4 wks Day 56Question: Why doesn’t ESC = EFB?LS = LF - DurationDo not subtract one from the previous days Late Start (LFA = ESB)Task Late Start Duration Late FinishA Day 7 1 wk Day 14B Day 14 2 wks Day 28C Day 28 4 wks Day 56
    23. 23. 23PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Duration Estimation:Project Evaluation & Review Technique• PERT is considered superior to CPM because it uses threeestimates of duration (and/or cost) per activity– “Three Point Estimate”• Calculates start and finish dates from network diagram using aweighted averageweighted average estimate of duration based on the threeestimates:• Optimistic estimate: O• Most likely estimate: M• Pessimistic estimate: PDuration = (O + 4M +P)/6
    24. 24. 24PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Duration Estimation:Project Evaluation & Review Technique• A PERT analysis often also includes the followingvalues for each task:Task StandardDeviation:Task Variance:2 −6OP6OP −
    25. 25. 25PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Monte Carlo Simulation• Computer simulations of a project• Based on PERT estimates: Optimistic, Pessimistic,Likely• Provides estimate of overall project risk andprobabilities for:– Completing the project on any specific day– Completing the project for any specific cost– Any particular task actually being on the critical path• Will create a project duration more accurate thanPERT or CPM
    26. 26. 26PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Schedule Development:Other Key ConsiderationsLead & Lag• Lead: An activity is scheduled to start sooner than itsdependency– B is dependent upon completion of A, but it should start 3days sooner than A’s completion• Lag: An activity is scheduled to start later than itsdependency– As above, but B should start 2 days later
    27. 27. 27PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Activity Sequencing:Other Key Considerations - Dependencies• Mandatory Dependencies Inherent in the nature of the work– Like a law of nature– Example: Pouring the foundation must precede raising the roof– Also called “hard logichard logic”• Discretionary Dependencies: Preference of the projectplanner• May be determined by best practices or local methodology• Also called “preferred logicpreferred logic,” “preferential logicpreferential logic,” or “soft logicsoft logic”• External Dependencies: driven by circumstances or authorityoutside the project– Example: Need to comply with environmental site surveyregulations before breaking ground
    28. 28. 28PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools : Schedule Development:Other Key Considerations –Types of Float/Slack• Free Float: Amount of time an activity can bedelayed without effecting the Early Start of itssuccessor• Total Float: Amount of time an activity can bedelayed without effecting the Project Completiondate• Project Float: Amount of time a project can bedelayed without delaying an externally imposedproject completion date (e.g. Customer RequestedDelivery Date)
    29. 29. 29PMP®Study Series Time• Given that Scope must remain constant (not alwaystrue), there are 3 techniques to shorten a scheduleImportant Tools: Schedule DevelopmentOther Key ConsiderationsSchedule Compression TechniquesRe-EstimatingRe-EstimatingRevisit tasks with the most unknowns, eliminaterisks and re-calculate the task duration.CrashingCrashingAdd more resources to the Critical Path tasks. Thisalmost always adds cost.Fast-TrackingFast-TrackingWhere possible, perform Critical Path tasks inparallel that were originally in series. Fast-trackingoften results in re-work, usually increases risk andrequires more intensive communications.
    30. 30. 30PMP®Study Series TimeImportant Tools: Duration Estimation:Other Key Considerations – Hammocks• An activity whose duration varies depending upon the actions ofits predecessor and successor activities• A summary activityABCHammock
    31. 31. 31PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Schedule Change Control• A vital responsibility of the Project Manager• Detailed in the Schedule Management Plan• Part of overall change control• Insures that schedule changes are:– recognized– evaluated for overall benefit– approved
    32. 32. 32PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Schedule Control• Managing the schedule involves following the ControlCycle:– Create a plan– Execute the plan– Compare actual results to planned results at checkpointsalong the way– Make course corrections (change plan as required)
    33. 33. 33PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Create a Plan• The Schedule is the “plan”• Work package start and finish dates define durationfor work packages• Network diagram spreads the work packagedurations over the life of the project
    34. 34. 34PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Execute the Plan• The team performs the activities in the workpackages• This is the product-oriented work (requirements,design, code, test, etc.) plus the level of effort workpackages.
    35. 35. 35PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Compare Actuals to Plan• Periodic checkpoints:– Time oriented (e.g., monthly)– Event oriented (e.g., milestone)• The PM collects the actual start and finish dates• Compare actual dates to plan dates• Difference is called a VarianceVariance
    36. 36. 36PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Causes of Schedule Variances• Took longer than expected (estimatingestimating problem)• Required unanticipated tasks (scopescope or activityactivitydefinitiondefinition issue)• Resources pulled off to do other work (prioritiesprioritiesproblem)• Time used putting out fires (riskrisk management)
    37. 37. 37PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Make Course Corrections• Analyze variances to understand cause• Formulate a plan to get back on schedule (a “GetGetWell Plan”Well Plan” or a “Recovery Plan”“Recovery Plan”)• Possible recovery actions:– Reassign work– Fast tracking or crashing– Work overtime– Scope change (de-scope, split scope)
    38. 38. 38PMP®Study Series TimeManaging the Schedule:Performance Measurement Tools• Trending, forecasts, and “what if” Analysis• Variance analysis• Project Management Software– Usually good for pointing out variance– Not of much value for understanding what happened
    39. 39. 39PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes• PMI identifies 6 key processes that are associatedwith the Time Management Knowledge Area• All but one are processes in the Planning Phase ofthe Project Lifecycle (Schedule Control, 6.6, is aControlling Phase process )• The planning processes are conducted in sequenceand iterated• Since these are often included in the PMP exam, it isvaluable to discuss them here
    40. 40. 40PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes (cont.)ActivityDefinitionActivity ResourceEstimatingScheduleDevelopmentActivitySequencingScheduleControlTime ManagementTime ManagementProcessesProcessesActivity DurationEstimating
    41. 41. 41PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Activity Definition (6.1)• One of the earliest processes of the planningphase• WBS work packages are decomposed intoschedule activities• Requires the participation of the project teamand coordination of the project manager
    42. 42. 42PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Definition (6.1):Inputs• Enterprise Environmental Factors (– Availability of PMIS and Scheduling Software Tools• Organizational Process Assets (– Historical Information / Lessons Learned knowledge base– Policies, Guidelines, Procedures• Project Scope Statement (– Constraints – outside limiting factors– Assumptions – factors that are considered to be true, but notconfirmed• Work Breakdown Structure (• WBS Dictionary (• Project Management Plan– Contains the Schedule Management Plan
    43. 43. 43PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Definition (6.1):Tools &Techniques• Decomposition– Subdividing work package deliverables into schedule activities(WBS = Scope where Activity Definition = Time)– Level of decomposition depends on complexity, novelty of project,and experience of team• Templates– Sample formats from previous projects– Provides insight into resource skills, risks, levels of effort, etc.• Rolling Wave Planning (a form of progressive elaboration)• Expert Judgment– From within and outside the project team• Planning Component– Control Account– Planning Package
    44. 44. 44PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Definition (6.1):Outputs• Activity List– Contains ALL activities to be performed on the project– Includes descriptions understandable to the team• Activity Attributes– Identify multiple attributes associated with each scheduleactivity• Milestone List– List also indicates whether the milestone is mandatory oroptional• Requested Changes– Changes can affect project scope statement or WBS
    45. 45. 45PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Activity Sequencing (6.2)• A Planning Process• Identifying and documenting relationshipsamong activities defined in (6.1)• Some sequencing can be done with PMsoftware• Requires the participation of the project team
    46. 46. 46PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Sequencing (6.2):Inputs• Project Scope Statement (• Activity List (Outputs of• Activity Attributes (• Milestone List (• Approved Change Requests (
    47. 47. 47PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Sequencing (6.2):Tools &Techniques• Precedence Diagramming Method (AON describedearlier)• Arrow Diagramming Method (AOA described earlier)• Schedule Network Templates (standardized)– More common for processes that are nearly identical– Clinical Trials, Tract House Construction– Most often feasible for subnets (portions of the network)• Dependency Determination• Applying Leads and Lags
    48. 48. 48PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Sequencing (6.2):Outputs• Project Network Diagrams– Schematic display of the project’s activities and the logicalrelationships (dependencies) between them– Should be accompanied by a narrative describing theapproach used– Any unusual sequences should be fully described• Updates to the Activity List and Activity Attributes– Omissions and errors discovered during sequencing– Often referred to as “Refinements”• Requested Changes
    49. 49. 49PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Activity Resource Estimating (6.3)• A planning phase process• Involves determining:– What resources are required– What quantities of each resource will be used– When each resource will be available• Is closely coordinated with the Cost Estimating(Section 7.1)
    50. 50. 50PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Resource Estimating (6.3):Inputs• Enterprise Environmental Factors (– Infrastructure resource availability information• Organizational Process Assets (– Policies regarding staffing, renting, and purchasing• Activity List (• Activity Attributes (• Resource Availability ( and– Availability is used for estimating resource types• Project Management Plan (4.3)– Schedule Mgmt Plan is a component of the PMP
    51. 51. 51PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Resource Estimating (6.3):Tools &Techniques• Expert Judgment– Groups or persons with specialized knowledge should be used toassess resource-related estimates• Alternative Analysis– Examine substitute capabilities, different types of machines, make-buy decisions• Published Estimating Data– Trade information on Production Rates, Unit Costs• Project Management Software– Helps plan, organize, manage resource pools, and developresource estimates• Bottom-up Estimating– Resource needs of detailed work are estimated and thenaggregated into a total quantity for the activity
    52. 52. 52PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Resource Estimating (6.3):Outputs• Activity Resource Requirements– Description of the types and quantities of resources required for eachschedule activity in the work package– Basis of Estimates – documented assumptions and methods used forestimates, availability and quantity• Activity Attributes (Updates)– Types and quantities of resources are incorporated in the attributes• Resource Breakdown Structure– Hierarchy of resources by resource category and type• Resource Calendar (Updates)– Composite calendar containing working days for a resource– Resource specific holidays and availability periods– Provides quantity of resource available during a period• Requested Changes
    53. 53. 53PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Activity Duration Estimating (6.4)• A Planning Phase process• Involves using scope and resource information to estimatedurations for the activities of the project• Estimates usually originate from project team members mostfamiliar with the activity then progressively elaborated• Requires the participation of the project team, typically fordevelopment, but always for approval, of estimates• Although a summation of durations can be made, it does notconstitute a project duration estimate, which is an output ofSchedule Development (6.5)• All estimates should use a common work unit/period
    54. 54. 54PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Duration Estimating (6.4):Inputs• Enterprise Environmental Factors– e.g., commercial databases• Organizational Process Assets (– Historical information• Project Scope Statement (– Constraints and assumptions• Activity List ( and Activity Attributes (• Activity Resource Requirements (– Number and skill of assigned resources• Resource Calendar (6.3)• Project Management Plan– Risk Register: identified risks to consider when making the estimate– Activity Cost Estimates: useful for estimating (if completed)
    55. 55. 55PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Duration Estimating (6.4):Tools &Techniques• Expert Judgment– Expert judgment, guided by historical information should be usedwhenever possible– Absence of expert judgment constitutes a project risk• Analogous Estimating “Top-Down Estimating”– Using durations from previous projects to predict future ones– Uses historical information and Expert Judgment• Parametric Estimating– Quantity of work times the productivity rate• Three-Point Estimates– Most Likely, Optimistic, Pessimistic– Estimate constructed using an average of the three points• Reserve Analysis– Reserve (Contingency) Time “Buffer” or “Fudge Factor”– A period held in reserve in recognition of schedule risk
    56. 56. 56PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Activity Duration Estimating (6.4):Outputs• Activity Duration Estimates – quantitative estimates ofthe likely number of work periods required to completean activity– Should include a range of possible results “+ or –” or “%probability”• Activity Attributes (Updates)– Updated to include durations for each activity, assumptions,and contingency reserves
    57. 57. 57PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Schedule Development (6.5)• A Planning Phase process• Determining the Start and Finish dates forproject activities• Normally a highly iterative process• A relatively complex process withconsiderable inputs to sort and consider• Produces one of the most vital and visibleproject management documents
    58. 58. 58PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Development (6.5):Inputs• Organizational Process Assets (• Project Scope Statement (• Activity List (• Activity Attributes (• Project Network Diagrams (• Activity Resource Requirements (• Resource Calendars (• Activity Duration Estimates (from• Project Management Plan
    59. 59. 59PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Development (6.5):Tools & Techniques• Schedule Network Analysis– The technique of identifying early start / finish dates and late start /finish dates for uncompleted portions of project schedule activities– Includes CPM, CCM, What-if-Analysis, and Resource Leveling• Critical Path Method (CPM)– Calculates theoretical early start & finish and late start & finishwithout regard to resource limitations– Perform forward & backward pass analysis through network paths– Activities on the Critical Path contain zero float• Schedule Compression– Crashing and Fast-Tracking• What-if Scenario Analysis– Used to assess the schedule feasibility under adverse conditionsand prepare contingency & response plans– Monte Carlo Analysis
    60. 60. 60PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Development (6.5):Tools & Techniques (cont.)• Resource Leveling– Network analysis technique for evening out resource usage• Critical Chain Method (CCM)– Network analysis technique to account for limited resources– Determines the “Altered Critical Path”• Project Management Software– Automate mathematical analysis and resource leveling• Applying Calendars– Project calendars ( and resource calendars (• Adjusting Leads and Lags– Used in network analysis to produce a viable schedule• Schedule Model– Compiled schedule data and associated tool
    61. 61. 61PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Development (6.5):Outputs• Project Schedule– Must have (at least) planned start and finish dates for each activity– Schedule is considered preliminary until resources have beenassigned and confirmed– Can be presented in tabular for or in graphical formats such as:– Network Diagram: usually show NW logic and critical path activities– Bar/Gantt Charts: frequently used for management presentations– Milestone Charts: only used for summary communications• Schedule Model Data– Includes at least milestones, activities, attributes, assumptions andconstraints– May include resource histogram, alternative schedules, andcontingency reserves• Schedule Baseline – Accepted and approved by projectmanagement tool• Resource Requirement (Updates) – especially after resourceleveling
    62. 62. 6262PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Development (6.5):Outputs (cont)• Activity Attribute (Updates)– Revisions generated during schedule development• Project Calendar (Updates)• Requested Changes– From the schedule development process• Project Management Plan (Updates)– Schedule Management Plan may need to be updated toreflect approved changes
    63. 63. 63PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes:Schedule Control (6.6)• A Controlling phase process• Determine current status and changes to theproject schedule• Concerned with influencing factors thatcreate schedule changes to assure that theyare agreed upon• Management of actual changes as they occur• Must be thoroughly integrated with the otherControl Processes
    64. 64. 64PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Control (6.6):Inputs• Schedule Management Plan (PMP 4.3)– Establishes how the schedule will be managed andcontrolled• Schedule Baseline (– Approved schedule used for measuring and reportingschedule performance• Performance Reports (– Allow for monitoring schedule compliance– May alert the team to potential issues• Approved Change Requests (– Changes may require extending or accelerating the schedule
    65. 65. 65PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Control (6.6):Tools &Techniques• Progress Reporting– Use actual start dates, actual finish dates and remaining durations– Use earned value to assess the magnitude of schedule variations• Schedule Change Control System– Defines the procedures for changing the schedule– Part of Integrated Change Control process (4.6)– May include: tracking systems, approval schemes, etc.• Performance Measurement (7.3.2)– Schedule Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI)• Project Management Software for tracking• Variance Analysis (comparing actual with schedule targets)• Schedule Comparison Bar Charts– Actual vs. baseline
    66. 66. 66PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Control (6.6):Outputs• Schedule Model (Updates)– Any modification to the schedule used to manage the project– Revisions are generally caused by scope change• Schedule Baseline (Updates)– Re-baseline only if approved changes are significant• Performance Measurements– Calculated SV and SPI for work packages and control accounts• Requested Changes– Disposition via the Integrated Change Control Process (4.6)• Recommended Corrective Action– Anything done to bring future performance back in line with thebaseline, instead of rebaselining– Frequently requires root cause analysis
    67. 67. 67PMP®Study Series TimeThe TM Processes: Schedule Control (6.6):Outputs (cont)• Organizational Process Assets Updates– Lessons Learned documentation of the causes of varianceand the reasoning behind the response– Becomes part of an historical database used in futureprojects• Activity List Updates• Activity Attributes Updates• Project Management Plan Updates– Updated to reflect any approved changes resulting fromSchedule Control
    68. 68. 68PMP®Study Series TimeStudy Tips:Time Management Management• Time Management is currently the 2ndmost difficultknowledge area on the PMP exam – Know itthoroughly• Know the variations of Network Diagramming ANDhow they differ• Memorize formulas for PERT and CPM• Remember that PERT, CCM and CPM are methodswhile AOA and AON are diagrams• Understand Crashing and Fast-Tracking• Memorize the relationships between tasks and thetypes of dependencies• Write down formulas and definitions after sittingdown in the testing station
    69. 69. 69PMP®Study Series TimeConclusions• Time Management is a vital element of the PlanningPhase• The final objective of the TM Processes is to developand manage a realistic project schedule• The TM Processes intersect frequently with Scope,Communications and Integration processes. Onemust understand the differences• Many of the TM processes must be reiteratedthroughout the course of the project• Many of the outputs from TM processes should bearchived for the benefit of future projects
    70. 70. 70PMP®Study Series TimeTime Management Web Links• -an article on TM andPMP prep• - a nice class onSchedulingAnd don’t forget the PMI online Knowledgebase:•
    71. 71. 71PMP®Study Series TimeAcknowledgements• PMI®PMBOK®• PMI®• Mid Carolina Chapter of PMI®• PMP Exam Prep, Rita Mulcahy, PMP RMCPublications, Inc.
    72. 72. 72PMP®Study Series TimeOnline Resources• PMP Study Group Series Website– From Circuit > Employee Services > Training and Development > EmployeeDevelopment and Education > Coaching & Developing Employees > EmployeeDevelopment > Professional Development > Project Management> PMP Study GroupSeries• PMP Tips and Tools– Suggestions from Intel PMP’s on preparing for and taking the exam. Tools to recordyour educational and experience requirements.• PMP Exam Practice Questions– Test exam is available to Intel employees through the Skillsoft training portal. Withinthe Skillsoft site, from the Catalog (top nav bar), select Project Management > PMPExam Practice Questions.* This link takes you to IU Webpage first. After you agree on $95 annual subscription fee, pleaseclick on the Log in link to the SkillSoft and Books24x7 portal.– You can take the exam in study mode and receive feedback per answer, or take it intest mode to see how you score in each category. There is no limit to the number oftimes you can access this test exam.• PM Learning Resources Center– This website has been designed to be your interface to all of the Intel-wide trainingand learning resources. We seek to assist you in taking ownership of your career byproviding all of the professional development resources necessary for you to assess,develop, and refresh your increasing range of PM skills whether you are just startingas a project coordinator or are a certified project manager. Simply select the stage ofdevelopment that best matches your interests.
    73. 73. 73PMP®Study Series TimeBack-up Slides
    74. 74. 74PMP®Study Series TimeReview of WBS Concepts• WBS = Work Breakdown Structure• The WBS is:– the primary input into activity definition– a deliverables-oriented grouping of project elements– defines and organizes the total scope of the project• Work not in the WBS is out of scope• Work packages are the lowest level of the WBS
    75. 75. 75PMP®Study Series TimeActivity SequencingPrecedence Sample
    76. 76. 76PMP®Study Series TimeDanglers• An activity that lacks either a predecessor or asuccessor• “Start” and “Stop” are both danglers• When a dangler occurs, investigate the cause
    77. 77. 77PMP®Study Series TimeProject Scheduling SoftwareDuration Algorithm• EffortEffort: E in labor hours• ProductivityProductivity: P in efficiency factor• AvailabilityAvailability: A in hours/person/day• Number of WorkersNumber of Workers: N• Duration = ((E/P)/A)/N
    78. 78. 78PMP®Study Series TimeEffort-Driven EstimateExample• Task requires 80 hours effort• Two average workers are assigned (averageexperience equals 1.0)• Each person can devote 4 hours per day• Duration = [(80/1.0)/4]/2 = 10 days• Assumes they work in parallel:– Person A: 4,4,4,4,4 4,4,4,4,4 = 40– Person B: 4,4,4,4,4 4,4,4,4,4 = 40
    79. 79. 79PMP®Study Series TimePERT Calculation• Uses three estimates of duration (and cost) peractivity:– Best case, worst case, most likely case• Calculates start and finish dates from networkdiagram using a weighted averageweighted average estimate ofduration based on the three estimates
    80. 80. 80PMP®Study Series TimePERT: Beta Distribution• Simplified version of Normal DistributionNormal Distribution• Takes into account probabilistic nature of activitydurations• Calculates a weighted average approximation of themean• Also has an approximation of the standard deviation
    81. 81. 81PMP®Study Series TimeWhat is Standard Deviation?• Measures variability (i.e., dispersion)• Represented by Greek letter sigma (σ )• Under normal distribution, approximate values ofstandard deviation:– 1 σ each side of mean: 68% of outcomes– 2 σ each side of mean: 95% of outcomes– 3 σ each side of mean: 99% of outcomes
    82. 82. 82PMP®Study Series TimeSchedule Development
    83. 83. 83PMP®Study Series TimePERT Activity Duration• Optimistic estimate: B• Most likely estimate: M• Pessimistic estimate: WDuration = (B + 4M +W)/6
    84. 84. 84PMP®Study Series TimeActivity Standard Deviation• Standard deviation = (B - W)/6• Where did 6 come from?– 3 σ each side of mean (3+3 = 6)– Implies 99% coverage– (If task executed 100 times, 99 fall within range)• Best and Worst case estimates:– 1 time in 100 for each
    85. 85. 85PMP®Study Series TimeResource Requirements• Activity duration is affected by availabilityavailability ofresources, e.g., if a programmer is available full timeor only half time• Activity duration is affected by resource skillskill levels,e.g., if the programmer is highly experienced orjunior• Activity durations may need to be estimatediteratively because of resource impact
    86. 86. 86PMP®Study Series TimeResource Pool Description• Implies infrastructure for scheduling• Fits within matrix management assumption• Recognizes the potential bottleneck on projects(“resource constrained”)
    87. 87. 87PMP®Study Series TimeCritical Path Method• Uses single point estimate of duration per activity• Calculates start and finish dates from network diagram usingthe single point duration estimate• Calculates floatfloat (also known as slackslack) in the schedule
    88. 88. 88PMP®Study Series TimeCritical Path• Path with least (usually zero) float• Calculated using either single point or PERTweighted average estimate• Delays experienced with any activity on the criticalpath translate directly into delays of projectcompletion date• Near Critical Path: Path with very small float (slightdelay can shift critical path)
    89. 89. 89PMP®Study Series TimeCalculating the Critical Path• Start with the network diagram• Assign durations to each activity• Forward pass (earliest start and finish for eachactivity)• Backward pass (latest start and finish for eachactivity)• Identify path with least float
    90. 90. 90PMP®Study Series TimeStandard Deviation of theCritical Path• Variability of the project’s end date• Gives an (incomplete) idea of schedule risk• Available only with PERT estimates, not single point• Formula: Square root of the sum of the squares ofeach individual critical path activity’s standarddeviation:√( σ2+ σ 2+ … + σ 2)
    91. 91. 91PMP®Study Series TimeLimitations of CPM• Resource Availability• Fixed Dates• Elapsed Duration Tasks
    92. 92. 92PMP®Study Series TimeResource Availability• CPM assumes resources are infinitely available• Delays can occur on the critical path when resourcesare in short supply• Prioritizing resources: Assign resource to the pathwith the least slack
    93. 93. 93PMP®Study Series TimeResource Critical Path• RCP is the sequence of tasks that determines theproject end date, taking into account resourceavailability• RCP must be considered for organizations thatcannot easily add and release resources during theproject• Altered Critical Path
    94. 94. 94PMP®Study Series TimeElapsed Duration Tasks• Some tasks’ durations are a function of elapsedcalendar time rather than business hours– Examples: Paint drying, concrete curing• Scheduling software may not take this into accountwithout manual intervention
    95. 95. 95PMP®Study Series TimeCalculating Float• Perform forward pass through network diagram:– Determine early start (ES) and early finish (EF)dates for each activity• Perform backward pass through network diagram:– Determine late start (LS) and late finish (LF) datesfor each activity• Difference between dates is float:– Total Float– Free Float
    96. 96. 96PMP®Study Series TimeTotal Float• The amount of delay a work package can have without affecting theproject’s final completion date:LF(late finish) minus EF(early finish)orLS(late start) minus ES(early start)Calculated with respect to a given (single) activityLS FF LFES TF EF11 FF 1409 02 12ActivityDurationLF (14) – EF (12) = 02orLS (11) – ES (09) = 02ActivityDurationTF(total float) =
    97. 97. 97PMP®Study Series TimeFree Float• The amount of delay a work package can have without affectingthe start of the next activityES(early start) of succeeding activity minus EF(early finish) ofpreceding activitySubtract one from the calculationwhen the next activity always startson the next day, free float is 8 – 1 = 7(e.g., if F2 ended day 9 and G6started day 10, then 10 – 9 = 1 butthere really is no slack, it’s zero,1 –1 = 0)LS FF LFES TF EF 8 7 915 7 1617 0 2217 0 22F G2 6Free Float = ES(succeeding) (17) – EF (preceding) (09) = 8 (-1)
    98. 98. 98PMP®Study Series TimeForward and Backward Passes• Calculating through the network the dates by whicheach activity must start• Forward pass: Determines the earliest dates foractivities to start and finish• Backward pass: Determines the latest dates foractivities to start and finish
    99. 99. 99PMP®Study Series TimePerform Forward Pass, Backward Pass, and Calculate CP andFloat ValuesES TF EFLS FF LFA5ES EFLS LFTFFFLS FF LFES TF EFES TF EFLS FF LFLS FF LFES TF EFES TF EFLS FF LFLS FF LFES TF EFBCDEFG324726
    100. 100. 100PMP®Study Series TimeResults of Forward Pass6 7A56 86 91 510 168 917 22BCDEFG324726
    101. 101. 101PMP®Study Series TimeResults of Backward Pass6 713 14A56 87 96 96 91 51 510 1610 168 915 1617 2217 22BCDEFG324726
    104. 104. 104PMP®Study Series TimeTotal Float CalculationActivityDurationEarly Start Early FinishLate Start Late FinishTotal Float:EF - LFTotal Float:ES - LS
    105. 105. 105PMP®Study Series TimeFree Float CalculationActivity ADurationActivity BDurationEarly Finish Early StartFree Float
    106. 106. 106PMP®Study Series TimeResults of Calculation of CP(critical path) and FloatValues6 7 713 0 14A56 1 87 1 96 0 96 0 91 0 51 0 510 0 1610 0 168 7 915 7 1617 0 2217 0 22BCDEFG324726TFTFFF
    107. 107. 107PMP®Study Series TimeSchedule Change ControlSystem• Defines procedures to be followed when changingproject schedule• Establishes approval levels, documentation required,and procedural steps to follow• Described in the Schedule Management Plan or byreferences to an external process
    108. 108. 108PMP®Study Series TimeSchedule Change ControlIssues• Scope CreepScope Creep problem• Schedule impact must accompany scope change• Guide discusses change control processesseparately for:– Scope– Schedule– Cost• PMBOK®chapter 4 integrates these in OverallChange Control