Most startups don't fail because
they can't build a product.
Most startups fail because they
can't get traction.
Gabriel Weinberg & Justin Mares
Quantitative evidence of market demand.
Purchase funnel ?
The purchase funnel, or purchasing funnel, is a consumer
focused marketing model which illustrates the
theoretical customer journey towards the purchase of a
product or service.
The old customer journey
Source : http://www.tcs.com/resources/white_papers/Pages/Unified-View-Customer-Experience.aspx
The New Customer Journey
Source : http://www.tcs.com/resources/white_papers/Pages/Unified-View-Customer-Experience.aspx
The AARRR framework by Dave McClure
Customer Acquisition Cost is the cost associated in
convincing a customer to buy a product/service.This cost is
incurred by the organization to convince a potential
In marketing, user lifetime value (LTV) is a prediction of the
net proﬁt attributed to the entire future relationship with a
A company can deliver its value proposition to its targeted
customers through different channels. Effective channels will
distribute a company’s value proposition in ways that are
fast, efﬁcient and cost effective.
What is the best
channel for your
The Bullseye Framework by Gabriel Weinberg & Justin Mares
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet
marketing that involves the promotion of websites by
increasing their visibility in search engine results pages
The click-through rate (CTR) is the number of times a click is
made on the advertisement divided by the total impressions
For example, if you received 7 clicks out of 1000 ad views,
your ad CTR would be .7%
Pay per click (PPC), also called cost per click, is an internet
advertising model used to direct trafﬁc to websites, in which
advertisers pay the publisher when the ad is clicked.
Cost per acquisition (CPA) is a measure of the costs
associated with acquiring a new customer.
For example, if one spends 100€ on a campaign and gets 10
“acquisitions” this would give a cost per acquisition of 10€.
Display advertising ?
Display advertising is a type of advertising that is located on
websites. It can be seen in a wide range of different formats
and contains items such as texts, images, ﬂash, video and
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting
the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's
unpaid results - often referred to as "natural," "organic," or
Content marketing is a strategic marketing approach
focused on creating and distributing valuable, relevant, and
consistent content to attract and retain a clearly-deﬁned
audience — and, ultimately, to drive proﬁtable customer
The content marketing model
What content ?
Curation and Crowd-Sourcing
Email marketing is directly marketing a commercial message
to a group of people using email. In its broadest sense, every
email sent to a potential or current customer could be
considered email marketing.
Types of emails
Transactional emails are usually triggered
based on a customer’s action with a
Direct email or interruption based marketing
involves sending an email solely to
communicate a promotional message.
Source : Return Path
1995: 95% of email = legitimate
2015: 70% of email = spam
Email deliverability measures the ability to deliver email
messages in recipients’ inboxes for email marketing
campaigns and to avoid messages being lost, blocked or
driven to the spam folder.
Inﬂuencer marketing, is a form of marketing that has
emerged from a variety of recent practices and studies, in
which focus is placed on speciﬁc key individuals rather than
the target market as a whole. It identiﬁes the individuals
that have inﬂuence over potential buyers, and orients
marketing activities around these inﬂuencers.
How to find social influencers ?
Afﬁliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing
in which a business rewards one or more afﬁliates for each
visitor or customer brought by the afﬁliate's own marketing
Source : http://www.conseilsmarketing.com
Community building is a ﬁeld of practices directed toward
the creation or enhancement of community among
individuals within a regional area or with a common
Source : http://www.zdnet.com/blog/hinchcliffe/
The Trust Framework by BlaBlaCar (1)
D.R.E.A.M.S.Source : http://www.betrustman.com
The Trust Framework by BlaBlaCar (2)
DECLARED RATED ENGAGED
ACTIVITY MODERATED SOCIAL
D.R.E.A.M.S.The Trust Framework by(
Source : http://www.betrustman.com
Public & personal interest
Activation is when visitors do what you’ve decided
beforehand they should do, when they take an action which
furthers your goals.
Get their email address
Get them to create an account
Get them to read something
Get them to comment on something
Get them to share something
Get them to buy something
Get them to ﬁll out something
Get them to watch something
Get them to interact with someone
Growth teams have learned to identify leading indicators of
whether a user will turn into an engaged user later on –
often known as the “Aha! moment”. It’s called this because
this is the moment a user gets what your product is really
about and why it’s valuable to them.
Follow 30 other people
Reaching 7 friends in 10 days
Day 1 retention
Put at least one ﬁle in one Dropbox folder
Before launch ?
The best thing to do is create a simple “Coming soon” page
to notify visitors of what will eventually be there. Good
“Coming soon” pages come in two basic varieties: the
informational design, which simply tells visitors what will be
there after launch; and the page that invites early visitors to
sign up for updates or even to request a beta invitation.
Landing page ?
In online marketing, a landing page is a single web page that
appears in response to clicking on a search engine
optimized search result or an online advertisement.The
landing page will usually display directed sales copy that is a
logical extension of the advertisement, search result or link.
Squeeze page ?
A squeeze page is a single web page with the sole purpose
of capturing information for follow-up marketing; that
means NO exit hyperlinks. Quality squeeze pages use
success stories that the prospect would relate to when
making a buying decision.
Call to action ?
In web design, a Call to action (CTA) is a banner, button, or
some type of graphic or text on a website meant to prompt
a user to click it and continue down a conversion funnel.
The experience a customer has when they become
oriented to a product or service.
« When you get it right, what
happens is the boundary
between trying out a product
and using it disappears. »
Decide - Purchase or commit
Get - Self-install or pro-install
Start - First time use
Use - Ongoing use
Source : http://fr.slideshare.net/henkenbean/principles-of-onboarding
But how do companies create the internal triggers needed
to form habits?
The answer: they manufacture desire.
Startups manufacture desire by guiding users through a
series of experiences designed to create habits. I call these
experiences “desire engines,” and the more often users run
through them, the more likely they are to self-trigger.
By retention, I mean the process in which you convert new
users who don’t care about your site into recurring users
that are loyal and continually drive pageviews.
The leaky bucket theory
I think of websites as "leaky buckets" where users are
constantly getting poured into the top, and the site is
constantly leaking users.The rate at which this happens can
be a turned into a metric just like any other number.
Cohort analysis ?
Cohort analysis is a subset of behavioral analytics that takes
the data from a given web application and rather than
looking at all users as one unit, it breaks them into related
groups for analysis.These related groups, or cohorts, usually
share common characteristics or experiences within a
Cohort analysis : Example
Source : https://blog.kissmetrics.com/throw-away-vanity-metrics/
Churn rate ?
Churn rate (sometimes called attrition rate), in its broadest
sense, is a measure of the number of individuals or items
moving out of a collective group over a speciﬁc period of
Drip marketing (1)
Drip marketing is a communication strategy that sends, or
"drips," a pre-written set of messages to customers or
prospects over time.These messages often take the form of
email marketing, although other media can also be used.
When we were acquired we had about 500,000 users on
the system, 5 million people used Wufoo forms and reports
whether they knew it or not. But our response time from 9
AM to 9 PM was between 7 to 12 minutes, from 9 PM to
midnight was an hour, and then on the weekend it would be
no longer than 24 hours.
Ask for feedback
The best "growth hack" for user retention is talking to your
users.They are the ONLY people that can tell how to keep
them and how to ﬁnd more like them. Unfortunatley, a lot
of SaaS companies don't ask for feedback and when they do,
they send out long surveys no one wants to answer.
Referral marketing is a process to increase word of mouth
marketing by encouraging customers and contacts to talk as
much as possible about a brand or product.
Viral loop (1)
The steps a user goes through between entering the site to
inviting the next set of new users.
Viral loop (2)
CR - ClickRate
SR - ShareRate
The k-factor or viral coefﬁcient measures how many new,
secondary users an individual new user you acquire brings
in over their lifetime.
K = i multiplied by c
« i » is the number of invitations sent out by each customer or user
« c » the percent conversion rate of each invitation
A viral growth factor > 1 means an
exponential organic user acquisition.
k-factor : example
Source : http://qz.com/249222/slacks-explosive-word-of-mouth-growth-in-one-amazing-chart/
The cycle time
The cycle time is the average time it takes from the
moment that one of your users performs a viral action to
the moment that a new user signs up because of this very
Types of virality (1)
Types of virality (2)
Pure word of mouth virality
Traction: A Startup Guide to Getting Customers - Justin Mares & Gabriel Weinberg
Startup Metrics for Pirates - Dave McClure
The Ultimate Guide to Funnel Optimization - Sean Johnson
Growth Hacking Like A Pirate, A Beginner’s Guide To Pirate Metrics - Liam Gooding
AARRR: Pirate Metrics for SaaS - Pierre Lechelle
Mad Max: Fury Road - George Miller