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Jean luc boeuf - Séance 5 - Les niveaux d'administration locale

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Jean luc boeuf - Séance 5 - Les niveaux d'administration locale

  1. 1. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 11 Droit administratif et institutions locales 5 – Les niveaux d’administration locale: enchevêtrement des compétences? > Jean-Luc BOEUF
  2. 2. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 22 Entrée en matière • Problématique - Comment s’organisent les niveaux de collectivités locales, selon quelles dynamiques ? - Une réforme locale au sein d’un panorama de plus en plus « simplexe » ? • Plan I. Une carte administrative faite d’échelons emboîtés II. Chacun ses compétences « phare »…… parallèlement à de nombreuses compétences partagées III. Un chevauchement de périmètres: des territoires de gestion aux territoires de projets
  3. 3. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 3 I. Une carte administrative faite d’échelons emboîtés a. Si commune, département et région disposent d’organes globalement similaires… - 1 assemblée délibérante - 1 chef de l’exécutif - Tous deux élus démocratiquement (cf. tableau des modes de scrutin infra)
  4. 4. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 4 Conseillers municipaux 6 ans La commune constitue une circonscription électorale unique. Communes de moins de 3 500 hab. Communes de plus de 3 500 hab. Scrutin majoritaire, plurinominal, de liste, à 2 tours > Les candidats peuvent former des listes ou se présenter seuls (pour les communes de moins de 2 500 hab.). > Les électeurs peuvent modifier la liste en rayant ou ajoutant un ou plusieurs noms. Scrutin de liste mixte à la fois proportionnel et majoritaire (et paritaire) : la liste qui recueille la majorité absolue au premier tour ou la majorité relative au second obtient la majorité des sièges, le reste étant réparti à la proportionnelle entre toutes les listes Zoomsurlesmodesdescrutin Conseillers généraux*** Mandat de 6 ans, assemblée renouvelée par moitié tous les 3 ans Circonscription électorale: canton* Scrutin majoritaire uninominal** à 2 tours (1 conseiller général par canton) Conseillers régionaux Mandat de 6 ans (Prévue dès la loi du 2 mars 1982 cette élection eut lieu la première fois en mars 1986.) Listes sur une base départementale Scrutin de liste à 2 tours à « prime majoritaire » : 25% des sièges à pourvoir son attribués à la liste ayant obtenu la majorité absolue des suffrages au premier tour ou est arrivée en tête du second (loi 11/04/2003) Conseillers généraux*** Mandat de 6 ans, assemblée renouvelée par moitié tous les 3 ans Circonscription électorale: canton* Scrutin majoritaire uninominal** à 2 tours (1 conseiller général par canton) Conseillers généraux*** Mandat de 6 ans, assemblée renouvelée par moitié tous les 3 ans Circonscription électorale: canton* Scrutin majoritaire uninominal** à 2 tours (1 conseiller général par canton)
  5. 5. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 5 I. Une carte administrative faite d’échelons emboîtés a. Si commune, département et région disposent d’organes globalement similaires… b. … leur histoire leur a conféré des caractères bien distincts
  6. 6. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 6 + Jeunesse et consécration constitutionnelle récente - Géopolitique nationale/locale et « crise de croissance » si absorption des départements + Périmètre le plus large - « Invisibilité » Région + Défense « symbolique » - Effets de ciseaux structurels et « myopie » sur les territoires ; « dilution » dans les régions + Identification - Financement des compétences obligatoires et diminution des leviers Département + Ancrage du modèle mayoral français - Repositionnement des maires si les élus communautaires devaient être élus au SUD + Légitimité démocratique et identitaire - Emiettement structurel Commune AVENIR (+ = opportunités / - = menaces) PRÉSENT (+ = atouts / - = faiblesses) ECHELON
  7. 7. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 7 II. Chacun ses compétences « phare »… parallèlement, de nombreuses compétences partagées  De manière (très) schématique a. La commune, animatrice de proximité b. Les EPCI, outils de mutualisations et d’économies d’échelle c. Le département, garant des solidarités locales d. La région, moteur de développement e. Les nouveautés de la réforme des collectivités?
  8. 8. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 8 Exemple 1 • Point sur l’enchevêtrement des compétences Source : fiche n 1 « Action sociale et médico-sociale » annexée au rapport « Les relations entre l’État et les collectivités locales », Alain LAMBERT, Sénat, nov. 2007.
  9. 9. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 9 Exemple 2 Focus sur le département et l’action sociale (1/2) • Décentralisation des politiques sociales • Passage du RMI au RSA
  10. 10. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 10 Dexia CLF – ADF, oct. 2007, à partir des comptes administratifs Exemple 3 Focus sur le département et l’action sociale (2/2) • Question du coût (cf. séance ultérieure)
  11. 11. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 11 a. Sport, culture et tourisme (Cf. clause générale de compétence au sein de la réforme des collectivités) b. Développement économique et marketing territorial c. Coopération décentralisée II. Chacun ses compétences « phare »… Parallèlement, de nombreuses compétences partagées
  12. 12. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 12 III. Des territoires de gestion aux territoires de projet, un chevauchement de périmètres a. La multiplication des périmètres… - L’intercommunalité, de la gestion au projet, un nouveau souffle ? - Une multiplication des périmètres de projet, jusqu’à la saturation ? (cf. « pays », SCOT, etc.) b. … suppose de gérer la complexité… c. … pour mieux interpréter la réforme en cours
  13. 13. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 13 Conclusion Principes clés > Clarification > Simplification > Spécialisation > Fusion > Intégration Fil rouge : de la complexité à la « simplexité » Relations Pratique Subsidiarité Rôle de l’Etat
  14. 14. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 14 Sujets d’entrainement • Pour la semaine prochaine (mardi 19 octobre à midi)  Clarification des compétences et spécialisation des collectivités locales.
  15. 15. Sciences Po - Séance 5 Master STU 06/10/2010 Droit administratif et institutions locales Jean-Luc BŒUF 1515 Merci de votre attention. Bon voyage d’études et à la prochaine séance avec  Europe: le modèle italien et la perspective du fédéralisme fiscal le mercredi 20 octobre 2010

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