The way to sustainable aquaculture

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This presentation gives an overview of various aspects relevant to sustainable aquaculture. it consists of 3 sections:
- what is aquaculture
- threats, challenges & opportunities
- conclusions

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The way to sustainable aquaculture

  1. 1. slide 1 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Jean Dhont, Patrick Sorgeloos Laboratorium voor Aquacultuur Faculteit Bio-Ingenieurswetenschappen Universiteit Gent DE WEG NAAR DUURZAME AQUACULTUUR Gent, 4 Maart 2011
  2. 2. slide 2 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • WHAT IS AQUACULTURE • CHALLENGES, THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE • CONCLUSIONS
  3. 3. slide 3 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont “Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations DEFINITION OF AQUACULTURE Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.
  4. 4. slide 4 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont
  5. 5. slide 5 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont AGRI-CULTURE AQUA-CULTURE HUNTING FISHERIES
  6. 6. slide 6 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont AGRI-CULTURE AQUA-CULTURE HUNTING FISHERIES
  7. 7. slide 7 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Oceans 70% Crops 5% Pasture 7% Forest 9% Other 9% (cities 1.5%) Global resources from Cunningham, “Knowledge Based Bio-Economy towards 2020” Brussels, September 14, 2010
  8. 8. slide 8 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont GLOBAL PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND FOOD SUPPLY total bioproduction contribution to food supply terrestrial marine from Field et al. (1998) and Duarte et al. (2009) plants & animals fisheries & aquaculture plants & animals proteins quantity 16 % of proteins 2 % in quantity
  9. 9. slide 9 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont AVAILABILITY OF TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC MEAT 0 50 100 150 200 250 106 MT Pig: 88.4 Beef/Veal: 55.9 Poultry: 63.3 Sheep/Goat: 11.3 Other: 6.5 Finfish: 98.4 Molluscs: 12.6 Crustacea: 7.1 Cephalopods: 3Seaweed:7.9 FAO, 2000
  10. 10. slide 10 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Aquatic plants Crustaceans Fish Other Molluscs AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION BY SPECIES GROUP & ENVIRONMENT Marine 33 Mt Freshwater 31 Mt Brackish 3 Mt FAO, 2010
  11. 11. slide 11 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont DOMESTICATION OF TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC PLANTS AND ANIMALS Duarte et al, 2007, Science
  12. 12. slide 12 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont CULTURE PRINCIPLES Traditional aquaculture Industrial aquaculture • Family livelihood • Low technology • Labour intensive • Technology driven • Profitability • High energy & resource input
  13. 13. slide 13 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont CULTURE PRINCIPLES Pond culture
  14. 14. slide 14 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont CULTURE PRINCIPLES Integrated fish culture with rice with goat with chicken
  15. 15. slide 15 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont mussel farming scallop farming CULTURE PRINCIPLES extractive mollusc farming
  16. 16. slide 16 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont red and brown algae farming in China CULTURE PRINCIPLES
  17. 17. slide 17 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont monoculture approach CULTURE PRINCIPLES industrial aquaculture
  18. 18. slide 18 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont CULTURE PRINCIPLES Cage culture (open sea)
  19. 19. slide 19 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Courtesy Nutreco Courtesy Harache CULTURE PRINCIPLES Pond culture (land-based)
  20. 20. slide 20 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Courtesy Harache CULTURE PRINCIPLES Pond culture (land-based)
  21. 21. slide 21 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Photo Eding Photo SchneiderPhoto Schrama CULTURE PRINCIPLES Indoor culture
  22. 22. slide 22 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont PANGASIUS CATFISH FARMING IN VIETNAM > 1,000,000 TONS/YEAR CULTURE PRINCIPLES
  23. 23. slide 23 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 12,000 ton/yr salmon farm in Norway operated by <10 people CULTURE PRINCIPLES Salmon farming
  24. 24. slide 24 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Aquaculture production per species group FAO, 2010 FACTS & FIGURES
  25. 25. slide 25 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont by quantity by value FAO, 2009 Aquaculture production per regionFACTS & FIGURES
  26. 26. slide 26 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • WHAT IS AQUACULTURE • CHALLENGES, THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE • CONCLUSIONS
  27. 27. slide 27 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • Demographic • Economic • Governance & policy • Environmental • Technological
  28. 28. slide 28 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont World population increase + Average living standard increase = Increased demand for seafood FAO, 2008
  29. 29. slide 29 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • In 2008, the world consumed 115 million tonnes of seafood, 46% originated from aquaculture. • Ten years from now, aquaculture will need to produce 28.8 million tonnes more per year than current annual production
  30. 30. slide 30 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Annual production growth rate for the period 1980-1990 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 percent Aquacultuur Zeevisserij Eieren Melk Gevogelte Varkensvlees Rundsvlees Soja Peulvruchten Mais Tarwe Rijst Wereldbevolking
  31. 31. slide 31 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Contribution of aquaculture to world fish consumption during 1970-2008
  32. 32. slide 32 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Fishing = hunting  Overfishing
  33. 33. slide 33 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont OVERFISHING
  34. 34. slide 34 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont OVERFISHING
  35. 35. slide 35 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont PROVIDE HEALTHY & TASTY SEAFOOD AT A CORRECT PRICE Guarantee an equitable income for the farmers Produce affordable standard products Cater both for low-end and top-end consumers MARKETING !!
  36. 36. slide 36 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont - Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) - protection of vulnerable groups (small family held farms, ...) - (fair) trade regulations PROVIDE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR:
  37. 37. slide 37 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont ... except maybe: • habitat degradation and destruction (eg. mangrove) • competition for clean water • impact on bio-diversity • pressure on fish meal and fish oil • biosecurity issues • ... no problems...
  38. 38. slide 38 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • poikilothermic • reduced energy required for getting food • efficient food conversion • rapid growth • high reproductive capacity • live in 3-dimensional environment • polyculture • complex life cycle • large number of species • limited knowledge of: reproductive biology, dietary requirements, disease control, ... • slow metabolism/slow growth rate • respiratory needs • toxic excretion product • fast disease transmission CHARACTERISTICS OF AQUATIC PRODUCTION
  39. 39. slide 39 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 1. Complete independence from natural stocks through DOMESTICATION 2. Improved / more cost-effective SEED PRODUCTION 3. Better targeted SPECIES SELECTION 4. Development of more efficient stocks through SELECTIVE BREEDING 5. More MICROBIAL MANAGEMENT for more sustainable production 6. Better understanding of IMMUNE SYSTEMS in vertebrates and invertebrates 7. More INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS for plant and animal farming 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS of food and energy 9. Full independence from fisheries stocks for LIPID AND PROTEIN INGREDIENTS in aquatic feeds 10. More attention for INTEGRATION of restocking activities with FISHERIES management
  40. 40. slide 40 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 1. Complete independence from natural stocks through DOMESTICATION Natural life cycle of penaeid shrimp
  41. 41. slide 41 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 1. Complete independence from natural stocks through DOMESTICATION
  42. 42. slide 42 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 2. Improved / more cost-effective SEED PRODUCTION
  43. 43. slide 43 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 2. Improved / more cost-effective SEED PRODUCTION
  44. 44. slide 44 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 3. Better targeted SPECIES SELECTION for bulk & niche markets
  45. 45. slide 45 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 4. Development of more efficient stocks through SELECTIVE BREEDING wild stock domesticated stock breeding program genetic improvement breeding objectives genetic variation • disease resistance • growth rate • size / quality • feed conversion • fecundity • ease of domestication
  46. 46. slide 46 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 5. More MICROBIAL MANAGEMENT for more sustainable production 6. Better understanding of IMMUNE SYSTEMS DISEASE PREVENTION DISEASE TREATMENT (antibiotics)
  47. 47. slide 47 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Seafood chainAgriculture food chain “Eaters of wolf eaters” “Wolf eaters” Wolf Cow Rice Corn . Macro- algae Grains Grasses Vegetables Fruits 1st Trophic Level 4th TL 3rd TL 5th TL 2nd TL Laminaria japonica Mussels Tuna Sea bream Herring What do humans feed on? Human trophic level? Level: 1 - 2 Level: 3 -4 7. Farming & eating DOWN THE FOOD CHAIN
  48. 48. slide 48 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 7. Farming & eating DOWN THE FOOD CHAIN
  49. 49. slide 49 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Ecosystem-based polyculture of different carp species in China 7. More INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS for plant and animal farming
  50. 50. slide 50 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 7. More INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS for plant and animal farming
  51. 51. slide 51 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  52. 52. slide 52 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont EXTRACTIVE aquaculture nutrient recycling FED aquaculture 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  53. 53. slide 53 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) - for food production - for bioremediation maximizing nutrient recycling for different niches of the ecosystem: fish, shellfish & seaweeds
  54. 54. slide 54 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Integration of culture of different trophic levels MACROALGAE MUSSELS FINFISH 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  55. 55. slide 55 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 8 km 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  56. 56. slide 56 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  57. 57. slide 57 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont - ) Energy generation (wind, wave, thermal) 8. COASTAL AND OFF-SHORE FARMS for food and energy
  58. 58. slide 58 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont The fish meal / fish oil contradiction 9. Full independence from fisheries stocks for LIPID AND PROTEIN INGREDIENTS in aquaculture feeds
  59. 59. slide 59 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont more attention for integration of restocking activities with fisheries management through multidisciplinary cooperation: oceanography, marine biology, fisheries & aquaculture 10. INTEGRATION of restocking activities with FISHERIES management • juvenile fitness • releasing strategies • impact on wild stocks
  60. 60. slide 60 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont Belgium Netherlands UK 10. INTEGRATION of restocking activities with FISHERIES management
  61. 61. slide 61 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • WHAT IS AQUACULTURE • CHALLENGES, THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE • CONCLUSIONS
  62. 62. slide 62 of 63Duurzame aquacultuur - Jean Dhont • Aquaculture is a complex and diverse sector • The growing demand for healthy and affordable seafood can only be met by further increase in aquaculture production • Aquaculture faces considerable challenges that call for supportive policy, continued technological progress and adequate marketing
  63. 63. www.aquaculture.UGent.be

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