6. Eyes see the
Light patterns from
the printed symbols
hit the foveal areas or
sensory cells of the
Chemical change is
induced that create
patterns of nerve
currents into the
optic nerve fiber.
travel to the
8. • Eyes stopping or getting fixated on the word or words
• The duration of fixation is the length of time the eyes
has to pause.
• Eyes moving from stopping point to the otherInter-fixation
• Eyes swinging back from the end line to the beginning
of the next lineReturn Sweeps
• Short quick hop and jump movements done especially
by literate people to move ahead on a line of printSaccades
• Backward right-to-left movement in case there is a
need to double check what is being readRegressions
10. TWO STEPS INVOLVED IN
• The extraneous process creates a stimulus on
the visual centers of the brain. This consists in
two essential aspects, namely, word
recognition or the written symbols and
attentive adjustment by the reader on these
• Fusion/ interpretation/ construction of
meaning by the mind out of the stimuli.
11. These two steps involve other
complex processes which include:
Immediatearousal ofassociationinrecognition ofthe written
symbols --- their pronunciation, vocabulary meaning, context,
Otherstimuli inclusiveofkinesthetic or auditory
These stimuli are distributed to brain centers (instinct,
feelings, imagination, reason, abstractintelligence, will)
Synthesis or the fusion of related inputs from brain centers
resulting in the recognition of the meaning of the printed
13. EVALUATIVE –judgmenton
the reading materialsuch as the
informationon data, the event,persons
APPLIED - forming
what is read combined with
one’s subjective ideas
knowing what is read as is
14. Higher comprehension skills are
2. Careful reading and greater retention
3. Making previous assumptions or
4. The deliberate and combined ability to
reflect, question, classify, summarize,
5. Information reading which gives
attention to SQ3R
19. 1. Clarity
• The reader can more easily and immediately
understand language when the code symbols
are concrete rather than abstractions
(universal ideas) and generalizations.
Many students attended the student council
Improved: Ninety-five college students
attended Tuesday’s student council meeting.
20. 2. Simplicity
• Complex wording written for the sake of
verbal erudition is less easily understood,
compared with what is expressed directly
and to the point.
Shall we partake of our repast?
Shall we eat?
Mother’s culinary dishes are exquisite.
Mother cooks well.
21. 3. Adapted Language
• Words of expression should relate to the
reader’s age, educational attainment,
gender, ethnic origin, other personal
factors. The inappropriate use of technical
or specialized words should also be
22. 4. Forceful
• Stimulating language provides color,
interest and excitement.
He speaks at length while saying little.
He spews forth words --- and says nothing.
23. 5. Vivid Language
• Vivid wording is descriptive and stirs the
senses of the reader.
– Very good salesman --- crackerjacker persuader
– Dishonest and evil --- festering corruption
– Trouble spot --- seething hell
25. 1. People read messages from official
communication, mass media and the
2. Reading is a social activity that engages
humans in the world.
3. Reading is also professional as it is a form of
communication done in all the professions
and human pursuits including scientific and
technological research and studies.
4. Reading is a unique activity which you can
adopt every day.