Each taskassociated with humandevelopment produces apeak time for readiness tolearn, known as a“teachable moment”.
extent to whichsomeone is driven toachieve is related to thetype of short- and long-term goals established bythe learner
copingmechanism someone hasbeen using must beexplored to understandhow the learner has dealtwith previous problems
sensitivity tocultural differences areimportant to avoid teachingin opposition to culturalbeliefs.
They are readyto learn when they feel aneed to know aboutsomething.
someone otherthan themselves mustencourage a feeling ofwanting to knowsomething.
The tendencyto adhere to a parochial orcosmopolitan point of viewis known as orientation
How muchsomeone already knowsabout a particular subjector how proficient thatperson is at performing atask
The extent towhich information can beprocessed is indicative ofthe level at which thelearner is capable oflearning.
mentalretardation, learning disabilitiesand low-level reading skills willrequire special or innovativeapproaches to instruction tosustain or bolster readiness tolearn.
A variety ofpreferred styles of learningexist, and assessing howsomeone learns best will helpthe educator to select teachingapproaches accordingly
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionINFANCY- Dependent on Orient teaching Welcome activeTODDLERHOOD environment to caregiver involvement Needs security Use repetition Forge alliances Explores self and imitation of Encourage and environment information physical Natural curiosity Stimulate all closeness senses Provide detailedApprox Age: 0-3yr Provide informationCognitive Stage: physical safety AnswerSensorimotor and emotional questions andPsychosocial security concernsStage: Trust vs Allow play and Ask formistrust (0-12mos) manipulation of information onAutonomy vs. objects child’sShame and doubt(1-3 y/o) strengths/limitatio ns and likes.
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionPRESCHOOLER Egocentric Use warm, calm Welcome active Thinking approach involvement precausal, Build trust Forge alliances concrete, literal Use repetition Encourage Believes illness of information physical self-caused and Allow closenessApprox Age: 3-6yr punitive manipulation of Provide detailedCognitive Stage: Limited sense objects and informationPreoperational of time equipment AnswerPsychosocial Fears bodily Give care with questions andStage: Initiative injury explanation concernsvs.guilt Cannot Reassure not to Ask for generalize blame self information on Animistic child’s thinking strengths/limitatio Centration ns and likes.
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionPRESCHOOLER Separation Explain(CONTINUED) anxiety procedures Motivated by simply and briefly curiosity Provide safe, Active secure imagination, environment prone to fears Use positive Play is his/her reinforcement work Encourage questions to reveal perceptions/fee- lings Use simple drawings and stories
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionPRESCHOOLER Use Play(CONTINUED) therapy, with dolls and puppets Stimulate senses: visual, auditory, t actile, motor
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionSCHOOL-AGED More realistic Encourage Welcome activeCHILDREN and objective independence involvement Understands and active Forge alliances cause and effect participation Encourage Deductive/induc Be honest, allay physical tive reasoning fears closeness Wants concrete Use logical Provide detailedApprox Age: 6- information explanation information12yr Able to Allow time to AnswerCognitive Stage: compare objects ask questions questions andConcrete and events Use analogies concernsoperations Variable rates to make invisible Ask forPsychosocial of physical process real information onStage: Industry vs. growth Establish role child’sinferiority Reasons model strengths/limitatio syllogistically ns and likes.
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionSCHOOL-AGED Understands Relate care toCHILDREN seriousness and other children’s(CONTINUED) consequences of experiences; actions compare Subject- procedures centered focus Use subject- Immediate centered focus orientation Use play therapy Provide group activities Use drawings, models, dolls, painting, audio- and video tapes
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionADOLESCENCE Abstract, Establish trust, Explore hypothetical authenticity emotional and thinking Know their financial support Can build on agenda Determine past learning Address goals and Reasons by fears/concerns expectationsApprox Age: 12- logic and about outcomes Assess stress18yr understands of illness levelsCognitive Stage: scientific Identify control Respect valuesFormal operations principles focus and normsPsychosocial Future Include in plan Determine roleStage: Identity vs. orientation of care responsibilitiesrole confusion Motivated by Use peers for and relationships desire for social supports and Allow for 1:1 acceptance influence teaching w/o parents present,
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionADOLESCENCE Peer group Negotiate But with(CONTINUED) important changes adolescent’s Intense Focus on permission; personal details inform family of preoccupation, Make content covered. appearance information extremely meaningful to life important Ensure (imaginary confidentiality audience) and privacy Feels Arrange group invulnerable, sessions invincible/im- Use mune to natural audiovisuals, laws(personal role-play, fable) contracts, reading materials
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionADOLESCENCE Provide for(CONTINUED) experimentation and flexibility
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionYOUNG Autonomous Use problem- ExploreADULTHOOD Self-directed centered focus emotional, Uses personal Draw on financial, and experiences to meaningful physical support enhance or experiences system interfere with Focus on Assess learning immediately of motivational levelApprox Age: 18- Intrinsic application for involvement40yr motivation Encourage IdentifyCognitive Stage: Able to analyze active potentialFormal operations critically participation obstacles andPsychosocial Makes Allow to set stressorsStage: Intimacy vs. decisions about own pace, beisolation personal, self-directed occupational, Organize and social roles material
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionYOUNG Competency- RecognizeADULTHOOD based learner social role(CONTINUED) Apply new knowledge through role- playing and hands-on practice
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionMIDDLE-AGED Sense of self Focus on ExploreADULTHOOD well developed maintaining emotional, Concerned with independence financial, and physical changes and physical support At peak in reestablishing system career normal life Assess Explores patterns motivational levelApprox Age: 40- alternative Assess positive for involvement65yr lifestyle and negative pas IdentifyCognitive Stage: Reflects on experiences with potentialFormal operations contributions to learning obstacles andPsychosocial family and Assess stressorsStage: Generativity society potential sourcesvs. Self-absorption Reexamines of stress due toand stagnation goals and values midlife crisis issues
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionMIDDLE-AGED Questions ProvideADULTHOOD achievements information to(CONTINUED) and successes coincide with life Has confidence concerns and in abilities problems Desires to modify unsatisfactory aspects of life
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Cognitive Use concrete Involve principalADULTHOOD changes samples caregivers Decreased Build on past Encourage ability to think life experiences participation abstractly, Make Provide process information resources for information relevant and support (respiteApprox Age: 65yr Decreased meaningful care)and over short-term Present on Assess copingCognitive Stage: memory concept at a time mechanismsFormal operations Increased Allow time for Provide writtenPsychosocial reaction time processing/respo instructions forStage: Ego Increased test nse(slow pace) reinforcementintegrity vs. despair anxiety Provide Stimulus anticipatory persistence problem solving.
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Focuses on Use repetitionADULTHOOD past life and(CONTINUED) experiences reinforcement of information Avoid written Sensory/motor exams deficits Use verbal Auditory exchange and changes coaching Hearing loss, Establish especially high- retrieval plan pitched tones, Encourage consonants active (S,Z,T,F, and G) involvement and rapid speech Keep Visual changes explanation brief
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Farsighted Use analogiesADULTHOOD (needs glasses to to illustrate(CONTINUED) read) abstract Lenses become information opaque (glare Speak slowly, problem) distinctly Smaller pupil Use low-pitched size(decreased tomes visual adaptation Face client to darkness) when speaking Decreased Minimize peripheral distractions perception Avoid shouting Yellowing of Use visual aids lenses(distorts to supplement low-tone colors verbal instruction
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Blue, green, Avoid glares,ADULTHOOD violet) use soft white(CONTINUED) Distorted depth light perception Provide Fatigue/decreas sufficient light ed energy levels Use white Pathophysiolog backgrounds and y (chronic illness) black prints Psychosocial Use large changes letters and well- Decreased risk spaced print taking Avoid color Selective coding with learning blues, greens, Intimidated by purples and formal learning yellows.
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Increase safetyADULTHOOD precautions/provi(CONTINUED) de safe environment Ensure accessibility and fits of prostheses (glasses, hearing aid) Keep sessions short Provide for frequent rest periods Allow extra time to perform
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER EstablishADULTHOOD realistic short-(CONTINUED) term goals Give time to reminisce Identify and present pertinent material Use informal teaching sessions Demonstrate relevance of information to daily life Assess resources
Learner General Characteristics Teaching Strategy Nursing InterventionOLDER Make learningADULTHOOD positive(CONTINUED) Identify past positive experiences Integrate new behaviors with formerly establish ones