It is worth noting that the trends/ regions I am seeking to identify are best represented in “Anglo-Saxon” names or those with origins in Britain. Migrant names, although interesting, are included in the calculations but do not exert significant influence on regional characteristics. The exception is London in the 2001 data.
Kernel Density Estimation maps to show the areas of highest frequency of a particular name in Britain. Two extremely common names at the top, two rarer names at the bottom.
Lasker’s Coefficient of Isonymy is widely used for surname studies and extends the idea of monophyly (sharing a single common ancestor) between two populations. Measure explained as the probability of members of two populations or subpopulations having genes in common by descent as estimated from sharing the same surnames. No the intention of this talk to go into significant depth regarding this measure.
Map of Ward’s Clustering, splitting Britain into 15 clusters. Despite the fact that spatial information regarding the geographical locations of the districts has not been included in the clustering and that there are no continuity constraints, the resulting regions at 15 clusters are surprisingly homogenous.
The town of Corby is consistently clustered/ highlighted as a Scottish District in 2001, not a central England as would be expected given its location in Northamptonshire. This is not the case with the 1881 data, suggesting a Scottish migration into the area.
This migration theory appears to be plausible.
Finally, the town that voted to be Welsh. Do the surnames of its population get clustered into the Welsh group or an English one?
Political motives, such as free prescriptions, rather than genealogical or cultural motives appear to be driving the locals to vote to be Welsh. It could of course also have been tongue in cheek!.
RGS Annual Conference Presentation
Surnames: A Rich Source of Geodemographic Data <br />James Cheshire, Pablo Mateos<br />Department of Geography, University College London <br />Research Blog: jamescheshire.co.uk<br />Email: email@example.com<br />
Names and Ethnicity<br />- Forenames and surnames can be classified into ethnic groupings.<br />- Already utilized within geodemographics (see Mateos et al., 2007).<br />
In Britain:<br />Cornish names<br />Welsh names<br />
Surnames and Regions<br /><ul><li>Many surnames originate from a specific area.
The highest frequency of these names still exists in their place of origin.
We can therefore expect areas to possess unique combinations of names.
We can also expect certain types of surname to occur more frequently in some areas rather than others.
This surname geography may reflect cultural characteristics and regional identities…</li></li></ul><li>Some Examples:<br />Smith<br />Lewis<br />Macleod<br />Buckley<br />
Creating Regions: Aggregating Surname Data<br /><ul><li> Isonymy: The occurrence of the same name in marriage.
The smaller the surname ‘pool’ the greater the probability of isonymy.
Geneticists developed the Coefficient of Isonymy to measure probability of isonymy between two populations.</li></ul>xand y: Districts<br />i: Surname<br />xiand yi: Freq. proportional to the xand y total popn.<br /><ul><li>The Coefficient of Isonymyhas been extended to a distance measure, the Lasker’s Distance, for comparison between populations. </li></ul>Lx,y= -loge2(Rx,y) <br />
Corby: A Scottish Town?<br />In 1932 Stewarts and Lloyds built a new iron and steel works in Corby.<br />Labor sourced from closing Scottish steelworks, mainly in Lanarkshire.<br />Into the 1970s, 50% of the incoming population Scottish.<br />Transformed population from 1,500 to 34,000 .<br />Annual Highland Games.<br />
Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Surnames are most common around their place of origin.
Comparing the similarity of surname compositions across space creates a regional geography of surnames.
With further work, it may be possible to use surname regions or clusters to better characterize and subdivide the British population for geodemographic analysis. </li></ul>jamescheshire.co.uk<br />
References<br />Lasker Distance:<br />Lasker, G. W. and C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor (2001). "The genetic structure of English villages: surname diversity changes between 1976 and 1997." Annals of Human Biology 28(5): 546-553.<br />K-Means:<br />Adnan, M., Singleton, A.D., Brunsdon, C., Longley, P.A. 2009. Moving to Real-Time Segmentation: Efficient Computation of Geodemographic Classification. GISRUK 2009.<br />Surname Ethnicity Classification:<br />Mateos, Webber and Longley (2007) The Cultural, Ethnic and Linguistic Classification of Populations and Neighbourhoods using Personal Names , CASA Working Paper 116, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London.<br />Monmonier Algorithm:<br />Manni, F., E. Guerard, et al. (2004). "Geographic Patterns of (Genetic, Morphologic, Linguistic) Variation: How Barriers Can Be Detected by Using Monmonier’s Algorithm." Human Biology 76(2): 173-190.<br />KDE:<br />Crimestat Workbook: http://www.icpsrdirect.org/CRIMESTAT/workbook/CrimeStat_III_Workbook_PowerPoint.ppt<br />R Packages:<br />Adegenet, cluster, maptools, rgl, sm, spdep , splancsfrom http://cran.r-project.org<br />iL04_1.13 from http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/L04/<br />All boundary data from the maps Crown Copyright Ordnance Survey 2009.<br />