Introduction to communication skills


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  • Why communication skills are so important The importance of removing barriers Making great first impressions The Johari window Better public speaking and presentation Writing skills Over the next few classes we will be covering the following topics: Effective Email Active listening Running effective meetings Ice breakers Win-Win negotiations Speaking to an audience Presentation planning checklist
  • Purpose is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously This involves effort from both sender and receiver of the message A process that can be very difficult and messages often get misinterpreted by the receiver When this isn’t discovered it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity In fact, some communication can only be successful when both the sender and receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication. When successful at getting your message across you convey your thoughts and ideas effectively. If not the thoughts and ideas communicated do not necessarily reflect your own which causes communication breakdown and creates roadblocks that stand in your way, personally and professionally Recent surveys of recruitment agencies; most important factor in choosing managers. Communication skills, including written and oral presentations as well as an ability to work with others are the main factor contributing to job success. Despite this many people still struggle to both write and present their ideas and thoughts successfully and effectively in the workplace To get your message across you must understand what your message is, who you are sending it to and how it will be received. You must also consider the environment and cultural context your message is being delivered in.
  • Problems can pop up at any time in the process and create misunderstanding and confusion Your goal should be to make sure this does not happen by using clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. Source: Be clear about why, what and what you want to communicate Message Transferring information, to be correctly decoded at the end. Convey clearly and simply, anticipate and eliminate confusion (cultural, mistaken assumptions, missing information). Know your audience, failure will result in misunderstanding Channel Verbal, face to face meetings, telephone and video conferencing, written including letters, emails, memos and reports Different channels have different strengths and weaknesses; long lists of directions are not effective, criticism by email causes problems Decoding A skill like encoding (take time to read carefully or listen actively). Same confusions can arise especially if the decoder does not have the knowledge to understand (culturally or linguistically) Receiver Messages delivered to individuals in audience. Keep in mind the reactions and actions you expect. Remember that each person has a communication process of their own with ideas and feelings that will influence their understanding and response. To be successful you should consider these before delivering your message Feedback Audience will provide feedback, verbal and non verbal. Pay attention to this feedback, it is the only thing that allows you to be confident your audience understands. You can always deliver the message again at that time, but not later. Context The situation your message is delivered is the context.
  • To deliver you messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down barriers that exist in each of these stages of the communication process The message Too long, disorganised or is wrong, it will be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message Barriers can start from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt, less is better. Remember that other people have demands on their time especially today when we are all so busy. Work to understand audience culture, make sure you can speak and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own organisation, your clients and other stakeholders.
  • Quick glance, 3 seconds! To form an opinion about appearance, body language, behaviour, mannerisms, dress. Every time you meet a new person, you make an impression. It is nearly impossible to reverse or undo this, which makes first impressions extremely important to set the tone for the relationship to come. So if it is at work or socially it is very important to create a good first impression! Some tips: Be on time, the person you meet for the first time is not interested in excuses for being late. Plan to arrive early, allow flexibility for delays in traffic or transport or getting lost, it is much better to be early and makes a better first impression Be yourself, at ease If you are nervous or on edge, you can make the other person feel the same (mirroring). If you are calm the other person will be too. This creates a good foundation for a good first impression Present yourself appropriately Physical appearance matters. This is usually the only clue the other person gets first You don’t have to look like a model, just clean, neat and tidy. Personal grooming is improtant; Have a showerevery day and use a deodorant, shave keep your haircut and neat. Underplay the make up don’t use too much perfume. They say a picture is worth a thousand words. Start with the way you dress, what is appropriate for: Business setting – Make sure you know traditions and norms for the country or setting Community setting Social setting Family setting Appropriate dressing helps make a good first impression and helps you feel the part- go to war, wear the uniform!!
  • You can create a good impression without losing your identity or individuality. You do need to fit in to some degree, but be appropriate; it is appropriate to have facial piercings and tattoos in a community setting, but not a corporate one. Smile and the world smiles with you! It shows you are warm and confident and puts people at ease! Don’t smile too much or you may come across as being insincere or smarmy or a “lightweight” Be open and confident, body language speaks louder than words as well as appearance. Use your body language to project appropriate confidence and self assurance. Stand up straight, smile, make eye contact, greet with a firm handshake. Almost everyone gets nervous when meeting someone for the first time, this can cause nervous habits or sweaty palms, be aware of your habits and try to keep them under control. Conversations are based on verbal give and take. It may help to prepare some opening remarks in advance when meeting someone for the first time, or learn something about the person; do they have children or do you have friends in common? Be positive Your attitude shows in everything you do; project a positive attitude, even when being criticised or nervous. Try to learn from your meeting and contribute appropriately with an upbeat manner and smile. Be courteous and attentive Good manners and polite, attentive behaviour help to make a good first impression. One thing worth mentioning when entering a meeting, presentation or similar turn off your mobile phone (do not put it on vibrate or silent) Your new acquaintance deserves 100% of your attention. Key points You only have a few seconds to make a good first impression and impossible to change Give each new encounter a good first shot Much of what you need is common sense With an little extra thought and preparation you can make a good first impression great!
  • The Johari window is a communication model that can be used to improve understanding between individuals within a team or in a group setting. Based on disclosure, self-disclosure and feedback, the Johari Window can also be used to improve a group's relationship with other groups./ Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham there are 2 key ideas behind the tool: Individuals can build trust between themselves by disclosing information about themselves: and They can learn about themselves and come to terms with personal issues with the help of feedback from others This can help a team understand the value of self-disclosure and encourage people to give and accept feedback. Done sensitively this can help people build more trusting relationships with one another, solve issues and work more effectively as a team
  • Each person is represented by their own four pane window; Each of these contains and represents personal information – feelings, motivation – about the person , and shows whether the information is known or not known by themselves or other people. The four panes are: Open area What is known by the person about him/her and is also known by others 2. Blind area What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know. This can be simple information or can involve deep issues (ie feelings of inadequacy, incompetence, unworthiness, rejection) which are difficult for individuals to face directly and yet can be seen by others. 3. Hidden or avoided area What the person knows about him/herself that others do not 4. Unknown area What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others The process of enlarging the open quadrant vertically is called self-disclosure, a give and take process between the person and the people he/she interacts with. As information is shared, the boundary with the hidden quadrant moves downwards and as other people reciprocate, trust tends to build between them.
  • Don’t be too ready to disclose, start with small items to build trust, be careful not to disclose things which could damage peoples respect and put you in a vulnerable position. Be careful in the way you give feedback. Some cultures have a very open and accepting approach to feedback, others don’t .You can cause incredible offence if you offer personal feedback to someone who’s not used to it. Be sensitive, and start gradually To learn more about the other individual, disclose more from your hidden pane E.g. You may disclose you like running, the other may add they work out at a gym which is adding an indoor running track to use in the winter. As you levels of confidence and self esteem rises, it is easier to invite others to comment on your blind spots. Obviously active listening skills are useful in this exercise.
  • Established team members will have larger open areas than new members. New members have smaller open areas because they have little shared knowledge. By seeking and actively listening to feedback from the other members open areas can be extended horizontally into the blind space. Group members should strive to assist a team member in expanding their open area by offering constructive feedback. The size of the open area can also be expanded vertically downwards into the hidden or avoided space by the sender’s disclosure of information, feelings etc about himself/herself to the group and group members. Also group members can help a person expand their open areas into the hidden area by asking the sender bout himself/herself. Managers and team leaders play a key role here, facilitating feedback and disclosure among group members and by 0provideni constructive feedback to individuals about their own blind areas.
  • .In most cases the aim in groups should be to develop the open are for every person. Working in this areas with others usually allows for enhanced individual and team effectiveness and productivity. The open area is the space where good communications and cooperation occur, free from confusion, conflict and misunderstanding. Self disclosure is the process by which people expand the open area vertically. Feedback is the process by which people expand this rea horizontally. By encouraging healthy self disclosure and sensitive feedback, you can build a stronger and more effective team.
  • Think of the last really memorable presentation that you attended. Now, was that easy to do or did you really have to rack your brains to remember one? Sadly, too many presentations are easy to forget. And that’s a big problem, because the only reason the presenter gave the talk was to communicate something to you! There are 4 basic things to remember to ensure your verbal messages are understood and remembered, time and time again Somewhat obvious and very simple: Understand the purpose of the presentation Keep the message clear and concise Be prepared Be vivid when delivering the message
  • Before you start working on your presentation its vital that you really understand what you want to say. Who you want to tell and why they might want to hear it. To do this, ask yourself, who?, what?, how?, when?, where?, why? Who are you speaking to? What are their interests, presuppositions and values? What do they share in common with others; how are they unique? What do you wish to communicate? One way of answering this question is to ask yourself about the “ success criteria”. How do you know if and when you have successfully communicated what you have in mind? How can you best convey your message? Language is important here, as are the nonverbal cues discussed earlier. Choose your words and your nonverbal cues with your audience in mind. Plan a beginning, middle and end. If time and place allow consider and prepare audio visual aids. When? Timing is important here. Develop a sense of timing, so that your contributions are seen and heard as relevant to the issue or matter at hand. There is a time to speak and a time to be silent. “It’s better to be silent than sing a bad tune”. Where? What is the physical context of the communication in mind? You may have time to visit the room, for example and rearrange the furniture. Check for availability and visibility if you are using audio or visual aids. Why? In order to convert hearers into listeners. You need to know why they should listen to you and tell them if necessary. What disposes them to listen? That implies that you know yourself why you are seeking to communicate- the value or worth or interest of what you are going to say Keep it simple when it comes to working your message, less is more. Your audience does not need and is not expecting to become experts on the subject just by listening to you! If you are using slides limit the content of each one to a few bullet points, or one statement or a very dimple diagram. Be prepared, preparation is underrated. It is in fact one of the most important factors in determining your communication successes. When possible, set meeting times and speaking and presentation times well in advance, thus allowing yourself the time you need to prepare your communications, mindful of the entire communication process (see slide 2) . By paying close attention to each of these stages and preparing accordingly, you ensure your communications will be more effective and better understood. Not all communications can be scheduled. In this case, preparation may mean having a good thorough understanding of your subject, enabling you to communicate with the knowledge you need to be effective both through verbal and written communications.
  • Your delivery of your speech or presentation will make or break it. No matter how well you’ve prepared and crafted your clear, concise message. Some useful tips for keeping your presentation vivid include: Use examples to bring your points to life Keep your body language up-beat – don’t stay stuck behind a rostrum Don’t talk too fast. Less is more here too. Pauses are effective Use a variety of tones of voice Use visual aids.
  • Many people are intimidated by writing. Even so, there are times when writing is the best way to communicate, and often the only way to get your messages across. When writing remember that once something is in written form it cannot be taken back . Communicating this way is more concrete than verbal communications with less room for error and even less room for mistakes. This presents written communicators with additional challenges including spelling, grammar, punctuation, even wording style and actual wording. Technology today makes memo, letter and proposal writing much easier by providing reliable tools that check and even correct misspelled words and incorrect grammar use. Unfortunately these tools are not foolproof and will require your support, making your knowledge in this area important.
  • Some of the basic tips to remember when writing include: Avoid slang words Try not to use abbreviations Steer away from the symbols Clichés should be avoided or at the least used with caution Brackets are used to play down words or phrases Dashes are generally used for emphasis Great care should ALWAYS be used spelling names of people and companies Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a sentence (e.g.. Ten years ago, my brother and I...). The number 10 or anything greater than 10 should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars). Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around titles of publications Keep sentences short While these tips cover the most common mistakes made when writing letters, memos and reports, they in no way cover everything you need to know to ensure your written communications are accurate and understood. While this takes some practise there are lots of places available to help with writing style, one book is The Elements of Style by Strunk and White a no nonsense guide to writing which is clear, concise and very nifty.
  • When writing letters, it is best to address the letter to an individual. When beginning the letter with a personal name, be sure to end it with an appropriate closing, such as ‘Sincerely yours’. If you cannot obtain an individual’s name, consider ending wit with amore generic (less personal) closing, such as with ‘kindest regards’. For normal business letters, your letter should start with an overall summary, snowing in the first paragraph why the letter is relevant to the reader. It’s not a good practice to make the reader go past the first paragraph to find out why the letter was sent to them. The body of the letter needs to explain the reason for the correspondence, including any relevant background and current information. Make sure the information flows logically ensuring you are making your points effectively. The closing of the letter is the final impression you leave with the reader. End with an action point, such as “I will call you later this week...”
  • Perhaps the most important thing to remember when writing a letter is to check it thoroughly when it is completed. Even when you think it is exactly what you want, read it one more time. This “unwritten” rule holds true for everything you write – memos. Letters. Proposals. Etc. Use both the grammar and spell check on your computer, paying very, very close attention to every word highlighted. Do not place total faith on your computer here. Instead, you should have both a dictionary and thesaurus (printed or online) to hand to double-check everything your computer’s editing tools highlight, as these tools are certainly not always reliable, for a variety of reasons. When checking your written communications , make sure the document is clear and concise. Is there anything in the written communication that could be misinterpreted? Does it raise unanswered questions or fail to make the point you need to get across? Can you cut down on the number of words used? For instance, don’t use 20 words when you can use 10. While you do not want to be curt or abrupt, you do not want to waste the readers' time with unnecessary words or phrases. Is your written communication well organised? Does each idea proceed logically to the next? Would some additional headings help? Make sure your written communications are easy to read and contain the necessary information ,using facts where needed and avoiding information that is not relevant. Again, outline the course of action you expect, such as a return call or visit. Close appropriately, making sure to include your contact information. While this may seem obvious. It is sometimes overlooked and can make your written communications look amateurish. This can diminish your chances of meeting your written communication’s goals.
  • When trying to find an email someone sent you a few weeks back what helps you find it quickly? If it was a long message covering lots of points the chances are it will take a long time to find If it was part of a series of emails replied to back wards and forwards the heading wont relate to what you are looking for. Some simple rules: Newspaper headlines are for 2 things; to grab attention and to inform you of the subject. Email subject lines should do the same thing. Use it to inform the receiver EXACTLY what it is about Everyone gets emails they do not want SPAM, using an appropriate heading increases the chances your email will not be deleted when it is received. You would never have a newspaper without headlines so never leave the subject blank. The beauty of emails is that it doesn’t cost more to send more than one! If you have several matters to discuss, send a separate email on each point. That way the receiver can reply to each point as they have the appropriate information As with traditional letters the email should be clear and concise, kept short and to the point The body of the email should contain all the pertinent information and be direct and informative Make sure to include any call to action you want, such as a phone call or follow up appointment. Then make sure to include your contact information, including your name, title and phone numbers. Do this even with internal messages; the easier you make it for someone else to respond (i.e. if they don’t have to look up your phone number elsewhere), the more likely they are to do so. If you regularly correspond using email make sure to clean out your email in box at least once a day. This is a simple act of courtesy and will also serve to encourage senders to return your emails in a timely manner. If a long response is required to an email but you don’t have time to do it now, send a reply saying you have received it and indicate when you will be able to reply. Always set Out of Office agent when you are going to be away for a day or more. Internal email should be checked regularly throughout the working day and returned in a quicker manner as it often involves timely projects, immediate updates, meeting notes tec. Nonetheless internal emails just like other emails should not be informal. Remember, these are written forms of communication that can be printed out and viewed by others than those originally intended for. Always use your spell checker and avoid slang.
  • If you have poor interpersonal communication skills (which includes active listening) your productivity will suffer simply because you do not have the tools needed to influence, persuade and negotiate, all necessary for workplace success. Lines of communication must be open between people in the workplace in order to get things done Considering this you must be able to listen attentively if you are to perform to expectations, avoid conflict and misunderstanding and to succeed in any arena. Here are a few short tips to help you improve your communication skills and to ensure you are an active listener. Start by understanding your own communication style: Good communication relies on a high level of self awareness. Understanding how you communicate will help you to create good and lasting impressions on others. By knowing how others see you you can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating. It doesn’t mean you have to change for everyone you meet but you can make others more comfortable with you by selecting and emphasising certain behaviours that fit within your personality and resonate with another. In doing this you will prepare yourself to become an active listener. 2.People speak at 100 – 175 words per minute, but they can listen intelligently at up to 300 words per minute. Since only a part of our mind is paying attention it is easy to go into mind drift – thinking about other things while listening to someone. The cure for this is active listening – which involves listening with a purpose. It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others. Solve a problem, share interest, see how another person feels, show support etc. If you are finding it particularly difficult to concentrate on what someone is saying, try repeating their words mentally as they say it – this will reinforce their message and help you control mind drift. 3.Use non verbal behaviours to raise the channel of interpersonal communication. Nonverbal communication is facial expressions like smiles. Gestures, eye contact, and even your posture. This shows the person you are communicating with that you are indeed listening actively and will prompt further communications while keeping costly, time-consuming misunderstandings at a minimum. 4. Remember that what someone says and what we hear can be amazingly different! Our personal filters, assumptions judgements and beliefs can distort what we hear. Repeat back or summarise to ensure that you understand. Restate whet you think you heard and ask, “have I understood you correctly”. If you find yourself responding emotionally to what someone said, say so and ask for more information “I may not be understanding you correctly and I find myself taking what you say personally. What I thought you just said is XYZ; is that what you meant?” Feedback is a verbal communications means used to clearly demonstrate you are actively listening and to confirm the communications between you and others. Obviously, this serves to further ensure the communications are understood and is a great tool to use to verify everything you heard while actively listening.
  • To ensure everyone involved has the opportunity to provided their input, start your meeting off on the right foot by designating a meeting time that allows all participants the time needed to adequately prepare. Once a meeting time and place has been chosen, make yourself available for questions that may arise as participants prepare for the meeting. If you are the meeting leader, make a meeting agenda, complete with detailed notes. In these notes, outline the goal and proposed structure of the meeting and share this with the participants. This will allow all involved to prepare and to come to the meeting ready to work together to meet the goals at hand. The success of the meeting depends largely on the skills displayed by the meeting leader. To ensure the meeting is successful the leader should: Issue an agenda Start the discussion and encourage active participation Work to keep the meeting at a comfortable pace – not moving too fast or too slow Summarise the discussion and the recommendations at the end of each logical section Ensure all participants receive minutes promptly Wile these tips will help ensure your meeting is productive an dwell-received, there are other import and areas that need to be touched on to make sure you rmeetin aand negotiation skills are find tuned;
  • Choosing the right participants is the key to the success of any meeting. There are many different reasons for holding meetings, Interest groups and public meetings, to raise awareness and garner support for a project Inter office meetings, information gathering, working groups, etc Casework meetings, planning meetings for clients and their respective workers Network meetings, fundraising, information giving/receiving, support raising One on one meetings with supervisors, other team members etc Make sure all participants can contribute and choose good decision makers an problem solvers. Try to keep the number of participants to a maximum of 12 preferable fewer. Make sure the people with the necessary information for the items listed in the meeting agenda are the ones that are invited.
  • Stop for a minute and consider the hourly cost to your organisation for the people attending your meeting. You’ll realise that calling a meeting is expensive, so it’s important to ensure that every person attending and every minute of your meeting adds value. So don’t invite people who won't participate but will simply report back to their boss or team (sending a copy of the minutes will be a more effective way of achieving this). Equally, don’t use meetings to tell people things that could be communicated just as effectively as by email or memo. If you are the leader, work diligently to ensure everyone’s thoughts and ideas are heard by guiding he meeting so that there is a free flow of debate with no individual dominating and no extensive discussions between two people. As time dwindles for each item on the distributed agenda. You may find it useful to stop the discussion , then quickly summarise the debate on that agenda item and move on to the next item on the agenda. When an agenda item is resolved or action is agreed upon., make it clear who in the meeting will be responsible for this. In an effort to bypass confusion and misunderstandings, summarise the action to be taken and include this in the meeting’s minutes.
  • Meetings are notorious for eating up people’s time. Here are some ways of ensuring that time is not wasted in meetings: Start on time Don’t recap what you’ve covered if someone comes in late; doing so sends the message that it is OK to be late for meetings and it wastes everyone else’s valuable time State a finish time for the meeting and don’t over run. To help
  • Minutes record the decisions of the meeting and the actions agree, They provide a record of the meeting and importantly, they provide a review document for use at the next meeting so that progress can be measured – this makes them a useful disciplining technique as individuals’ performance and non-performance of agreed actions is given high visibility. The style of the minutes issued depends on the circumstances – in situations of critical importance and where the record is important, you may need to take detailed minutes. Where this is not the case, then minutes can be simple lists of decisions made and of actions to be taken (with the responsible person identified). Generally, they should be as short as possible as long as all key information is shown – this makes them quick and easy to prepare and digest. It is always impressive if the leader of a meeting issues minutes within 24 hours of the end of the meeting – it’s even better if they are issued on the same day
  • Ice breakers can be an effective way of starting a training session or team-building event. As interactive and often fun sessions run before the main proceedings they help people get to know each other and buy into the purpose of the event If an ice breaker session is well designed and well facilitated it can really help get things off to a great start. By getting to know each other, getting to know the facilitators and learning about the objectives of the event. People can become more engaged in the proceedings and so contribute more effectively towards a successful outcome. But have you ever been to an event when the ice breaker session went badly? Just as a great ice breaker session can smooth the way for a great event, so a bad ice breaker session can be a recipe for disaster. A bad ice breaker session is at best simply a waste of time. Or worse an embarrassment for everyone involved. As a facilitator the secret of a successful icebreaking session is to keep it simple. Design the session with specific objectives in mind and make sure the session is appropriate and comfortable for everyone involved. This article helps you think through the objectives of your ice breaker session and then suggests various types of ice breaker you might use. As a facilitator make sure your ice breakers are remembered for the right reasons – as a great start to a great event!
  • As the name suggests an ice breaker session is designed to break the ice at an event or meeting. The technique is often used when people who do not usually work together or may not know each other at all meet for a specific common purpose Consider using an ice breaker when: Participants come from different backgrounds People need to bond quickly so as to work towards a common goal, Your team is newly formed The topics you are discussing are new or unfamiliar to many people involved As facilitator you need to get to know participants and have them know you better
  • When designing your ice breaker, think about the “ice” that needs to be broken; If you are bringing together like-minded people . The “ice” may simply reflect the fact that people have not yet met If you are bringing together people of different grades and levels in your organisation for an open discussion, the “ice” may come from the difference in status between participants If you are bringing together people of different backgrounds, cultures and outlooks for work within your community, then the “ice” may come from people’s perceptions of each other You'll need to handle these differences sensitively. Only focus on what’s important to your event;(Remember, you want to break some ice for your event. Not uncover the whole iceberg, or bring about world peace!) As you move on to design and facilitate the event it’s always best to focus on similarities (rather than differences), such as a shared interest in the event’s outcome.
  • The key to a successful ice breaker is to make sure the ice breaker is specifically focused on meeting your objectives and appropriate to the group of people involved. Once you have established what the “ice” is, the next step is to clarify the specific objectives of your ice breaker session For example. When meeting to solve problems at work; the ice breaker objectives may be: “ To establish a productive working environment for today’s event with good participation from everyone involved, irrespective of their level or job role in the organisation” With clear objectives, you can start to design the session .Ask yourself questions about how you will meet your objectives. For example: “ How will people become comfortable with contributing?” “ How will you establish a level playing field for people with different levels and jobs?” “ How will you create a common sense of purpose?” These questions can be used as a check list once you have designed the ice breaker session: “ Will this ice breaker session help people feel comfortable ... Establish a level playing field etc” As a further check you should also ask yourself how each person is likely to react to the session . Will participants feel comfortable ? Will they feel the session is appropriate and worthwhile?
  • There are many types of ice breakers, each suited to different types of objectives. Here we look at a few of the more popular types of ice breakers and how they can be used. Introductory Ice breakers: Used to introduce participants to each other and to facilitate conversation amongst the participants The Little known fact: ask participants to share their name, country of origin, length of time in Australia and one little known fact about themselves. This little known fact becomes a humanising element that can help break down differences such as status True or false. Ask you participants to introduce themselves and make three or four statements about themselves, one of which is false. Now the rest of the group to vote on which fact is false. As well as getting to k now each other as individuals, this ice breaker helps to start interaction within the group Interviews: Ask participants to get into twos. Each person then interviews his or her partner for a set time while pared up. When the group reconvenes, each person introduces their interviewee to the rest of the group. Problem solvers: ask participants to work in small groups. Create a simple problem scenario for them to work on in a short time. Once the group have analysed the problem and prepared their feedback ask each group in turn to present their analysis and solutions to the wider group Choose a simple scenario that everyone can contribute to . The idea is not to solve a real problem but to “warm up” the group for further interaction or problem solving later in the event. The group will also learn each other’s styles of problem solving and interaction. Team building ice breakers are used to bring together individuals who are in the early stages of team building. This can help the people start working together more cohesively towards shared goals or plans The human web. This ice breaker focuses on how people in the group inter relate and depend on each other; The facilitator begins with a ball or yarn, Keeping one end, pass the ball to one of the participant and the person to introduce him or herself and their role in the organisation .Once this person has made their introduction, ask him or her to pass the ball of yarn on to another person in the group,. The person handing over the ball must describe how he/she relates (or expects to relate) to the other person. The process continues until everyone is introduced To emphasise the interdependencies amongst the team the facilitator then pulls on the starting thread and everyone's hand should move.
  • This exercise creates simple, timed challenge for the team to help focus on shared goals. And also encourages people to included other people The facilitator arranges the group in a circle and asks each person to throw the ball across the circle, first announcing his or her own name and then announcing the name of the person to whom they are throwing the ball (the first few times each person throws the ball to someone whose name they already know. ) When every person in the group has thrown the ball at least once its time to set the challenge- to pass the ball around all group members as quickly as possible. Time the process then ask the group to beat that timing . As the challenge progresses the team will improve the work process, for example by standing closer together. And so the group will learn to work as a team. Hopes fears and expectations Best done when participants already have a good understanding of their challenge as a team. Group people into 2s or 3s and ask people to discuss their expectations for the event or work ahead, then what their fears and hopes are. Gather the groups' response by collating 3 – 4 hopes fears and expectations from pairing or threesome. Topic exploration ice breakers can be used to explore the topic at the outset, or perhaps to change pace and re energize people during the event. Word association. This ice breaker helps people explore the breadth of the area under discussion. Generate a list of words related to the topic of your event or training For example in a health and safety workshop ask participants what words or phrases come to mind relating to “hazardous materials”. Participants may suggest “danger” “corrosive” “flammable” warning” skull and crossbones” etc. Write all suggestions on the board, perhaps clustering by theme, You can use this opportunity to introduce essential terms and discuss the scope (what’s in and what’s out) of your training or event. Burning questions This ice breaker gives each person the opportunity to ask key questions they hope to cover in the event or training. Again you can use this opportunity to discuss key terminology and scope. Be sure to keep the questions and refer back to them as the event progresses and concludes. Brainstorm can be used as an ice breaker or re-energizer during an event. If people are getting bogged down in the detail during problem solving, for example ,you can change pace easily by running a quick fire brainstorming session .If you are looking for answers to customer service problems try brainstorming how to create problems rather than solve them This can help people think creatively again and give the group a boost when energy levels are flagging.
  • Negotiation skills help you to resolve situations where what you want conflicts with what someone else wnat. The aim of negotiation is to explore the situation to find a solution that is acceptable to both parties. There are different styles of negotiation, depending on circumstances. Where you do not expect to deal with people ever again and you do not need their goodwill, then it may be appropriate to “play hardball” seeking to win a negotiation while the other person loses out. Many people go through this when they buy or sell a house – this is why house-buying can be such a confrontational and unpleasant experience. Similarly where there is a great deal at stake in a negotiation (for example in large sales negotiations) then it may be appropriate to prepare in detail and use a certain amount of sublet gamesmanship to gain advantage. Both of these approaches are usually wrong for resolving disputes with people you have an on going relationship with; if one person plays hardball, then this disadvantages the other person – this may, quite fairly, lead to reprisal later, similarly, using tricks and manipulation during a negotiation can severely undermine trust and damage teamwork. While a manipulative person may not get caught out if negotiation is infrequent, this is not the case when people work together on a frequent basis. Honesty and openness are the best policies in this case.
  • Depending on the scale of the disagreement, a level of preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the others person’s. If a major disagreement needs to be resolved, then it can be worth preparing thoroughly. Think through the following points before you start negotiating and note down you ideas on the Negotiation Worksheet from your Worksheets and Templates supplement Goals :What do you want to get out of the negotiation? What do you expect the other person to want? Trades: What do you and the other person have that you can trade? What do you each have that the other might want? What might you each be prepared to give away? Alternatives: If you don’t reach agreement with the other person, what alternatives do you have? Are these good or bad? How much dies it matter if you do not reach agreement? Does failure tr reach an agreement cut you out of future opportunities? What alternatives might the other person have?
  • What is the history of the relationship ? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may : What outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation? What has the outcome been in the past and what precedents have influence the negotiation? How will you handle these? Expected outcome s been set? The consequences : What are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation? What are the consequences for the other person? Power : Who has what power in the relationship? Who controls ,resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn't reached? What power does the other person have to deliver what you hope for? Possible solutions : Based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be?
  • For a negotiation to be win-win. Both parties should feel positive about the situation when the negotiation is concluded. This helps to maintain a good working relationship afterwards. This governs the style of the negotiation – histrionics and displays of emotion are clearly inappropriate because they undermine the rational basis of the negotiation and because they bring a manipulative aspect to them Despite this, emotion can be an important subject of discussion because people’s emotional needs must fairly be met. If emotion is not discussed where it needs to be, then the agreement reached can be unsatisfactory and temporary. Be as detached as possible when discussing your own emotions – perhaps discuss them as if they belong to someone else.
  • The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. People’s positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear – the other person may quite often have very different goals from the ones you expect! In an ideal situation you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants If this is not the case and one person must give way, then it is fair for this person to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so – the scale of this compensation will often depend on many of the factors we discussed above. Ultimately both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win Only consider win-lose negotiation if you don’t need to have an ongoing relationship with the other party as, having lost they are unlikely to want to work with you again. Equally you should expect that if they need to fulfil some part of the deal in which you have ‘won’ over them, they will probably be fairly uncooperative about it.
  • Speaking to an audience can be fun & exciting. However, lack of preparation or not clearly defining the presentation's goals and its audience can make even the best intended presentation a complete disaster. To ensure your presentation is effective, first determine your objective. Ask yourself, why am I giving the presentation? What do I want the audience to take away from the presentation? Second, determine your audience, Their familiarity with the presentation topic will determine the level at which you present your speech. Once you have determined your presentation’s objective and overall goal as well as the audience its time to structure your presentation. You will need to start this process by determining the length of the presentation. Take allotted time and break it into smaller segments, with each segment tackling a specific task (all of which reflect the overall objective of the presentation). For example the first segment should be the presentation introduction. In this segment, you should give an overview of your presentation or a short summary of your speech explaining the topic, why you are covering this topic and what you hope to accomplish. The next segment should tackle the first item on your agenda. With the following segment tackling the following item on your agenda, and so on Once you have developed the introduction and outlined the following segments, spend some time thinking about the conclusion of the presentation. The introduction of the presentation and the conclusion of the presentation are the most important parts and should have the strongest impact.
  • Keep presentation short and simple. Your audience will not remember every point of your presentation, so highlight the most important parts. The longer the presentation . The higher the risk of boredom When in doubt use the “tell ‘em’ structure: Tell them what your are going to tell them (i.e. In this presentation will show you...) Tell them the key points expanding and illustrating each one, clearly and concisely Tell them what you have told them (i.e. In closing... Or In summary...) and conclude. Next consider the use of visual aids. Slide projectors, data projectors, video machines, DVDs etc. All should be tested out before hand to make sure they are operating correctly and that you k now how to use them. Make sure you do not put too much information on one visual. Good rule of thumb is 6 lines or less. Make sure the graphics are large enough to be seen from the back of the room and that the colours are clear with the lighting in the room. Much of your authority will be judged on the quality of your slides – make the design support the style of your message Overheads should be clearly marked Flip charts can be prepared in advance where possible. When done in class make the writing big enough for all to see Do not turn your back on your audience. Position yourself so you can use the visuals while facing the audience
  • If possible visit the room well in advance. Determine the seating (circles encourage interaction, rows discourage interaction etc). Know how the AV works. Consider the lighting, space, temperature of the room. Are you going to provide pens and paper, water and glasses? If you are speaking for more than an hour, toilet breaks will be necessary You do not need to memorise the presentation but you do need to make yourself very familiar by having several practise runs. The more you rehearse the more confident you will be and fluent you will seem. You will come across loud and clear. If you are in doubt or nervous stay focussed on your purpose – helping your audience understand your message, Direct your thoughts to the subject at hand. The audience has come to hear your presentation and you will succeed! Tips to help make your presentation a smashing success! Avoid too many statistics and confusing information in your presentation. Instead, put this information in a handout for participants to refer to at a later date. If you forget your words, pause for a moment and remember your objective. While the works may not come right back to you. This will help keep you on track and may even help you to think of additional thoughts and ideas your audience will benefit from hearing. Visualise yourself succeeding, Begin by breathing, Before the presentation focus on the needs of the audience Take a public speaking course at a local college or uni. They are often offered at night and can be inexpensive providing you with important skills to enhance your confidence. Videotape yourself making the presentation. Then run through it and make alterations if necessary
  • Introduction to communication skills

    1. 1.
    2. 2.  Get the message across Sender and receiver Open to misinterpretation Successfully convey thoughts and ideas Cited as single most important factor Must understand what your message is
    3. 3. The communication process Source Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver
    4. 4.  Commit to breaking down barriers Too disorganised, errors Poor verbal or body language Too much information, too fast Understand different cultures
    5. 5.  How long for a first impression? With every new encounter you make a new first impression Be on time Be yourself, be at ease Present yourself appropriately
    6. 6.  Individuality A winning smile! Be open and confident Small talk goes a long way Be positive Be courteous and attentive Key points
    7. 7.  A communication model to improve understanding Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham Two key ideas ◦ Individuals can build trust by disclosure ◦ Learn and come to terms with personal issues Helps to build more trusting relationships
    8. 8. Ask Known by self Open area 1.Unknown by self 2.Blind area FeedbackTell Shared Discovery Self disclosure Self discovery3.Unknown by others 4.Unknown area
    9. 9.  Start with small items to build trust Be cautious giving feedback; use cultural consideration To learn more, disclose more E.g. Runners & exercise As confidence rises, more trust is built up and more can be disclosed
    10. 10.  Established team members have more open areas Assist new team members to expand their open areas by offering feedback Use open questions to ask the new member about themselves.
    11. 11.  Aim to develop open areas for every person This allows for enhanced effectiveness & productivity Self-disclosure = open area vertically Feedback + open area horizontally Builds a stronger more effective team
    12. 12.  Think of a memorable presentation Easy to forget = big problem! 4 basic things: ◦ Understand the purpose ◦ Clear and concise ◦ Prepared ◦ Vivid when delivering
    13. 13.  Before you start: ◦ Who? ◦ What? ◦ How? ◦ When? ◦ Where? ◦ Why? Keep it simple Be prepared
    14. 14.  Useful tips to keep it vivid: ◦ Use examples ◦ Don’t stand still ◦ Speak slowly ◦ Change the pitch of your voice ◦ Use visual aids
    15. 15.  Before you write it down, know this ◦ Don’t be intimidated Write with caution! ◦ It cannot be taken back ◦ Less room for error ◦ Spelling, grammar, punctuation ◦ Style and wording Technology makes it easier ◦ Spell check, grammar check. These tools are not foolproof!
    16. 16.  Some basic tips to remember: ◦ Avoid slang (goodeye) ◦ Avoid abbreviations (TWNH) ◦ Steer away from symbols (@) ◦ Use clichés with caution ◦ Brackets are used to play down words ◦ Dashes are used for emphasis ◦ Spell names of people & companies’ correctly ◦ <10 in numbers, >in words ◦ Quotations should be used ◦ Keep sentences short
    17. 17.  Address to an individual End with appropriate closing ◦ “Sincerely yours” ◦ “With kindest regards” Start with overall summary Body to explain reasons End with final impression Action point ◦ “I will call you later this week...”
    18. 18.  Check it thoroughly Use grammar and spell checks Any unanswered questions? Don’t use 20 words when you can use ten Is it set out logically? Close appropriately Include contact information
    19. 19.  Simple rules to ensure your emails are read and stay useful! ◦ Subject lines are headlines ◦ Make one point per email ◦ Specify the response you want ◦ Be a good correspondent Internal email ◦ Checked regularly ◦ Use spell check and avoid slang
    20. 20.  Hear what people are really saying Understand your own communication style Be an active listener Use nonverbal communication Give feedback
    21. 21.  Wonderful tool for: ◦ Generating ideas ◦ Expanding on thoughts and managing groupsNeeds adequate preparation and leadership
    22. 22.  Start by designating a meeting time ◦ Make an agenda ◦ Outline goal and structure The skills needed: o Agenda o Active participation o Keep it moving o Summarise o Prompt minutes
    23. 23.  How many to invite? ◦ Interest groups ◦ Inter office meetings ◦ Casework meetings ◦ Network meetings ◦ One on one meetings Make sure all can contribute ◦ Decision – makers ◦ Problem solvers Maximum 12 Invite the right people
    24. 24.  Consider the hourly cost Every person + every minute = Value Use minutes to inform Use email rather than have a meetingIf you are the leader: Ensure everyone is heard Free flow, no domination Keep to time Summarise and move on! Action item on minutes!
    25. 25.  Tips to ensure time is not wasted ◦ Start on time ◦ Don’t recap for latecomers ◦ State a finish time Arrange the agenda Finish before if possible
    26. 26.  Record of decisions made and actions agreed Record of the meeting, measure of progress Performance measure Styles of minutes ◦ Detailed minutes ◦ Simple list ◦ Short as possible Issued within, at the most, 24 hours!
    27. 27.  Help people get to know each other Become more engaged and contribute more Bad one is a waste of time! Keep it simple Suggestions
    28. 28.  Break the ice ◦ Participants from different backgrounds ◦ Need to bond quickly ◦ New team ◦ New or unfamiliar topics ◦ The facilitator needs to get to know the participants
    29. 29.  Think about the ice that needs to be broken ◦ People have not yet met ◦ Difference in status between participants ◦ People’s perceptions of each other Handle sensitively Focus on this event ◦ Shared interests in the outcome
    30. 30.  Focus on meeting your objectives Clarify specific objectives for the session ◦ Ie to establish a productive working environment ◦ Good participation from all levels Ask how you will meet objectives ◦ Becoming comfortable ◦ Level playing field ◦ Common sense of purpose Use as a check list ◦ Ask yourself
    31. 31.  Introductory ice breakers The little known fact True or false Interviews Problem solvers Team building Human web
    32. 32.  Ball challenge Hope, fears expectations Topic exploration ice breakers Word association Burning questions Brainstorm
    33. 33.  Negotiation – ◦ Conflict, exploring situations to find acceptable solutions for everyone Styles – ◦ Play hardball ◦ Subtle gamesmanship ◦ Honesty & openness
    34. 34.  Small disagreements = don’t take too much time Major disagreements = prepare thoroughly Goals ◦ What do you want/expect? Trades ◦ What do you both have to give away? Alternatives ◦ Good or bad, does it matter?
    35. 35.  Relationships – history, hidden issues Expected outcomes – what precedents have been set? The consequences – for you, for the other person? Power – Who has it? Control? Over delivery? Possible solutions – considerations & compromises
    36. 36.  Win – win = both parties feel positive Histrionics and displays of emotions Emotion can be important Be as detached as possible
    37. 37.  Careful exploration of yours and the other persons position Finding a mutually acceptable compromise Be prepared to give and take Both sides must feel comfortable Win-lose only if you don’t need an ongoing relationship
    38. 38.  Communicate complex ideas successfully ◦ Prepare ◦ Define goals & audience Preparation – The key to successful speaking ◦ Why am I giving the presentation? ◦ What do I want the audience to take away? How to structure your presentation ◦ Determine the length ◦ Break into segments ◦ Think about the conclusion
    39. 39.  Achieving clarity and impact ◦ Tell them what you are going to tell them ◦ Tell them the key points ◦ Tell them what you have told them Reinforce your message with visual aids ◦ Test all AV beforehand ◦ 6 lines or less ◦ Do not turn your back on the audience
    40. 40.  Arranging the room ◦ Visit the room, determine seating, lighting, temperature. Pads, pens, glasses. ◦ Rehearse to make you fluent ◦ Stay focussed Tips & techniques ◦ Avoid too many statistics ◦ If you forget, pause! ◦ Visualise, breathe ◦ Take a course ◦ Video yourself!
    41. 41.  Presentation ◦ Grab attention, explain objectives ◦ Clearly define points ◦ In logical sequence ◦ Flow well ◦ Need support from AV ◦ Summarise clearly and concisely ◦ Strong conclusion, tied into the introduction
    42. 42. Delivery • Are you knowledgeable? • Notes in order • Where and how? • Made a visit? • Checked AV Appearance • Dress appropriately • Practise speech, body language & posture Visual Aids • easy to understand • tied to the points • Seen from every angle of the room
    43. 43.  Adapted in part from Business Communications: A cultural and Strategic Approach by Michael J Rouse and Sandra Rouse