A. Definition of Classroom Action
Action research is a process in which participants
examine their own educational practice
systematically and carefully, using the techniques
of research (Ferrance, 2000 : 1)
• According to Altrichter, Feldman, Posch & Somekh
(2008:9) (as cited in Spector, Merrill, Elen & Bishop,
2014) defined that action research is a cyclical or
spiraling process “that integrates theory with practice,
through reflection and action planning”.
• The process includes a series of steps including posing a
question, collecting and analyzing data, and reporting
B. The aim of Classroom Action Research
Burns (2000) (as cited in Hien, 2009:98)
• A means of remedying problems in a specific situations or
somewhat improving a given set of circumstances.
• A means of in-service training by equipping the teachers with
new skills and methods, sharpening analytical powers and
• A means of injecting additional or innovatory approaches to
teaching and learning into an ongoing system which normally
inhibits innovation and change.
• A means of improving the normally poor
communications between the practising teachers
and the academic researchers and of remedying
the failure of traditional research to give clear
• A means of providing a preferable alternative to
the more subjective, impressionistic approach to
problem-solving in the classroom.
C. Characteristics of Classroom Action
Based on Burns (2000:444):
1. Action research is situational – diagnosing a problem in
a specific context and attempting to solve it in that
2. It is collaborative, with teams of rsearchers and
practicioners working together.
3. It is participatory, as team members take part directly
in implementing the research.
4. It is self evaluative – modifications are continuosly
evaluated within the ongoing situation to improve
D. The Principles of Classroom Action
• Winter’s (1996, pp.13-14) explained about six key
principles of action research (as cited in Cohen, Manion &
Morrison, 2007) :
1. Reflexive critique, which is the process of becoming aware
of our own perceptual biases
2. Dialectical critique, which is a way of understanding the
relationships between the elements that make up various
phenomena in our context
3. Collaboration, which is intended to mean that everyone’s
view is taken as a contribution to understanding the
4. Risking disturbance, which is an understanding of our own
taken-for-granted processess and willingness to submit
them to critique
• Creating plural structures, which involves developing
various accounts and critiques, rather than a single
• Theory and practice internalized, which is seeing theory
and practices as two interdependent yet complementary
phases of the change process
E. Types of Classroom Action
• Definition of CAR types based on Creswell (2012):
1. Practical Action Research
Teacher seek to research problems in their own
classroom so that they can improve their students’
learning and their own professioanl performance.
• An elementary teacher studies the disruptive behavior
of a child in her classroom.
• A team composed of students, teachers and parents
studies the result of implementing a new math program
in the junior high.
• A community college instructor studies his
professional development using technology in
2. Participatory action research
Participatory action research has a social and
community orientation and an emphasis on
research that contributes to emacipation or
change in our society.
• Tests that label and stereotype students
• Texts that omit important historical persons or
events of cultural and ethnic groups
• Assessments that serve to confirm student failure
rather than learning
• K-12 classroom interactions that silence or quiet the
voices of minority students
F. Model of Classroom Action Research
(Adapted from Kemmis and Mc Taggart in Arikunto 2010:137)
G. Research Procedure
Planning in action research is constructive
and arises during discussion by the
participants. The plan must cover critically
examined action by each of participants and
included the method of evaluating the changes
implemented to solve the problem situation
Acting is the implementation of
the planning which consists of some
achievable steps that the researcher
has to do in the research.
Observation in action research is
portion of action research where the
changes outlined in the plan are
observed and determined their effects
on the context of situation. Here the
instrument to collect the data should be
After carrying out the teaching and
learning activities, the researcher in
this stage evaluates the result to see the
effectiveness of the action program. By
conducting the reflection, the
researcher will find whether it is
necessary to conduct another cycle.
H. Data Collection Strategies based on Ary, Jacobs,
Sorenson & Razavieh (2010)
• Field notes
• Other Collection Strategies
• Written Responses
• Performance measure
• Other collection strategies
• Student Information
• Teacher records
• Teaching materials
• District/school artifact
• Other archival sources
I. Data Analysis
Based on Spector Merrill, Elen & Bishop (2014):
• Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis can provide a rich
descriptions of the subject under study. To
manage the amount of data, field notes and audio
or video recordings should be transcribed into a
workable format for data analysis.
I. Advantages of Classroom Action `
Gay and Airasian (as cited in Hien, 2009)
• Teachers investigate their own practice in new ways, looking
deeper in what they and their students actually do and fail to
• Teachers develop a deeper understanding of students, the
teacher learning process and their role in the education of
both teachers and students.
• Teachers are viewed as equal partners in deciding what
works best and what needs improvement in their classroom
• In most cases, solutions for identified problems are arrived
cooperatively among teachers.
• Teachers are often more committed to action research
because they identify the areas they view as problematical
and in need of change.
• Action research is an ongoing process and its strategies
can be widely applied.
• Professional development and school improvement are
core aspects for any teacher who engages in action
• Teacher refelection can be conducted individually or in a
school-based team composed of students, teachers and
J. Disadvantages of Classroom Action
1. Lack of knowledge and skills in basic engineering
research on the part of researchers.
2. Action research requires a commitment of
researchers to engage in the process, this time factor
can be a big obstacle.
3. The weakness of the conception of the group
4. Difficulty getting people to make changes.
• Ferrance, Eileen. (2000). Themes in Education; Action Research. USA:
Northeast and islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
• Hien, T. T. (2009). Why is action research suitable for education?. Vietnam:
VNU Journal of Science.
• Spector J. M., Merrill M. D., Elen J., Bishop M. J., (2014). Handbook of
Research on Educational Communications and Technology (4th ed.). USA:
• Burns R. B., (2000). Introduction to Research Methods (4th ed.). Australia,
Pearson Education Australia.
• Creswell J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and
Educating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4rd ed.). Boston: Pearson
• Cohen L., Manion L., and Morrison K. (2007). Research Methods in
Education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge.
• Anne Burns. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language
Teaching : A Guide for Practitioner. New York: Routledge.
• Ary D., Jacobs L. C., Sorenson & Razavieh. (2010). Introduction to
Research in Education. USA: Wadsworth cengage learning.
• Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2010). Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: P.T Rineka
Name: Rafika Nurhidayah
Name: Jazilatul Adawiyah