Influenza A(H1 N1)

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Influenza A(H1 N1)

  1. 1. Influenza A(H1N1)
  2. 2. Influenza A(H1N1) <ul><li>A subtype of influenza A virus and was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. </li></ul><ul><li>Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Influenza A(H1N1) <ul><li>The termed novel H1N1 flu since it is mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). Recent investigations show the eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>fever, which is usually high, but unlike seasonal flu, is sometimes absent </li></ul><ul><li>cough </li></ul><ul><li>runny nose or stuffy nose </li></ul><ul><li>sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>body aches </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>chills </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue or tiredness, which can be extreme </li></ul><ul><li>diarrhea and vomiting, sometimes, but more commonly seen than with seasonal flu </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transmission <ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Cough or sneeze </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe in the virus or touch something with the virus on it and then touch their own face </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevention <ul><li>Washing of hands with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizers </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfecting household surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Not touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands </li></ul><ul><li>Use Alcohol-based gel or foam hand sanitizers </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone with flu-like symptoms should stay away from work or public transportation and should contact a doctor for advice </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diagnosis <ul><li>Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a laboratory technique commonly used in molecular biology to generate many copies of a DNA sequence, a process termed &quot;amplification &quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>antigen detection tests that detect influenza viral nucleoprotein antigen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Swine Flu high risk group <ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Children under age two years old </li></ul><ul><li>People with chronic medical problems, such as chronic lung disease, like asthma, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Children and adults with obesity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clinical Care <ul><li>People who either have, or are suspected or having the virus, should be considered potentially contagious for a period of seven days from the date of illness onset. </li></ul><ul><li>People who continue to exhibit symptoms of illness for a period of time that extends past seven days should be considered contagious until their symptoms have resolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Children; younger children in particular, have the potential to remain contagious for longer periods of time. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Treatment <ul><li>Use antiviral drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamiflu (oseltamivir) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relenza (zanamivir) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supportive care at home or in hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Antiviral medications </li></ul><ul><li>Bed rest </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics and antipyretics - aspirin, paracetamol, codeine and NSAID's </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>Prophylaxis - Immunisation for high risk patients and health care personnel </li></ul>

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