Developmental dysplasiahip


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Developmental dysplasiahip

  1. 1. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip JAYANT SHARMA M.S, DNB, MNAMS.
  2. 2. Definition DDH is a spectrum of disorders. Hip can be • Dislocated • Dislocatable • Subluxatable • Dysplastic
  3. 3. • Previously known as congenital dislocation of the hip implying a condition that existed at birth • developmental encompasses embryonic, fetal and infantile periods • includes congenital dislocation and developmental hip problems including subluxation, dislocation and dysplasia
  4. 4. Normal Growth and Development • Embryologically the acetabulum, femoral head develop from the same primitive mesenchymal cells • cleft develops in precartilaginous cells at 7th week and this defines both structures • 11wk hip joint fully formed • acetabular growth continues throughout intrauterine life with development of labrum • birth femoral head deeply seated in acetabulum by surface tension of synovial fluid and very difficult to dislocate • in DDH this shape and tension is abnormal in addition to capsular laxity
  5. 5. • The cartilage complex is 3D with triradiate medially and cup-shaped laterally • interposed between ilium above and ischium below and pubis anteriorly • acetabular cartilage forms outer 2/3 cavity and the non-articular medial wall form by triradiate cartilage which is the common physis of these three bones • fibrocartilaginous labrum forms at margin of acetabular cartilage and joint capsule inserts just above its rim
  6. 6. • articular cartilage covers portion articulating with femoral head opposite side is a growth plate with degenerating cells facing towards the pelvic bone it opposes • triradiate cartilage is triphalanged with each side of each limb having a growth plate which allows interstitial growth within the cartilage causing expansion of hip joint diameter during growth • In the infant the greater trochanter, proximal femur and intertrochanteric portion is cartilage • 4-7 months proximal ossification center appears which enlarges along cartilaginous anlage until adult life when only thin layer of articular cartilage persists
  7. 7. Development contd. • Experimental studies in humans with unreduced hips suggest the main stimulus for concave shape of the acetabulum is presence of spherical head • for normal depth of acetabulum to increase several factors play a role – spherical femoral head – normal appositional growth within cartilage – periosteal new bone formation in adjacent pelvic bones – development of three secondary ossification centers • normal growth and development occur through balanced growth of proximal femur, acetabulum and triradiate cartilages and the adjacent bones
  8. 8. At Birth • Teratological Dislocation occurs in – Arthrogryposis – Neuromuscular disorders – Diastrophic Dwarfism • Typical DDH – Child is otherwise normal – This presentation is about DDH in an otherwise normal child
  9. 9. Aetiology is Multifactorial • Environmental & Mechanical – Breech Presentation DDH Cases (16%): All deliveries (3%) – Birth Order >50% Cases 1st. Born – Oligohydramnios – Sex Ratio (Relaxin) F(4 - 6) : M(1) – Side L(2) : R(1) – Bilateral 35 % – Nursing Habits
  10. 10. Aetiology- Breech • Only 3% of children are Breech presentation • 16% of DDH cases are breech • Extended breech has 20% risk of DDH • Footling breech 2% • If have LSCS still at risk
  11. 11. Aetiology-Ligamentous Laxity • Maternal Relaxin hormones crosses the placenta and induce hip capsule laxity in infant and this effect is much stronger in females.
  12. 12. Aetiology - Genetic Factors • Genetic – There is an unknown genetic factor – Runs in families – Risk to next child increases as follows: • If one child is affected risk is 6% • Parent 10%, • Parent and child 36% • Genetic Predisposition (Wynne Davies) – Families with Generalised Ligament Laxity – Families with Acetabular Dysplasia
  13. 13. Aetiology- Nursing • Rare in China, Asia, Africa (carry children with hips flexed and abducted) • High in native American (Used to nurse with legs extended) • Klisic reduced DDH by 65% in Belgrade by routine use of abduction diapering
  14. 14. Associated conditions Quoted risk of DDH with following conditions: • Child with Torticollis* 15-20% • Metatarsus adductus 10% • Calcaneovalgus 10% *Hummer C, MacEwenG:The coexistence of torticollis and congenital dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg 1972; 54-A:1255.
  15. 15. • Breech positioning • Family history (Treatment with Harness/Spica/Surgery, not double nappies) • Foot deformity • Infantile muscular torticollis • ?Oligohydramnios Risk Factors
  16. 16. Etiology • Genetic and ethnic • increased native Americans but very low in southern Chinese and Africans • positive family history 12-33% • 10x risk if affected parent, 7X if sibling • intrauterine factors – breech position ( normal pop’n 2-4% , DDH 17-23% ) – oligohydroamnios – neuromuscular conditions like myelomeningocele • high association with intrauterine molding abnormalities including metatarsus adductus and torticollis • first born • female baby ( 80% cases) • left hip more common
  17. 17. Epidemiology • 1 in 100 newborns examined have evidence of instability ( positive Barlow or Ortolani) • 1 in 1000 live births true dislocation • most detectable at birth in nursery • Barlow stated that 60% stabilize in 1st week and 88% stabilize in first 2 months without treatment remaining 12% true dislocations and persist without treatment • Coleman26% become dislocated, 13% partial contact 39% located but dysplatic features 22% normal
  18. 18. Incidence• Caucasians – 1.7/1000 Von Rosen, 1962 – 1.5/1000 Barlow, 1962 • Native Americans – 188.5/1000 Walker, 1973 • Native Africans – 0/1000 Edelstein, 1966 • Chinese – 0.1/1000 Hoagland, 1981
  19. 19. Incidence • 1-2/1000 Live births • Hip instability (phys) at birth: 1-2% • Barlow JBJS1962 – 1 in 60 born with instability – 60% resolve in the 1st week – 88% resolve in 1st 2 months – Remaining 12% are true dislocations ~1.5/1000
  20. 20. DDH --PATHOLOGY • Tight fit between head and acetabulum is absent and head can glide in and out of acetabulum • hypertrophied ridge of acetabular cartilage in superior, posterior and inferior aspects of acetabulum called “ neolimbus” • often a trough or grove in this cartilage due to pressure from femoral head or neck • 98% DDH that occur around or at birth have these changes and are reversible in the newborn • 2% newborns with teratologic or antenatal dislocations and no syndrome have these changes
  21. 21. • Development in treated DDH different from normal hip • goal is to reduce the femoral head ASAP to provide the stimulus for acetabular development • if concentric reduction is maintained potential for recovery and resumption of normal growth
  22. 22. • Age at which DDH hip can still return to normal is controversial depends on –age at reduction –growth potential of acetabulum –damage to acetabulum from head or during reduction
  23. 23. • Accessory centers seen in 2-3% normal hips however in treated DDH seen up to 60% appearing ages 6 months to 10 years ( should look for these on radiographs to indicate continued growth)
  24. 24. Diagnosis • Clinical risk factors • Physical exam – Ortolani Test • hip flexion and abduction , trochanter elevated and femoral head glides into acetabulum – Barlow Test • provocative test where hip flexed and adducted and head palpated to exit the acetabulum partially or completely over a rim – some base there treatment on whether ortolani+ versus Barlow+ feeling Barlow + more stable – Lovell and Winter make no distinction – 2% extreme complete irreducible teratologic disloactions assoc with other conditions like arthrogyposis
  25. 25. Late Diagnosis • Secondary adaptive changes occur • limitation of abduction due to adductor longus shortening • Galleazi sign – flex both hips and one side shows apparent femoral shortening • asymmetry gluteal, thigh or labial folds • limb-length inequailty • waddling gait and hyperlordosis in bilateral cases
  26. 26. Screening for DDH • Controversial • Methods – Clinical – U.S. Scan – Selective vs. Universal Ultrasound screening programme
  27. 27. Aim of screening • Early detection leads to: – simple treatment, less duration, more favourable results, less complications. • Reduces late presentation • Reduces surgical intervention
  28. 28. Clinical screening • Introduced in 1969 • Updated in 1986 (SMAC) • Standard programme – Barlow’s/Ortolani’s tests done on every child at birth and then at 6-8 weeks. • Continued surveillance until walking normally
  29. 29. Clinical screening • Barlow’s/Ortolani’s Tests – Specificity- 100% – Sensitivity- 60% Because of low sensitivity: – False-positive test results in Over-treatment – False negative test results in Late-presentation
  30. 30. Ultrasound Screening • High Specificity and Sensitivity: >90% • Helps in diagnosis of not only Subluxated/ Dislocated hips but also Dysplastic hips
  31. 31. Ultrasound • Helps in accurate diagnosis • Helps in Monitoring the treatment • Reduces the need for Arthrograms / Xrays.
  32. 32. Ultrasound Screening • Techniques: 1) Static (Graf)* 2) Dynamic (Harcke)** 3) Combination *JPO 1983; 3: 354-95 **JBJS 1985;67B: 406-12
  33. 33. Screening Programme • Selective- Only High risk group of infants is referred- More common in UK • Population (Universal or Routine)- All infants are referred for Ultrasound- More common in European countries
  34. 34. Indications for selective screening • Clicky hip (B/O)? (Clunk) • Breech • Pos. Family History - Harness/Spica/Surgery (not double nappies) • Sternomastoid tumour/ Torticollis • Foot deformities • ?Oligohydramnios
  35. 35. Other reasons for referral after first few weeks • Asymmetric skin folds (not very good indicator on its own) • Limited Abduction • Leg length discrepancy – May be only signs later until abnormal gait is noticed when walking (too late)
  36. 36. Selective hip screening clinic • General Examination: -Plagiocephaly, -Sternomastoid Tumour (Torticollis), -Spine for cutaneous manifastations of dyspharism -Feet for any congenital deformity
  37. 37. Selective Hip screening clinic • Hip Examination -Barlow’s test (<3-4 months of age) -Ortolani’s test (<3-4 months of age) -Limitation of Abduction -Leg length discrepancy (Galleazi test) -Asymmetry of thigh folds - Limp in a walking child
  38. 38. Selective Hip screening clinic • Children <6 months have ultrasound using Graf classification system Class Alpha angle Description I >60 Normal II 60-43 Immature/Dysplastic III <43 Subluxed/Dislocated IV Unmeasurable Dislocated • Children >6 months have Xrays.
  39. 39. Radiography • Ultra sound • morphologic assessment and dynamic – anatomical characteristics • alpha angle: slope of superior aspect bony acetabulum • beta angle: cartilaginous component (problems with inter and intraobserver error ) – dynamic • observe what occurs with Barlow and ortolani testing • indications controversial due to high levels of overdiagnosis and not currently recommended as a routine screening tool other than in high risk patients • best indication is to assess treatment – guided reduction of dislocated hip or check reduction and stability during Pavlik harness treatment
  40. 40. Radiography con’td • newborn period DDH not a radiographic diagnosis and should be made by clinical exam • after newborn period diagnosis should be confirmed by xray • several measurements • treatment decisions should be based on changes in measurements
  41. 41. Radiological Diagnosis • Classic Features – increased acetabular index ( n=27, >30-35 dysplasia) – disruption shenton line ( after age 3-4 should be intact on all views) – absent tear drop sign – delayed appearance ossific nucleus and decreased femoral head coverage – failure medial metaphyseal beak of proximal femur , secondary ossification center to be located in lower inner quadrant – center-edge angle useful after age 5 ( < 20) when can see ossific nucleus
  42. 42. Pe
  43. 43. Natural History in Newborns • Barlow – 1 in 60 infants have instability ( positive Barlow) – 60% stabilize in 1st week – 88% stabilize in 2 months without treatment – 12 % become true dislocations and persist • Coleman – 23 hips < 3 months – 26% became dislocated – 13 % partial contact with acetabulum – 39% located but dysplastic feature – 22% normal • because not possible to predict outcome all infants with instability should be treated
  44. 44. Adults • Variable • depends on 2 factors – well developed false acetabulum ( 24 % chance good result vs 52 % if absent) – bilaterality • in absence of false acetabulum patients maintain good ROM with little disability • femoral head covered with thick elongated capsule • false acetabulum increases chances degenerative joint disease • hyperlordosis of lumbar spine assoc with back pain • unilateral dislocation has problems – leg length inequality, knee deformity , scoliosis and gait disturbance
  45. 45. Dysplasia and Subluxation • Dysplasia (anatomic and radiographic def’n) – inadequate dev of acetabulum, femoral head or both – all subluxated hips are anatomically dysplastic • radiologically difference between subluxated and dysplastic hip is disruption of Shenton’s line – subluxation: line disrupted, head is superiorly, superolaterally ar laterally displaced from the medial wall – dysplasia: line is intact • important because natural history is different
  46. 46. Natural History Con’t • Subluxation predictably leads to degenerative joint disease and clinical disability – mean age symptom onset 36.6 in females and 54 in men – severe xray changes 46 in female and 69 in males • Cooperman – 32 hips with CE angle < 20 without subluxation – 22 years all had xray evidence of DJD – no correlation between angle and rate of development – concluded that radiologically apparent dysplasia leads to DJD but process takes decades
  47. 47. Treatment 0 to 6 months • Goal is obtain reduction and maintain reduction to provide optimal env’t for femoral head and acetabular development • Lovell and Winter – treatment initiated immediately on diagnosis • AAOS (July,2000) – subluxation often corrects after 3 weeks and may be observed without treatment – if persists on clinical exam or US beyond 3 weeks treatment indicated – actual dislocation diagosed at birth treatment should be immediate
  48. 48. Treatment con’t • Pavlik Harness preferred – prevents hip extension and adduction but allows flexion and abduction which lead to reduction and stabilization – success 95% if maintained full time six weeks – > 6 months success < 50% as difficult to maintain active child in harness
  49. 49. Pavlik Harness • Chest strap at nipple line • shoulder straps set to hold cross strap at this level • anterior strap flexes hip 100- 110 degrees • posterior strap prevents adduction and allow comfortable abduction • safe zone arc of abduction and adduction that is between redislocation and comfortable unforced abduction
  50. 50. Pavlik con’t • Indications include presence of reducible hip femoral head directed toward triradiate cartilage on xray • follow weekly intervals by clinical exam and US for two weeks if not reduced other methods pursued • once successfully reduced harness continued for childs age at stability + 3 months • worn full time for half interval if stability continues and then weaned off • end of weaning process xray pelvis obtained and if normal discontinue harness
  51. 51. Complications • Failure – poor compliance , inaccurate position and persistence of inadequate treatment ( > 2-3- weeks) – subgroup where failure may be predictable Viere et al • absent Ortolani sign • bilateral dislocations • treatment commenced after age 7 week – Treatment closed reduction and Spica Casting • Femoral Nerve Compression 2 to hyperflexion • Inferior Dislocation • Skin breakdown • Avascular Necrosis
  52. 52. 6 months to 2 years age • Closed reduction and spica cast immobilization recommended • traction controversial with theoretical benefit of gradual stretching of soft tissues impeding reduction and neurovascular bundles to decrease AVN • skin traction preferred however vary with surgeon • usually 1-2 weeks • scientific evidence supporting this is lacking
  53. 53. Treatment con’t • closed reduction preformed in OR under general anesthetic manipulation includes flexion, traction and abduction • percutaneous or open adductor tenotomy necessary in most cases to increase safe zone which lessen incidence of proximal femoral growth disturbance • reduction must be confirmed on arthrogram as large portion of head and acetabulum are cartilaginous • dynamic arthrography helps with assessing obstacles to reduction and adequacy of reduction
  54. 54. Treatment • reduction maintained in spica cast well molded to greater trochanter to prevent redislocation • human position of hyperflexion and limited abduction preferred • avoid forced abduction with internal rotation as increased incidence of proximal femoral growth disturbance • cast in place for 6 weeks then repeat Ct scan to confirm reduction • casting continued for 3 months at which point removed and xray done then placed in abduction orthotic device full time for 2 months then weaned
  55. 55. Failure of Closed Methods • Open reduction indicated if failure of closed reduction, persistent subluxation, reducible but unstable other than extremes of abduction • variety of approaches – anterior smith peterson most common • allows reduction and capsular plication and secondary procedures • disadv- > blood loss, damage iliac apophysis and abductors, stiffness
  56. 56. • greatest rate of acetabular development occurs in first 18 months after reduction
  57. 57. Open Reduction con’t – medial approach ( between adductor brevis and magnus) • approach directly over site of obstacles with minimal soft tissue dissection • unable to do capsular plication so depend on cast for post op stability – anteromedial approach Ludloff ( between neurovascular bundle and pectineus) • direct exposure to obstacles, minimal muscle dissection • no plication or secondary procedures • increased incidence of damage to medial femoral circumflex artery and higher AVN risk
  58. 58. Follow-up • Abduction orthotic braces commonly used until acetabular development caught up to normal side • in assessing development look for accessory ossification centers to see if cartilage in periphery has potential to ossify • secondary acetabular procedure rarely indicated < 2 years as potential for development after closed and open procedures is excellent and continues for 4-8 years • most rapid improvement measured by acetabular index , development of teardrop occurs in first 18 months after surgery • femoral anteversion and coxa valga also resolve during this time
  59. 59. Obstacles to Reduction • Extra- articular – Iliopsoas tendon – adductors • Intra-articular – inverted hypertrophic labrum – tranverse acetabular ligament – pulvinar, ligamentum teres – constricted anteromedial capsule especially in late cases neolimbus is not an obstacle to reduction and represents epiphyseal cartilage that must not be removed as this impairs acetabular development
  60. 60. Age greater than 2 years • Open reduction usually necessary • age > 3 femoral shortening recommended to avoid excess pressure on head with reduction • 54% AVN and 32% redislocation with use of skeletal traction in ages > 3 • age > 3 recommend open reduction and femoral shortening and acetabular procedure
  61. 61. Treatment con’t • 2-3-years gray zone • potential for acetabular development diminished therefore many surgeons recommend a concomitant acetabular procedure with open reduction or 6-8 weeks after • JBJS Feb, 2002 Salter Innominate Osteotomy… Bohm,Brzuske incidence of AVN is greater with simultaneous open reduction and acetabular procedure
  62. 62. Treatment con’t • Lovell and Winter – judge stability at time of reduction and if stable observe for period of time for development – if not developing properly with decreased acetabular index, teardrop then consider secondary procedure • most common osteotomy is Salter or Pemberton • anatomic deficiency is anterior and Salter provides this while Pemberton provides anterior and lateral coverage
  63. 63. Natural Sequelae • Goal of treatment is to have radiographically normal hip at maturity to prevent DJD • after reduction achieved potential for development continues until age 4 after which potential decreases • child < 4 minimal dysplasia may observe but if severe than subluxations and residual dysplasias shoild be corrected • when evaluating persistent dysplasia look at femur and acetabulum • DDH deficiency usually acetabular side
  64. 64. Residual Dysplasia • plain xray with measurement of CE angle and acetabular index • young children deficiency anterior and adolescents can be global • deformities of femoral neck significant if lead to subluxation – lateral subluxation with extreme coxa valga or anterior subluxation with excessive anteversion ( defined on CT ) – usually DDH patients have a normal neck shaft angle
  65. 65. • Dysplasia for 2-3-years after reduction proximal femoral derotation or varus osteotomy should be considered if excessive anteversion or valgus • prior to performing these be sure head can be concentrically reduced on AP view with leg abducted 30 and internally rotated • varus osteotomy done to redirect head to center of acetabulum to stimulate normal development • must be done before age 4 as remodeling potential goes down after this
  66. 66. Adolescent or Adult • Femoral osteotomy should only be used in conjunction with pelvic procedure as no potential for acetabular growth or remodeling but changing orientation of femur shifts the weightbearing portion • Pelvic osteotomy considerations – age – congruent reduction – range of motion – degenerative changes
  67. 67. Pelvic Procedures • Redirectional – Salter ( hinges on symphysis pubis) – Sutherland double innominate osteotomy – Steel ( Triple osteotomy) – Ganz ( rotational) • Acetabuloplasties ( decrease volume ) – hinge on triradiate cartilage ( therefore immature patients) – Pemberton – Dega ( posterior coverage in CP patients ) • Salvage – depend on fibrous metaplasia of capsule – shelf and Chiari
  68. 68. Complications of Treatment • Worst complication is disturbance of growth in proximal femur including the epiphysis and physeal plate • commonly AVN however, no pathology to confirm this may be due to vascular insults to epiphysis or physeal plate or pressure injury • occurrs only in patients that have been treated and may be seen in opposite normal hip
  69. 69. Necrosis of Femoral Head • Extremes of position in abduction ( greater 60 degrees ) and abduction with internal rotation • compression on medial circumflex artery as passes the iliopsoas tendon and compression of the terminal branch between lateral neck and acetabulum • “ frog leg position “ uniformly results in proximal growth disturbance
  70. 70. • extreme position can also cause pressure necrosis onf epiphyseal cartilage and physeal plate • severin method can obtain reduction but very high incidence of necrosis • multiple classification systems with Salter most popular
  71. 71. Salter Classification • 1 failure of appearance of ossific nucleus within 1 year of reduction2 • 2 failure of growth of an existing nucleus within 1 year • 3 broadening of femoral neck within 1 year • 4 increased xray density then fragmentation of head • 5 residual deformity of head when re- ossification complete including coxa magna,vara and short neck
  72. 72. Kalamachi • Classified growth disturbances assoc with various degrees of physeal arrest • 1 all disturbances not assoc with physis • 2 lateral physeal arrest ( most common ) • 3 central physeal arrest • 4 medial physeal arrest • longterm follow up shows that necrosis of femoral head decreases longevity of hip
  73. 73. Treatment • Femoral and/or acetabular osteotomy to maintain reduction and shift areas of pressure • trochanteric overgrowth causing an abductor lurch treated with greater trochanter physeal arrest if done before age 8 otherwise distal transfer • early detection is key with 95% success rate of treatment • identify growth disturbance lines
  74. 74. SALTERS
  75. 75. PEMBERTONS
  76. 76. PEMBERTONS
  77. 77. CHIARI