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  1. 1. The Major Milestones Of mathematics By Jayanarayan Jayakumar
  2. 2. Mathematics <ul><li>Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns, formulate new conjectures, and establish truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Olden maths <ul><li>Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC), [1] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC) [2] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pythagoras <ul><li>All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Babylonian <ul><li>Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the people of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the days of the early Sumerians through the Hellenistic period almost to the dawn of Christianity. [18] It is named Babylonian mathematics due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study. Later under the Arab Empire, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, once again became an important center of study for Islamic mathematics. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Egyptian <ul><li>Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian language. From the Hellenistic period, Greek replaced Egyptian as the written language of Egyptianscholars.Mathematical study in Egypt later continued under the Arab Empire as part of Islamic mathematics, when Arabic became the written language of Egyptian scholars. </li></ul>
  8. 8. India <ul><li>The earliest civilization on the Indian subcontinent is the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC in the Indus river basin. Their cities were laid out with geometric regularity, but no known mathematical documents survive from this civilization.The artifacts of the Indus Valley Civilization are recognized as the earliest evidence of the use of mathematics in South Asia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The oldest extant mathematical records from India are the Shatapatha Brahmana (c. 9th century BC), which approximates the value of π, [32] and the Sulba Sutras (c. 800–500 BC), geometry texts that used irrational numbers, prime numbers, the rule of three and cube roots; computed the square root of 2 to one part in one hundred thousand; gave the method for constructing a circle with approximately the same area as a given square. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leonhard Euler <ul><li>Leonhard Euler (German pronunciation: ;15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. [2] He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, and astronomy. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Contd…. <ul><li>Euler was born on April 15, 1707 . </li></ul><ul><li>His father Paul Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church. </li></ul><ul><li>His mother was Marguerite Brucker, a pastor's daughter. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Euclid of Alexandria and Father of Geometry <ul><li>Euclid born in 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria , was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the &quot;Father of Geometry.&quot; He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contd……. <ul><li>Little is known about Euclid's life, as there are only a handful of references to him. In fact, the key references to Euclid were written centuries after he lived, by Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria. Proclus introduces Euclid only briefly in his Commentary on the Elements , written in the fifth century </li></ul>
  14. 14. The end <ul><li>To the project, not to the never ending Mathematics </li></ul>