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  • cortex, a region filled with a highly cellular connective tissue stroma and many ovarian follicles, which in the adult ovary vary greatly in size The most internal part of the ovary is the medulla, which contains loose connective tissue and blood vessels entering the organprimordial follicles—consist of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of the flattened follicular cellsunilaminar primary follicle  stratified follicular epithelium, the granulosa, in which the cells communicate through gap junctions. Follicle cells are now termed granulosa cells and the follicle is a multilayered primary follicle (cuboidal cells)
  • Multilaminar Primary FolliceZonapellucida:four glycoproteins secreted by the oocyte;bind proteins on the surfaces of sperm and induce acrosomal activation. Filopodia of follicular cells and microvilli of the oocyte penetrate the zonapellucida, allowing communication between these cells via gap junctions.
  • Each ovary is covered by a simple cuboidal epithelium, the germinal epithelium, continuous with the mesothelium and overlying a layer of dense connective tissue capsule, the tunica albugineagranulosa layer as the cells secrete follicular fluid  accumulates, the spaces gradually coalesce antrum Follicular Fluid : hyaluronate, growth factors, plasminogen, fibrinogen, the anticoagulant heparansulfate proteoglycan, and high concentrations of steroids (progesterone, androstenedione, and estrogens) with binding proteins.Membranagranulosa (columnar)
  • Developing Secondary FollicleTunica Interna : Steroid Secreting
  • Follicular WallsGranulosa Cells – Stratified ColumnarBM – separates TI and GTI: vacuolated and lightly stained because of their cytoplasmic lipid droplets, a characteristic of steroid-producing cells (androstenedione which is transformed in the granulosa cells as estradiol)TE: fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells continuous with stroma
  • Corpus luteum after ovulation (super folded)Corpus Albicans:  scar of dense connective tissue called corpus albicans  in the absence of pregnancy (less convoluted)
  • After ovulation:Granulosa cells  granulosa lutein cellsaromatase conversion of androstenedione into estradiolTheca interna cells  Theca lutein cells stain more darkly, with cytoplasmic ultrastructural features of steroid-synthesizing cells stimulated by LH
  • Atretic follicle: oocyte is detached from granulosa cellsAtresia involves apoptosis and detachment of the granulosa cells, autolysis of the oocyte and collapse of the zonapellucida. Early in this process, macrophages invade the degenerating follicle and phagocytose the debris. Occurs anytime
  • Mesolecithal specifically Telolecithal egg Animal Pole: Superficial Melanin, Cytoplasm; NucleusVegetal Pole: Yolk
  • Vitellogenic Stage
  • Mature OocyteAchievement of Polarity and Radial Symmetry
  • Frog OvarySource of Yolk: Digested FoodYolk Nuclei from germinal vesicle
  • Unfertilized egg
  • Second Cleavage furrow relatively shallow compared to first
  • Yolk is resistant to cleavage forces
  • CoeloblastulaEpidermal layer (highly pigmented)  Skin Epithelium or Lining of nervous systemNervous Layer  Neuroblasts of the Nervous SystemMarginal Zone: active conversion of yolk to cytoplasm; involved in formation of the lips of the blastoporeStill seen is the fertilization membrane (not labeled)
  • CoeloblastulaEpidermal layer (highly pigmented)  Skin Epithelium or Lining of nervous systemNervous Layer  Neuroblasts of the Nervous SystemMarginal Zone: active conversion of yolk to cytoplasm; involved in formation of the lips of the blastoporeStill seen is the fertilization membrane (not labeled)
  • Process: InvolutionVentral limit of the gray crescent  region of formation of the dorsal lip of the blastopore
  • Ring of involuted marginal zone (lip) cells are collectively known as the yolk plugInvoluted dorsal lip cells endodermMore ventral and lateral to the chordamesoderm is the mesodermChordamesoderm  notochord
  • notochord was derived from cells indistinguishable from the mesoderm at the region of the dorsal lipSomites become: 1. Dermatome  dermis and appendage musculature 2. Sclerotome vertebral skeleton 3. Myotome skeletal musclesSomatic mesoderm in conjuction with the ectoderm  skin with its blood and connective tissuesSplanchnic mesoderm in conjuction with gut endoderm  lining epithelium, muscles, and blood vessels of the entire mid- and hindgut.
  • Lateral Ventricles: Right (first); Left (second)
  • Detail of Olfactory Placode
  • Reviewer

    1. 1. Mature Oocyte Vitellogenic Phase
    2. 2. Lobulated NuclearMembrane Germinal Vesicle Nucleoli
    3. 3. Animal Pole Vegetal Pole
    4. 4. Yolk Platelet Yolk Nuclei Follicle CellsTheca Interna
    5. 5. Animal Hemisphere Jelly Coat Vegetal PoleBefore Cleavage
    6. 6. CleavageFurrow Blastomeres
    7. 7. Blastomeres Cleavage Furrow
    8. 8. Micromeres3rd CleavageFurrow(Equatorial) Developing BlastocoelMacromeres
    9. 9. FertilizationMembraneMicromeresDevelopingBlastocoelMacromeres
    10. 10. Animal Hemisphere Blastocoel filled with albuminous fluid Marginal Zone, Germ Ring, Marginal Belt Nucleus (darkly staining body) Vegetal HemisphereEarly Blastula
    11. 11. Nervous Layer Animal Hemisphere Epidermal Layer Blastocoel filled with albuminous fluid Vegetal HemisphereLate Blastula
    12. 12. Dorsal lip of the Blastopore Blastopore Ventral lip of the Blastopore Disintegrating BlastocoelEarly Gastrula
    13. 13. A – Anterior End (Point of 11 Sperm Entry) P – Posterior End (Yolk Plug) 1 - Ectoderm 2 - Endoderm 10 3 - Mesoderm 4 - Disintegrating Blastrocoel 5 - Archenteron / Gastrocoel 6 - Dorsal Lip of the Blastopore 7 - Blastopore 8 - Vental Lip of the blastopore 9 - Endodermal Mass 10 - Completion Bridge 11 - ChordamesodermGastrula
    14. 14. Neural Plate
    15. 15. Neural Groove Neural Fold Neural Crest Notochord SomaticMidgut Mesoderm Splanchnic Mesoderm Gut Endoderm Ectoderm Endoderm Lateral Plate Mesoderm
    16. 16. Neural Crest Nerve Cord Neural Canal Notochord Somite mesoderm Subnotochordal Notch Midgut Somatopleure Splanchnopleure Splanchnic Mesoderm EndodermNeural Tube
    17. 17. Encircled - Notochord 1 1 – Lateral Ventricles 10 enclosed by the Cerebral 2 Hemispheres 1 2 – Olfactory Membrane 11 3 3 – Olfactory Tube 4 4 – Parachordal cartilage 5 – Pharynx 6 – Mandibular Cartilages 2 7 – Oral Sucker 4 8 – Lip 3 9 – Tooth Germ 5 10 – Epidermis 11 - Melanophores 6 7 8 9 8Level of Telencephalon
    18. 18. Jacobson’s Organ
    19. 19. 1 – Diencephalon (cavity: III ventricle or diocoel; roof 1 Anterior Choroid Plexus) 2 – Infundibulum 3 – Hypophysis 10 4 – Pharynx 2 5 – Lens 6 – Retina 3 6 7 7 – Cornea 8 5 8 – Optic Nerve 4 9 – Thyroid Bodies 12 10 – Lymph Sinus 9 11 – Ceratohyal Cartilage 13 12 – Basibranchial Cartilage 11 13 – Mandibular Muscles 14 – Hyoid Muscle 14 10Level of Diencephalon
    20. 20. 2 4 5 4 1 – Myelencephalon 2 – Rhombocoel or IV 3 1 3 ventricle 6 6 3 – Saccule 7 7 4 – Anterior Semicircular Canal 8 5 – Endolymphatic Duct 9 6 – Ganglion VIII 7 – Anterior Cardinal Vein 8 – Pharynx 10 9 – Velar Plate 11 10 10 – Gill rakers 15 15 11 – Atrium 12 – Ventricle 13 13 – Pericardial Cavity14 14 12 14 – Opercular Chamber 15 – Internal Gills
    21. 21. Aortic Arch
    22. 22. Sinus VenosusDuct of CuvierVentricle
    23. 23. 1 – Esophagus 2 – Lung Bud 3 – Nephrostome 4 – Glomus 5 – Liver 6 – Peritoneal Cavity 4 7 - Spiracle2 1 3 6 2 7 5

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