Purpose:The presentation is a guided discussion which will seek having a dialog with the audience.First, to share a brief foundation on a few key elements regarding Israel’s culture as it may influence a culturally-specific approach to defining intelligence.Further, particular contributions by Israeli authors on the field of intelligence as a concept will be explored.
ProgramGeographic, demographic, histographic, othergraphic (cultural) perspectivesIndividual and Group testing normsThe intersection of the twoTheories from leading Israeli thinkers on the subject of intelligenceSummary
Background:Independence unilaterally proclaimed from……Great Britain (!) on May 14, 1948 and the United States, under President Harry Truman, was the first country to publicly recognize the State of Israel 11 minutes later.Flag:The Tallit (prayer shawl) is symbolized by the white field with two blue stripesThe Magen David is a traditional symbol of Judaism. The star is made up of two triangles, one right-side up and the other upside down. One of them points upward toward all that is spiritual and holy. The other one points downward -- toward all that is earthly and secular.By leading a life of Torah and mitzvot the Jew strives to bring together the worlds of spiritual and the earthly, the worlds of the holy and the secular. Legend tells us that David the king of Israel adorned his shield with this six-pointed star, thus the star is named the Magen David.Coat of Arms:The seven-branched Menorah represents the Temple, destroyed in 70 AD. The two olive trees symbolize peace. Israel appears in Hebrew.IsraeliHebrew – official languageJewish religion – 75%Q: How might all of this symbolism affect how Israeli’s view intelligence? (purpose and meaning of religion, prayer, candelabras, stars)Q: How does this compare with our own symbolism in the United States (the Anglo-American perspective)?
Q: Severely deficient in natural resources, what’s all the hub-bub about?U.S. policy largely centers around Arab states independence, the development of oil-producing countries, and…..Biblical prophecy?
Maimdonides, one of histories foremost rabbis, compiled the Mishneh Torah between 1170 and 1180. It is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance.1:8 – Every Jew..is under obligation to study Torah, whether he is poor or rich, in sound health or ailing, in the vigor of youth or very old an feeble.1:2 – Those who are obliged to study are also obligated to teach.Talmud (Pesahim 49a): “A man should sell all he possesses in order to marry the daughter of a scholar, as well as marry his daughter to a scholar.”In fact, there’s evidence of genetically superior intelligence…more on that later.Q: What might this tell us about the Israeli perspective on education?Q: On intelligence? (What if you’re not reading the Torah or Talmud?)
Student population has grown over seven-fold since 1943 with mass immigration from over 70 countries doubling the population over the first 3 years of statehood and tripling the population over the first 12.Ziedner (1990b) as cited in Sternberg (2004)Q: Cultural consequences related to education and defining intelligence?
4-6.5yoa, 10 sub-tests6-16 yoa, 10 sub-tests3-12 yoa, 16 sub-testsUniversity applicants, as of October 1990 – similar to U.S. SAT: Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, English (!) The 54-item English sub-test serves to note whether a student should be placed in a remedial English class!Table in Sternberg (2004) with sample, internal consistency and test-retest reliability stability statistics.
Although sometimes associated as a relative to the Lorge-Thorndike intelligence test, it is particularly difficult to get historical information on the Milta!John Carlyle Raven first published his Progressive Matrices in the UKin 1938.According to Raven, the tests measure the two main components of Spearman’sg: (a) the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity, which is known as eductive ability,and (b)the ability to store and reproduce information, known as reproductive ability.In other words, a measurement of a person’s ability to form perceptual relations and reason by analogy.
The Hebrew calendar's year is longer by roughly 6 minutes and 25.5 seconds than the present-day mean solar year, so that every 224 years, the Hebrew calendar will fall a full day behind the modern fixed solar year, and about every 231 years it will fall a full day behind the Gregorian calendar year.Today (April 19, 2010 until sunset)Yom HaZikaron – Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day is Israel's official Memorial Day.The day opens the preceding evening at 8:00 PM, given that in the Hebrew calendar system days begin at sunset, with a siren. The siren is heard all over the country and lasts for one minute, during which Israelis stop everything (including driving, which stops highways) and stand in silence, commemorating the fallen and showing respect. Many national-religious Jews say prayers for the souls of the fallen soldiers at this time as well. The official ceremony to mark the opening of the day takes place at the Western Wall, at which time the flag of Israel is lowered to half mast.A two-minute siren is heard the following morning, at 11:00, which marks the opening of the official memorial ceremonies and private remembrance gathering which are held at each cemetery where soldiers are buried. The day officially draws to a close between 7–8:00 PM in the official ceremony of Israel Independence Day on Mount Herzl, when the flag of Israel is returned to full mast.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Hazikaron accessed 4/17/2010.Yom HaAtzma'ut - Israeli Independence Day. Commemorates the declaration of independence of Israel in 1948.David Ben Gurion in Tel Aviv. Served as Prime Minister from 1948 until 1963, except for a period of two years from 1954-55. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yom_Ha%27atzmautQ: How might this impact intelligence testing? (calendar-driven items, loyalty items, “what does a siren signal?”, etc.)
How might this offend?Although not offensive, an intelligence sub-test with the item, “What is made from beans, is brewed, and is often drunk by grownups for breakfast?”, may elicit an inappropriate response because the word brew is typically used for tea in Israeli society. (Sternberg, 2004, p. 221)
Language of the test presentation – verbal, numerical, figuralMental operation required by the test – rule inferringModality of examinee expression – rule applying
Smallest Space Analysis and SSA maps have arisen.The result of these analyses is typically termed a radex.It has been offered as an alternative to factor analysis “to assess the structure underlying intelligence test performance” (Sternberg, 2004, p. 236).
His theory of intelligence states that intelligence itself is not fixed, but rather modifiable and that meaningful instruction, for children, necessitates a mediated relationship.As such, intelligence testing should incorporate the opportunity for the examinee to display change, learning, or modifiability.For those familiar with Piaget and Vygotsky, Feuerstein’s Mediated Learning Experiences (MLEs) bridge the gap between Piaget’s theories regarding a child’s direct interaction with the world and Vygotsky’s emphasis on cultural symbolic tools.Essentially, the MLE processes are, over time, internalized. This evolution is based upon Feuerstein’s theory of Structured Cognitive Modifiability.“In the system Feuerstein’ developed, the Learning Propensity (Potential) Assessment Device (LPAD), the examiner intervenes during both the testing and teaching phase to assist the examinee to use effective cognitive strategies, rules, and behaviors to arrive at the correct response” (Sternberg, 2004, p. 237).Q: What does this sound like in some educational settings today? (simulations, intelligent tutors,…)“Rather than focus on total scores alone, this procedure uses the peaks in the pattern of results as indicators of cognitive potential” (Sternberg, 2004, p. 238).
Although only 2/10ths of 1% of the world’s population, Jews have won over 30% of the Nobel Prizes in literature, medicine, physics, and chemistry.Most of these are of particular Jewish descendence, the Ashkenazi. Interestingly enough, these Jews descended from a region in Germany known as Ashkenaz in medieval Hebrew.Returning to an earlier notion of genetically superior intelligence, some evidence to ponder….Sigmund Freud – neurologist, psychoanalystAlbert Einstein – physicist, philosopherFranz Kafka - novelistGolda Meir – 4th Prime Minister of IsraelGeorge Gershwin – composer, pianistLeonard Bernstein – conductor, composerAnne Frank – 15 years old
Alexander – offers a rabbinic reading of the Hebrew Bible’s conception of human learning, a conception of how children ought to be educated. Central is the view that education is fundamentally an ethical activity whose purpose is to nurture and affirm the moral potential of each person through the internalization of divine teachings.Ben-Shakhar and Sheffer – study looking at whether the ability to allocate processing resources is related to general cognitive ability.Kunda, et al. – developing a small set of methods for problem solving in the RPM which use propositional, imagistic, and multimodal representation.Zeidner – 1,538 college students, data provided little evidence for predictive validity of aptitude test scores as a function of ethnic group membership.Zeidner and Feitelson – inter-test associations on two preschool measures using Guttman’s SSA.
GMU - EDEP 653 - Culture and Intelligence - Israel - Jay A. Allen
Culture and intelligence: israel<br />edep 653 / spring 2010 / 6th of Iyyar, 5770<br />Sternberg, R. J. (2004). International handbook of intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press<br />1<br />
תכנית<br />Polygraphic perspectives<br />Intelligence testing<br />Intelligence research and theory<br />2<br />
Cultural considerations<br />Calendar<br />10<br />
Cultural considerations<br />Diet<br />11<br />
Contributions to intelligence research<br />Facet Theory<br />Louis Guttman<br />Derived from Guttman and his associates defined three major dimensions or “facets” of the intelligence domain.<br />Language of the test presentation<br />Mental operation required by the test<br />Modality of examinee expression<br />A test item must ask about a rule (be it logical, empirical, semantic, or normative) and the response must range from perfectly true to not true at all.<br />12<br />
Contributions to intelligence research<br />Facet Theory<br />13<br />Louis Guttman<br />(February 10, 1916 – October 25, 1987)<br />
Contributions to intelligence research<br />Smallest Space Analysis (SSA)<br />14<br />Maslovaty, N. (2002). Organizational learning: teachers’ perceptions of the “ideal student” trait system. International Journal of Manpower, (23)8, 734-753<br />
Culture and intelligence: israel<br />edep 653 / spring 2010 / 6th of Iyyar, 5770<br />שאלות?<br />Sternberg, R. J. (2004). International handbook of intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press<br />17<br />
Further reference<br />Alexander, H. (1999). A Jewish view of human learning. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, (4)2, 155-164. <br />Ben-Shakhar, G., & Sheffer, L. (2001). The relationship between the ability to divide attention and standard measures of general cognitive abilities. Intelligence, (29)4, 293-306.<br />Kunda, M., McGreggor, K., & Goel, A. (2009, November). Addressing the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test of “general” intelligence. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium, Arlington, VA. Paper retrieved from http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/FSS/FSS09/paper/viewFile/954/1210<br />Zeidner, M. (1987). Test of cultural bias hypothesis: Some Israeli findings. Journal of Applied Psychology, (72)1, 38-48.<br />Zeidner, M., & Feitelson, D. (1989). Probing the validity of intelligence tests for preschool children: A smallest space analysis. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, (7)3, 175-193. doi: 10.1177/073428298900700301<br />18<br />