Leadership theory


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Leadership theory

  1. 1. Leadership
  2. 2. Leadership has been described as the ―process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task‖. Leadership can be defined as the ability to inspire other people to accomplish things.
  3. 3. Leadership Types: 1. Autocratic 2. Paternalistic 3. Democratic 4. Laissez-faire Other than these Pacesetting Style (This leader sets very high standards and constantly pushes their employees to improve on performance and production time. The pacesetting style tends to make employees feel overwhelmed with the demands. This style works best when workers are very competent and highly motivated and do not need much direction )
  4. 4. The Nature of Leadership Leadership A social (interpersonal) influence between two or more persons who depend on each other to attain certain mutual goals in a group situation. Leader versus manager Leadership and management are not interchangeable. Leadership is the accepted use of organizationally- derived and/or personal power to influence and motivate subordinates. Management is process-oriented (planning, organizing, directing, and controlling) supervisory behavior.
  5. 5. Formal and Informal Leaders • Formal leader – An individual who is recognized by those outside the group as the official leader of the group. – One who is appointed or sanctioned by an organization to the role of leadership. • Informal leader – An individual whom members of the group acknowledge as their leader. – One who may or may not be sanctioned as a leader by those outside the organization.
  6. 6. Trait Theory of leadership Trait Leadership Theory is actually a range of theories which share the belief that all leaders are born with, or at least display, certain key personality traits. Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, if one could identify people with the correct traits, one would be able to identify good leaders. Assumptions of Trait Theory: •People are born with inherited traits. •Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. •People who make good leaders have the right (so sufficient) combination of traits. However the idea that leadership traits are inborn and unchangeable appears to be incorrect, although many our dispositions and tendencies are influenced by our personalities and the way we are born.
  7. 7. Problems with trait theory: Unfortunately, the traits reported by all these researchers are often contradictory and no single trait was consistently identified with good leadership. Some other issues with Trait Theory include: •Relativity- Not possible to clarify the relative importance of the various traits. •Interaction- Most trait type models are disregarding interaction effects. •Universalism- Situational studies have found that traits are not universal; They depend on the situation. •Change Traits transform overtime •Cause & Effect- Cause and effect are unclear. For example: Are leaders ambitious or does being a leader lead to ambition? •Cultural Factors. What is effective leadership in the USA may be not as effective in Japan. •Theatrics. If we take a theatrics view of leadership, then the leader performs those traits that move the audience.
  8. 8. Likert’s 4-M management styles In the 1960s Likert developed four systems of management which described the relationship, involvement, and roles between management and subordinates in industrial settings. The four systems is a result of the study that he has done with the highly productive supervisors and their team members of an American Insurance Company. Exploitive authoritative system (I) In this type of management system the job of employees/subordinates is to abide by the decisions made by managers and those with a higher status than them in the organisation. The subordinates do not participate in the decision making. The organisation is concerned simply about completing the work. The organisation will use fear and threats to make sure employees complete the work set. There is no teamwork involved.
  9. 9. 'Benevolent authoritative system (II)' Just as in an exploitive authoritative system, decisions are made by those at the top of the organisation and management. However employees are motivated through rewards (for their contribution) rather than fear and threats. Information may flow from subordinates to managers but it is restricted to ―what management want to hear‖. Consultative system (III) In this type of management system, subordinates are motivated by rewards and a degree of involvement in the decision making process. Management will constructively use their subordinates ideas and opinions. However involvement is incomplete and major decisions are still made by senior management. There is a greater flow of information (than in a benevolent authoritative system) from subordinates to management.
  10. 10. Participative (group) system (IV) Management have complete confidence in their subordinates/employees. There is lots of communication and subordinates are fully involved in the decision making process. Subordinates comfortably express opinions and there is lots of teamwork. Teams are linked together by people, who are members of more than one team. Likert calls people in more than one group ―linking pins‖. Employees throughout the organisation feel responsible for achieving the organisation’s objectives. This responsibility is motivational especially as subordinates are offered economic rewards for achieving organisational goals which they have participated in setting.
  11. 11. Need to think: When your boss puts you in charge of organizing the company Christmas party, what do you do first? Do you develop a time line and start assigning tasks or do you think about who would prefer to do what and try to schedule around their needs? When the planning starts to fall behind schedule, what is your first reaction? Do you chase everyone to get back on track, or do you ease off a bit recognizing that everyone is busy just doing his/her job, let alone the extra tasks you've assigned? Your answers to these types of questions can reveal a great deal about your personal leadership style.
  12. 12. Some leaders are very task-oriented; they simply want to get things done. Others are very people-oriented; they want people to be happy. And others are a combination of the two. If you prefer to lead by setting and enforcing tight schedules, you tend to be more production-oriented (or task-oriented). If you make people your priority and try to accommodate employee needs, then you're more people-oriented. Neither preference is right or wrong, just as no one type of leadership style is best for all situations. However, it's useful to understand what your natural leadership tendencies are, so that you can then working on developing skills that you may be missing.
  13. 13. Situational leadership The original situational theory argues that the best type of leadership is totally determined by the situational variables. The situational leadership theory argues that no one style of leadership pertains to all given workplace situations. The situational leadership theory argues that no one style of leadership pertains to all given workplace situations. The theory suggests that not only can leaders alter their leadership styles but that they should depending on the situation at hand. According to a recent study, successful use of situation leadership ―relies on effectiveness in four communication components; communicating expectations, listening, delegating, and providing feedback
  14. 14. Managerial grid A popular framework for thinking about a leader's 'task versus person' orientation was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s. Called the Managerial Grid, or Leadership Grid, it plots the degree of task-centeredness versus person-centeredness and identifies five combinations as distinct leadership styles. The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: Concern for People - This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task Concern for Production - This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
  15. 15. Country Club Leadership - High People/Low Production This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control. Produce or Perish Leadership - High Production/Low People Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees Impovrised
  16. 16. Impoverished Leadership - Low Production/ Low People This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony. Middle-of-the-Road Leadership - Medium Production/Medium People This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
  17. 17. Team Leadership - High Production/High People According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally high. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization's success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production.
  18. 18. Applying the Blake Mouton Managerial Grid Being aware of the various approaches is the first step in understanding and improving how well you perform as a manager. It is important to understand how you currently operate, so that you can then identify ways of becoming competent in both realms. Step One: Identify your leadership style. Think of some recent situations where you were the leader. For each of these situations, place yourself in the grid according to where you believe you fit.
  19. 19. Step Two: Identify areas of improvement and develop your leadership skills Look at your current leadership method and critically analyze its effectiveness. Look at ways you can improve. Are you settling for 'middle of the road' because it is easier than reaching for more? Identify ways to get the skills you need to reach the Team Leadership position. These may include involving others in problem solving or improving how you communicate with them, if you feel you are too task-oriented. Or it may mean becoming clearer about scheduling or monitoring project progress if you tend to focus too much on people. Continually monitor your performance and watch for situations when you slip back into bad old habits.
  20. 20. Step Three: Put the Grid in Context It is important to recognize that the Team Leadership style isn't always the most effective approach in every situation. While the benefits of democratic and participative management are universally accepted, there are times that call for more attention in one area than another. If your company is in the midst of a merger or some other significant change, it is often acceptable to place a higher emphasis on people than on production. Likewise, when faced with an economic hardship or physical risk, people concerns may be placed on the back burner, for the short-term at least, to achieve high productivity and efficiency.
  21. 21. Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership Transformational leader A leader who moves and changes things ―in a big way‖ by inspiring others to perform the extraordinary. Charisma, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation Visionary leader An individual who is capable of influencing others through an emotional and/or intellectual attraction to the leader’s dream.
  22. 22. Charismatic leadership Charisma—a special personal magnetic charm or appeal that arouses loyalty and enthusiasm in a leader- follower relationship. Charismatic leader—a person who possess legitimate power that arises from ―exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character.‖
  23. 23. Leadership Needs in the 21st Century The magnitude of change will demand: More leadership Newer forms of leadership Tomorrow’s leaders Strategic opportunists Global/cultural/diversity awareness Decentralized managers Interpersonally competent Builders of organizational communities
  24. 24. Conflicts
  25. 25. Conflict is actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. •A battle, contest or opposing forces existing between primitive desires and moral, religious or ethical ideas ( Webster’s Dictionary) Conflict management is the practice of identifying and handling conflict in a sensible, fair and efficient manner
  26. 26. Types/Levels of conflict Inter-personal and intra-personal Inter-organizational and intra-organizational Competitive and Disruptive Intra personal conflict: Personal conflict or Intra Personal conflict refers to an individual's inner workings and personality problems. It arises from frustration, numerous roles which demand equal attention and goals etc. Conflict from frustration Gole conflict: It occurs when the attainment of one goal exludes the possibility of attaining another.
  27. 27. Four Major forms of Goal conflict: (i) Approach- Approach conflict (ii) Approach- avoidance conflict (iii)Avoidance- avoidance conflict (iv) Multiple Approach-avoidance conflict
  28. 28. Interpersonal conflict: Conflict has been defined as "an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals"21. Important concepts in this definition include "expressed struggle," which means the two sides must communicate about the problem for there to be conflict. It arises because of differences in perception, value system, socio- cultural factors, and role ambiguities.
  29. 29. JOHARI WINDOW developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham is highly useful in analyzing the causes for inter-personal conflict. Open area Unknown area Blind area Hidden areaNot known to others Known to others Known to self Not known to self Feed back Disclosure
  30. 30. Inter-organizational and intra-organizational: Five types of Inter-organizational; 1. Management-government 2. Inter Management 3. Inter Union 4. Union-Government 5. Union-Management Intra-organizational; 1. Horizontal (same level) 2. Vertical (two level)
  31. 31. How to manage conflicts in an organisation : Let us simulate the situations under which the conflicts occur in an organisation. Basically there could be three situations in an organisational context. 1. Conflict with the boss. 2. Conflict with colleagues/peers. 3. Conflict with subordinates
  32. 32. Conflict Process Latent conflict Perceived conflict Felt Conflict Manifest behavior Functional conflict Dysfunction conflict Pg 358
  33. 33. Managing conflict with the boss : All of us have read the famous rule, Rule no. 1 Boss is always right. Rule no. 2 In case the boss is wrong see rule no. 1. Rule no. 3. Don’t forget the above rules. This is not to say that one has to be yes man all the time. When ever you face a conflict situation with your boss consider the following approaches. (i) Appreciate wider perspective : The boss has wider perspective than you, therefore please consider whether there is something you are not able to visualise that your boss has visualised?
  34. 34. (ii) Do not offend his authority : Every boss is sensitive to maintaining his authority. If you have a better idea, put it in a manner of suggestion, avoid offending his authority. (iii) Evaluate the impact : Very carefully evaluate the impact of the wrong decision of the boss on your position in a particular and on organisation in general. Do not challenge his decision unless you have to. (iv) Avoid bitterness : If you have to differ with your boss, just register your point of view without making it bitter.
  35. 35. 2. Managing conflict with peers/colleagues : Most of the times the conflict between peers occurs because of the tendency of " One up man ship". When ever you face a conflict situation with your colleagues, try some of the following approaches. (i) Communicate: Most of the time your colleagues may be differing with you, either because they have not understood your point of view properly or you have not communicated clearly enough. Since you do not have any authority over them, enter into a dialogue and discuss the issue with an open mind.
  36. 36. (ii) Conflict to Co-operation : Work towards skillfully converting conflict in to a co-operation. Strive to appreciate their point of view. Find out the ways and means to create a 'win-win' situation. If need be amend your approach and meet your colleagues midway.
  37. 37. 3. Managing conflicts with the subordinates : (i) Allow freedom to express : Give adequate freedom to your subordinates to express their views freely, be patient listen to them carefully. (ii) Allow dissent : Dissent is natural, manage disagreement constructively (iii) Build consensus : Identify the +ve minded persons in your team and convert them into the 'champions of causes' and let them reason it out with the cynical fellows. Provide right kind of support, intervene skillfully to build consensus.
  38. 38. (iv) Develop a common vision : Appreciate the fact that all your subordinates may not have the broad vision and perspective like yours. Its your responsibility to share your dreams and aspirations for the organisation with them and make them appreciate these. Through discussion, training and counseling develop a common vision.
  39. 39. TEN (GENERIC) APPROACHES TO MANAGE CONFLICTS 1. Patient listening. 2. Empathy, understand other's point of view. 3. Avoid reacting strongly / avoid anger under all circumstances. 4. Evaluate your responses properly before responding. 5. Communicate, enter into a dialogue, convince or get convinced. 6. Choose the right time for dialogue, when the other person is in a receiving mood. 7. Avoid throwing your weight, even if you have the authority.
  40. 40. 8. Allow dissent, manage disagreement constructively, 9. Build consensus, take people along. 10. Create a common vision if others do not have as broad a perspective as your, explain it to them with patience, train them & counsel them.