Careers in social work


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Careers in social work

  1. 1. UCSB Careers in Social Work CAREER SERVICES Historical Context Educational Influences Social Security Act Social Work/Social Welfare Graduate Education in Social Work Professional Licensure & Certification National Association of Social Workers Social Workers: Occupations and Skills Career Ser vices University of California Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106 - 7140 Building 599 805 893 4412 FAX 805 893 8023 career.ucsb.edu10-08-07
  2. 2. Careers In Social WorkWhat is Social Work? During this period hospital social work was developed. InThere are a number of complex definitions of social work, but the early 1900s Dr. Richard Cabot, monitored psychologicalsimply put, it can be called a profession devoted to helping and social factors. He wondered how these factors affectedpeople function as well as they can within their environment. patients reactions to their health problems and theirSocial workers do so by providing counseling and services to willingness to use medical help.clients as well as by working for improved social conditions. Social workers collected the results of social, psychologicalHistorical Context and environmental information. When doctors wereSocial work tradition is rooted in turn of the century efforts presented with the information, they found that they had ato meet the needs of the poor, of neglected children and much better understanding of the patients. The specializationof exploited workers through the better organization of of medical and psychiatric social work developed from thischarities. Social workers led the fight for child labor laws, practice.more humane industrial conditions, voting rights for women,and scores of other progressive milestones. Social Casework Basic knowledge of social casework was also being developedThe Industrial Revolution brought about great changes. in the 1920s. Principles and concepts of helping were neededFrom about the 1700s new inventions and the increased that could be applied in all different institutional areas orin factory jobs drew people from the rural areas to the fields of practice. Mary Richmond was the first person tocities. As people moved into the cities, they also moved formulate social work practice in a systemic fashion. In heraway from families and friends. More and more people books Social Diagnosis and What is Social Casework? shebecame dependant on others for help in new settings where described how one goes about helping people deal with socialthey received little or no help from families. Almshouse or problems. The theories of human behavior were integratedpoorhouses were set up to collected and house the old, young, into social work. Freudian and other psychological theoriessick, mentally ill, blind or any other who was in need. Little influences our understanding and interpretation of how westate or colony supervision or control was permitted, it fell on react to things that happen around us.the shoulders of the township, parish, or city to provide theseservices. Settlements The work of social settlements also influenced theDuring the 1800s many private agencies were established development of the profession of social work. Jane Addamsto help people. One such agency, the Charity Organization and Florence Kelly were settlement leaders who lived withSociety, began in England. In 1877 a similar organization and experienced things with their clients. The wanted towas founded in Buffalo, New York by Reverend Gurteen. help change things through social reform (action) and socialThis organization began one of the first formal training legislation (laws).programs for social work. In-service training was given tonurses, settlement worker and the “friendly visitors”. Some settlement workers got involved in issues and actively supported organized labor movements. Settlement workersThese friendly visitors were usually young, middle to upper also worked to improve social conditions through socialclass women. They were expected to become friends and action and legislation. They tried to help struggling groupsadvisors to the poor families. They worked in schools, improve themselves and become part of mainstreamhospitals and other charitable societies. These fields of society. These settlements were the early inspiration forpractice helped lay the bias for the organization of the the development of social science programs on universityprofession of social work. campuses.Similarly training was done by other organizations by Settlements were described by an approach rather than athe early twentieth century. Training programs were also set of services. Depending on the approach they used, theoffered in colleges and universities. The New York School settlement pursued many different activities. They beganof Philanthropy, now called Columbia University School many services which as conditions,of Social Work, was the first school to train people for jobs working hours, sanitation, sweatshops andwith social agencies. child labor. They used these studies to stimulate protective legislation.Medical Social Work UCSBThe social welfare emphasis shifted in the 1800s from CAREERreform to exploring how the environment affects behavior. SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  3. 3. Educational Influences • Group work is working with several people at one time inThe history of charity organizations differed from the a group setting.settlements in regard to higher education. Charities kept • Community organization focuses on neighborhoods andaccurate statistics and written reports. They sponsored larger groups of people.educational and institutional programs for the working. Lateraffiliation with colleges was developed when schools provided In 1955 seven associations that had up to that timeacademic content and agencies provided practical experience. represented all of the social work practices joined together toThis practical experience is what was later called field work. form the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), the largest social work association today. A professional socialIn 1919 the Association of Training Schools for Professional worker had a masters degree in social work (MSW), and theSocial Work was developed to deal with education for social majority worked as social in organized fashion. By 1952 this organization haddeveloped into what is known today as the Council on It was also during this period that social workers becameSocial Work Education. This is now the accrediting body more concerned with the professionalism of their fields.for schools of social work and sets the standard for MSW Because of this, clinically oriented fields, such as the medicalprograms nationwide. and psychiatric fields, attracted more of the educated social workers. The psychiatric social worker held the mostSocial Security Act status and prestige in the field. Because psychotherapy wasIncome support and social services during the 1930s and considered mostly for the rich, many professional social1940s were things the upper class provided for the so- workers weren’t serving the needs of the most needy.called worthy poor. In 1935 during the Great Depression,the United States government formed the Social Security The concept of Social Welfare goes back to the firstProgram. Under this program government became the major organized efforts of the public to help its poor. It coincidessource of public aid. with the Industrial Revolution and labor legislation fromChanges in federal support for assistance were set up to help the eighteenth century. Social workers are professionals andthe needy on the basis of right or entitlement rather than the majority of them do work in the social welfare system.on being worthy or unworthy as determined by the upper However, socials welfare is an institutional arrangement thatclasses. The entitlement concept stated that all people have also uses many other professionals, such as nurses, doctorsthe right to resources necessary for a decent life. It concluded and psychologists.that society must make these resources available to those whoneed them. The Social Security Act of 1935 marked the entry The concern of social workers have expanded into the entireof the federal government into Social Welfare. social environment. Social workers have to know a great deal about social systems that they work in. Including the socialSocial ‘Work’ / Social ‘Welfare’ welfare system. They have to have skill in getting individualsMany people see the participation on the federal government and organizations to work together for the best interest of thein Social Welfare as splitting of the field, that is social client or families for whom they are working. Social welfarewelfare social work and professional social work began to is only one system that a social worker works in, but it isrepresent different things and offer different services. To fully probably the one most people think about when they think ofunderstand the field, concerns and directions of the different social work.agencies, you need to know what is meant by these twodifferent concepts. Today there are two main categories of social work:Social work is the practice of helping people use their social Direct Services work directly with people in one of threeenvironment to meet their needs. Social environment consists ways: casework, group work, and community organization.of any family, friends, groups, organizations, agencies or Many social workers have to deal with all three functions.government around the person. Social work as such wasn’t In direct services you may have to deal with individuals andreally seen as a profession nor was the term used much until their problems one on one, or you may work with families orthe early 1900s. in small groups. You may also work with larger groups and do community work.By the 1940s, social casework, social group work andcommunity organizations became the three largest practice Indirect Services perform services onconcentrations. behalf of people rather than directly with them. These might entail work in UCSB• Casework is direct contact between individuals and administration, policy making, or teaching. CAREER their families in need. Such social workers might direct or design SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  4. 4. programs. Also with other staff they might develop policy helping professions social workers in general are motivatedand procedures to improve the delivery of services. They by a desire to enable those they serve to enjoy a measure ofmight work with community agencies and teach staff or health and well being, and to be productive members of thestudents. Indirect service may mean doing research, program community. While other considerations surely enter into aevaluation, policy analysis, and statistical analysis. It may decision to choose a career, the decision to become a socialalso mean coordinating social services with other services, worker is usually predicated on a belief that doing so willdeveloping budgets, conducting audits or performing contribute to the great duties. For those who can make the professional commitment, socialToday, professional social work is dynamic, growth profession work offers the broadest possible range of practice settings.based on knowledge drawn from the social sciences and its Social workers provide their services in hospitals, schools,own research and practice. It has a Code of Ethics, a variety prisons, family service agencies, nursing homes, employeeof practice standards and a nationwide system of accredited assistance programs, community mental health centers andeducation programs designed to meld the impulse to help community service agencies.others with the skill and knowledge need to provide that help. They are administrators at all levels of government. They areThose who seek a career in social work should be willing educators. An increasing number are opening up their ownto commit themselves to a special way of life, as does any private practices. And a number have undertaken political orprofessional. A professional is often defined as one who legislative careers finding that the skills they learned and theis expected to have a sense of autonomy, a belief in self- values they acquired as social workers are valuable assets.regulation, a commitment to service, and a conception ofwork as a calling rather than a job. Social workers aptly fit Social Work Settings:that description. Today you will find social workers in any location where people work with people. Where you decide to work willSense of autonomy: The decisions social workers must affect:make often require sorting out a very complex set of • Your dutiesrelationships. In any given case, they may be responsible • The way things are handledfor negotiating a course between the needs and want of a • Your working conditionsclient, the organizational needs and social responsibility of • The methods of social work practice usedthe agency by which they are employed, ethical and legal • Who your clients will beconsiderations, and economic and political realities. It thus • Your salary and work benefitsbecomes essential for social workers to autonomously adhereto the tenets of the profession and avoid being diverted from Mental Health: Social workers provide the bulk of mentaltheir chief goal - the well being of the client. health services in the U.S. and do so in a verity of settings, including private practice. Their chief goal is to help clientsA belief in self-regulation: Professions have traditionally recognize a given problem and enable them to cope withassumed the responsibility of regulating themselves, a it, to reach self-sufficiency, rather than become dependantphilosophy that protects both the consumer of service and on the care provider. Social workers have worked diligentlythe integrity of the profession. The social work profession, to change misguided notions about mental health care soin keeping with this philosophy, operates national testing that those who need it can seek out free of doubt and fear ofprograms to ensure that its practitioners are prepared for disapproval. They also help promote quality care, access to itindependent practice; supports state social work licensing and the protection of the rights of the mentally ill.programs; conducts an adjudication process which enforcesadherence to the ethics code; and has a rigorous accrediting Typical Work Settings:process for its educational institutions. • Mental Health Institution • State Mental Health HospitalsCommitment to service: This attribute is almost • Mental Health Centerssynonymous with the social work profession. Social work • Residential Treatment Facilitiespractice is often defined as “provision of service” and many • Veterans Administration Hospitalof the traditional functions social workers perform are called • Private Practice“social services”. The relationship of social workers to their • Hospital Psychiatric unitsclients is never described as “ministering to”, or “curing”, but“serving” a particular individual or group. UCSB CAREERConcept of work as a calling: As is the case with other SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  5. 5. Types of Job Functions: Social Service Programs:• Outreach • Adoption services• Crisis intervention • Counseling services for families and individuals• Social rehabilitation • Day care licensing• Training in skills everyday living • Employability programs• Consultations • Foster care services for children and adults• Information, education and cooperation • Homemaking services• Outpatient diagnostic services • Information and referral services• Outpatient treatment rehabilitation • Protection services - children and adults• Emergency residential services • Residential treatment and referral• Cooperation with hospital mental health • Transportation services• Marriage counseling • Court ordered custody studies and mediations• Individual counseling Block Grants and Referral Services:Family and Child Welfare Service: The area of social ser- • Assessment services for MI, CD, or MR (men-vices, both public and private is the largest employer of social tally ill, chemically dependant or mentallyworkers. Availability of funds through taxes and through deficient/retarded)private donations helps decide how many services will be • Occupational training centersprovided and who will be served. • Community Action rural transportation • Half-way housesPublic services depend on which services the governmentmandates as must-provide services and the amount of fund-ing the government grants for these services. Also, social workspecialization and the services provided vary with changes in Health Care  Social workers are a vital part of the health caresocial concerns. team along with doctors, nurses, and other health and mental health professionals. Health care, inWhen people lose their jobs, when single parents have young the home as well as in the hospital, offers rapidlydependent children and cannot work, when chronic illness expanding employment opportunities for the socialor the conditions of poverty prevent self-sufficiency, society worker.provides whether temporary help or long term assistancethrough a variety of public welfare programs. Social workers Social workers may also work in hospitals, hospices,not only provide direct service to those in need, but also de- health maintainance organizations, nursing homes,velop public policy to ensure that these programs adequately rehabilitation centers and offices of needs. Social workers in the medical setting may be caseworkers, medical social workers or clinicalIn extremely difficult situations, the social worker may social workers.arrange for the child’s placement in a foster home or for ter-mination of parental rights and adoption. The child’s safety Health related services outside of an institutionand well-being are the primary considerations in such cases, are referred to as primary care. Social work asalthough every effort is made to keep the family intact. expanded into a variety of health organizations. You may find them in free clinics, communityThree main areas of family and child welfare services mental health centers, union health centers,are income maintainence programs, social service health maintainance organizations, group medicalprograms, and block grants and referral services. Ex- practices, home health agencies and industrialamples of these three categories are as follows: settings. Social workers become part of a working team to deal with the medical, social andIncome Maintainance Programs: psychological aspects of health.• Supplemental Assistance Programs• Aid to families with dependent children Typical Work Settings: (AFDC) • Hospitals• General Assistance (GA) • Home health agencies• Medical assistance (MA) • HMOs other care facilities• Food stamp program • Student Health Centers UCSB• Energy assistance • Adolescent walk in centers CAREER • Alcohol Chemically SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  6. 6. dependency centers • Family planning clinics Typical Work Settings:• Centers for victims of rape violence • Adult day care centers• Hospices/Aids Centers • Community planning agencies• Neighborhood health centers • Hospices • Nursing HomesTypical Job Functions: • Retirement Centers1. Assessment of social and emotional factors • Nutrition Sites- Social workers assess social and emotional factors • Veterans Administration hospitalsas they affect the patient’s illness, need for care, • Senior citizen centersand response to treatment and adjustment to care. • Legislative bodiesThey would also develop a care plan. • Older-worker employment program • Community care agencies 2. Counseling for long range planning and • National aging networksdecision making - Social workers assess thepatient’s needs for long term care, evaluate the Typical Job Functions:home and family situation, and help the patient • Working with family and medical facility toand his or her family develop an in-home care provide multiple services for elderly.system. They also explore alternatives to in-home • Maintain communication with physiciancare and arrange for placement. and pharmacist to monitor medication. • Plan and coordinate family conferences3. Community resource planning - Social between family and care providers.workers promote community-centered services, • Act in an advocacy role for the client with aincluding education, advocacy and referral. variety of agencies. • Comfort the dying4. Short term therapy - This area involves • Plan age appropriate recreational and leisuregoal-oriented intervention in cases of managing a activitiesterminal illness and reaction/adjustment to such • Prepare court ordered documents forillness, strengthening family/support systems, and conservateurshipresolving conflict related to the lingering illness. School Social Work:5. Other (specify under orders) - This area Schools increasingly employ social workers to helpincludes other medical social services related to the with some of the developmental and educationalpatient’s illness and his or her need for care. Other problems facing children and teachers. They oftenhigh risk indicators may be included that endanger are able to provide the early support many childrenthe patient’s mental and physical health, including need to become secure, self-sufficient adults.abuse/neglect, inadequate food/medical suppliesor high suicide potential. (These services must be In 1978 the National Association of Social Workerswritten under doctor’s orders.) (NASW) published a taxonomy of tasks performed by social workers in schools. There came to beGerotology: four accepted areas of service in school social work:Social workers who specialize in the field of aging 1. Immediate intervention to reduce stress withinplan and evaluate services for the elderly. They or between individuals or groups.may also help older people and their families deal 2. Problem-solving services towith difficulties brought on by their decreasing pupils, parents, school personnel,health and changing circumstances. Social workers or community the aged and their families obtain vital health 3. Early identification of students atand mental health services, maintain meaningful risk.activities and relationships, and adapt to the aging 4. Development of coping skills toprocess. various groups in school. People enter school social work withOne of today’s most pressing social work backgrounds in casework, groupchallenges is to provide services to the “sandwich work, clinical, or mental health UCSBgeneration”, that is, adults who provide care for specializations. CAREERboth their children and their parents. SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  7. 7. Industrial Social Work/Occupational Course Work within MSW programsSocial Work : Foundation:During the 1960s occupational social work was During the first year students study human behaviorpopular in Europe. It came to be called Industrial and the social environment, social welfare policy andSocial Work in the United States. It grew as services, research, practice methods, special “at risk”an extension of the alcohol treatment programs populations groups, values, and ethics. Studentsthat were being offered to business and industrial apply this common set of knowledge, skills andworkers as employee assistance programs. values in foundation fieldwork. In the 1980s industrial social work developed Concentration:into a specialized area of social work. Services To develop specialized knowledge and skillsare provided to employee/clients whose personal in a particular field of practice, students selectproblems interfere with their job performance. one of a number of concentrations offered bySocial workers, whether they are employed by the each individual school of social work dependingcorporation of the union, on-site or off-site, work on the faculty and research interests of thewith employees and their families to solve problems department. Courses focus on problems andsuch as alcohol and drug abuse, domestic violence, people at risk, social service delivery, social policyfamily trauma, or work related stress. They also analysis, intervention roles and methods, andhelp the corporations and unions recognize and critical evaluation of practice. Students apply thismeet their responsibility to the community and to knowledge in fieldwork related to their careerthe greater society. interests. Areas of concentration will vary from program to program. Some examples of the moreBecause of the growing population of the elderly, traditional concentrations are:another concern and service provided by industrial social workers in retirement or pre-retirement Children and Family Services: Emphasizesplanning. Social workers are also employed in the development, management and delivery ofcorporations and labor unions to provide a variety services which meet the specific needs of childrenof work related services. youth and their families. Graduate with this concentration work in juvenile courts, childGraduate Education in Social Work welfare agencies, residential settings, recreational(MSW) and leisure settings, child mental health centers,The Master in Social Work Program is designed prevention agencies, school systems, and chemicalto prepare professional personnel for advanced dependency treatment work practice. MSW programs emphasizekey components of successful social work practice, Gerotology: Focuses on direct delivery to olderincluding evaluation and ongoing professional people and their families, the development ofdevelopment. The MSW program includes both related services and policies, and managementacademic coursework and field education, has and administration of programs for older people.three components: foundation, concentration and Graduates are working in hospitals, nursingelective work. The strength of the academic course homes, home health care agencies and advocacywork coupled with the quality of the professional organizations.field training makes this program well respectedamong human service employers. Health: Emphasizes clinical practice with individuals, families and groups experiencingThe MSW is generally required for positions in health related disorders in a variety of settingsmental health and always needed for supervisory, including hospitals, long term care facilities, privateresearch, or administrative positions. The MSW is physicians’ offices, and home health agencies;preferred for clinical positions and is essential for management and administration of social servicesocial workers in private practice. In 1990 there programs in health delivery institutions; andwere 91 accredited MSW programs in the country. roles in human resources training/ education in hospital settings.Previous training in social work is not required forentry into a MSW graduate program. Courses in Mental Health: Focuses on workpsychology, sociology, economics, political science, UCSB with individuals families and groupshistory, social anthropology and urban studies are experiencing mental health problems CAREERrecommended. and on the management of mental SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  8. 8. health programs and agencies, corporate employee regulates the scope or practice and the conduct ofassistance programs, public mental health facilities, those who practice social maintainance organizations and privatepractice. The National Association of Social Workers offers certification and awards membership in theSocial and Economic Development: Centers Academy of Certified Social Workers (ACSW).on the problems of underdevelopment, both in The requirements for ACSW membership include:U.S. communities and in other countries around • a graduate degree from a school of social workthe world. The challenges of development include accredited by the Council of Social Work Education.improvements in living conditions and economic • two years of full time paid social work practiceopportunities in neighborhoods, rural areas, beyond a graduate social work degree.regions, or nations that are struggling to achieve • regular NASW membership.and maintain basic necessities such as employment, • completion of the official application andfood, shelter, health care, and transportation. payment of the appropriate fees. • submission of three professional references.Graduates of this concentration work in • successful completion of the ACSWinternational organizations like CARE, UNICEF, examination.Direct Relief International, Save the ChildrenFoundation and the World Health Organization. Licensure requirements vary from state to state. The Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW)Electives: is a nationally recognized license with specificStudents choose additional courses, fieldwork or a requirements to meet national standards as well asspecialization to meet elective requirements. Some state criteria. In California requirements for theexamples of elective areas are: Family Therapy, LCSW are:Women’s Issues, Management/Administration, • a graduate degree in social work with a clinical/Ethnic Populations, Employee Assistance, mental health concentration from an accreditedChemical Dependancies, Research and Social MSW program.Policy. • a minimum of 3200 hours of supervised clinical work after completion of the MSWFieldwork: program.One exciting aspect of the curriculum is the • coursework in Human Sexuality, Chemicalopportunity to apply theoretical knowledge Dependancies and practice with professional supervision. In • membership in NASWaddition to the course work at the foundation and • submission of three professional references.concentration levels, students must successfully • submission of resume and credentials ofcomplete fieldwork experiences in two or more supervising clinician.settings. Based on career goals and academic • notarized documentation of supervised hours.guidelines, students choose field sites. Working • completion of official application and paymentwith their academic advisors and field instructors, of appropriate fees.students develop specific goals for the field • written examexperiences. • oral exam (scheduled only after successful completion of written exam)Depending on individual interests, each student • agreement to participate in 45 hours ofcompletes between 10 and 15 credit hours of continuing education for each three yearfieldwork. This represents between 1,000 and licensing period.1,500 hours of intense work experience supervisedby approved professionals. The State of California Board of Behavioral Science Examiners located inProfessional Licensure Certification Sacramento is the licensingIn 1990, 44 states had licensing or certification authority. For more information onlaws regarding social work practice and the use of licensing requirements contact thatprofessional titles. Licensure regulates both the office directly. UCSBtitle and the practice of social work. Licensure CAREERis considered a form of public protection as it SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  9. 9. NASW: The Professional Association sets the standards of conduct for individual socialProfessional people need the support and the workers and commits them to the humanitarianresources of their own membership organization. ideals and values of the social work profession.The National Association of Social Workers(NASW), with well over 100,000 members and Membership is open to educationally qualified55 chapters, fills that role. It is the world’s largest social workers and social work students. Specialorganization of professional social workers. low cost student memberships are available.NASW provides its members with professional Applications for membership and information ondevelopment programs, legislative and political social work careers may be obtained by contacting:action programs, continuing education National Association of Social Workersopportunities and professional publications 7981 Eastern Avenuewhich keep social workers abreast of the latest Silver Springs, MD 20910developments in their field. (301) 565-0333NASW members adhere to a Code of Ethics that Social Workers Occupations and Skills Occupation Alternative Titles Duties Counsels aids individuals families requiring assistance of social service agency. Interviews clients with problems such as personal family adjustments, finances, employment, food, clothing, housing and physical and mental impairments to determine nature and degree of problem Community Secures information such as medical psychological and social factors Placement Worker contributing to client’s situation. Evaluates these and client’s capacities and environmental resources to improve Caseworker Intake worker social functioning. Helps client to modify attitudes and patterns of behavior by increasing Social Service understanding of self, personal problems, and client’s part in creating them. Worker Refers clients to community resources and other organizations. Compiles records and prepares reports. Reviews service plan and performs follow-up to determine quantity and quality of service provided and status of case. Aids parents with child rearing problems and children and youth with difficulties with social adjustments. Investigates home conditions. Evaluates children’s physical and psychological makeup to determine needs. Refers clients to community resources. Evaluates foster home environmental factors and personal characteristics of adoption applications.Caseworker, Child Places and is responsible for children and their well-being in appropriate settings.Welfare Counsels children and their caregivers concerning adjustments or child’s care, international behavior modifications needed or rehabilitation. Places children in adoptive homes and counsels adoptive parents pending legal adoption. Provides service to unmarried parents, including care during pregnancy and planning for a child. UCSB Arranges for day care or homemaker service. Maintains case history records and reports. CAREER SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K
  10. 10. Social Workers - Occupations and Skills Occupation Alternative Titles Duties Aids individuals and families having problems concerning family relationships or other aspects of their social functioning affecting unity of family and welfare of community. Counsels clients on problems including persona, home management, work adjustment, vocational training, need for financial assistance,Caseworker, Family care of the ill or incapacitated, desertion of parents or difficulties encountered in travel or stabilization in new community. Helps clients to use agency’s services. In public assistance or voluntary agency ascertains client’s eligibility for financial assistance and determines amount of grand and assumes responsibility for services rendered. Develops program content, organizes, and leads activities planned to enhance social development of individual members and accomplishment of group goals. Interviews individual members to assess social and emotional capabilities andSocial Group plans group composition in relation to personal and social compatibility ofWorker members. Selects program appropriate to particular group goals. Helps members through group experience to develop attitudes and social skills for improved family relations and community responsibility. Plans, organizes, coordinates programs with agencies and groups concerned with social problems of the community. Promotes and coordinates activities of agencies, groups, and individuals to meet Community Serv- identified needs. ices Consultant Studies and assesses strength and weakness of existing resources.Community Interprets needs, programs and services to agencies, groups, and individuals toOrganization Information meet identified needs.Worker Referral Director Prepares reports and disseminates information. Maintains contact with representatives of other organizations to exchange and Program Consultant update information on resources and services available. May write proposals to obtain government or private funding. May assist in budget preparation and presentation. May assist in raising funds. Promotes tenant welfare in low income public housing. Initiates and maintains liaison between local housing authority and voluntary and public agencies for development and management of public housing. Facilitates establishment of constructive relationships between tenants andCommunity Rela- housing management and among tenants.tions and Services Tenant Relations Secures social services.Advisor, Public Coordinator Provides leadership to tenants in development of group activities, such as adultHousing education and recreation. Refers families with personal problems to community resources. Cooperates with other organizations in development of under- standing and interest among voluntary and public agencies UCSB participation in long range plans for urban development. CAREER SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K 10
  11. 11. Occupation Alternative Titles DutiesCamp Director Directs activates of recreation or youth work camp. Plans programs. Hires and supervises camp staff. Arranges for required licenses, certificates , and insurance coverage. Keeps records regarding finances, personnel actions, enrollments, and program activities related to camp business operations and budget allotments.Director, Field Field Director Coordinates activities of civilian aids engaged in providing recreational and welfare services to armed forces personnel. Directs staff planning. Oversees activities of welfare workers in assisting service personnel to solve per- sonal and family problems. May plan and direct organization of specialized services in foreign cities.Director, Plans, organizes, and directs comprehensive public and voluntary recreation pro-Recreation Center grams at recreation building, indoor center, playground, playfield, or day camp. Studies and analyzes recreation needs, and resources. Oversees and assigns duties to staff. Interprets recreation programs and their philosophy to individuals and groups. Schedules maintenance and use of facilities. Coordinates recreation program of host agency. Cooperates with recreation and nonrecreation personnel. Works under direction of Recreation Supervisor. Coordinates activities and provides for physical and emotional needs of public welfare recipients housed in indigent camp. Cooperates with welfare department investigators, psychologists, and physicians in assigning activities to indigents and in providing specialized attention to them in accordance with recommendations. Appoints leaders of activities, such as food preparation and maintenance of grounds, from camp inmates in accord with democratic leadership principlesRehabilitation and welfare department policy.Center Manager Coordinates sanitation, food management, health, education, spiritual counsel- ing, and vocational activity programs in conformity with available facilities, needs of camp inmates and policy department. Interviews inmates and arranges with business and community leaders to place in jobs. Maintains discipline and arbitrates disputes. Arranges for entertainment. Maintains records. UCSB CAREER SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K 11
  12. 12. Occupation Alternative Titles Duties Coordinates government programs dealing with prevention and treatment of alcohol and drug abuse problems affecting work performance of employees in private and public sectors. Studies composition of industrial and business communities and state agencies to determine methods of promoting information concerning alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment programs to executives and administrators in industry and government. Confers with management to explain purpose and benefits of EAP, attempts to establish programs. Instructs personnel in methods of recognizing and identifying employee prob-Alcohol and lems, referring employee to Area Services providers, and maintaining records ofDrug Abuse program-related activities.Assistance Program Consults with representatives of Area Service Providersto develop particpation inAdministrator prevention and treatment programs. Consults with management and administrators of participating organization and ASP to evaluate progress of program and identify administrative problems. Implements corrective action plan to solve problems. Develops training materials. Prepares training materials. Prepares articles for newspaper and other media. Lectures and participates in workshops, radio, and television interviews, com- munity meetings, and other organizational functions. Prepares grant proposals and reports for submission to department supervisor. Instructs parent of mentally and physically handicapped children in therapy techniques and behavior modification. Observes and plays with child and confers with parents and other professionals to obtain information relating to child’s mental and phsyical development. Evaluates child’s responses to determine levels of child’s development. Child Development Determines parent’s ability to comprehend and apply therapeutic Specialist and behavior modification techniques and parent’ social and emotional needs to formulate teaching plan. Development Develops individual teaching plan covering self-help, motor, social, cognitive,Teacher, Home Disability and language skills development for parents to implement.Therapy Specialist Instructs parents individually or in groups in behavior modification, physical development, and language development and conceptual learning exercises and Infant Educator activities. Revises teaching plan to correspond with child’s rate of development. Parent Trainer Counsels parents and organizes groups of parents to provide social and emo- tional support for parents. Refers parents and child to social services agencies and facilitiates for additional services and financial assistance. Consults and coordinates plans with other professionals. Teaches preschool subjects to capable children. UCSB CAREER SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K 12
  13. 13. Occupation Alternative Titles Duties Investigates financial assets, properties, and resources of hospitalized retarded and brain-damaged clients to protect financial interests and provide reimburse- ment of hospital costs. Visits and interviews or contacts by mail or telephone, relatives, friends, former employers, pension funds, fraternal and veterans organizations and government agencies.Patient Records documentation of financial resources in patent files.Recourses and Analyzes date accumulated, such as disability allowances, Medicare, Medicaid,Reimbursement social security pensions, dividends, interset and insurance and determines abilityAgent. to pay for hospitalization. Determines additional, sources from which reimbursements can be obtained. Reviews patients records to ensure that reimbursements are maintained. Applies for appointment of conservators to financially protect patients with as- sets over statutory limits. Occasionally attends court hearings to protect patient interests. Investigates and analyzes child welfare cases and initiates administrative action to facilitate enforcement of child support laws. Reviews application for child support received form client and examines case file to determine that divorce decree and court ordered judgment for payment are in order. Interviews client to obtain information such as relocation of absent parent, amount of child support previously awarded and names of persons who can act as witnesses to support client’s claim for support. Locates absent parent and interviews parent to gather data, such as support award, and discusses case with parent to resolve issues in lieu of filing courtChild Support proceedings.Officer Contacts friends and relatives of child’s parents to verify information. Computes amount of child support payments. Prepares, filing indicating data, such as wage records of accused, witnesses, and blood test results. Confers with prosecuting attorney to prepare court case. Determines type of court jurisdiction. Confers with court clerk to obtain arrest warrant and to schedule court date for hearing or trial. Monitors child support payments awarded to ensure compliance with enforce- ment of laws. Prepares report of legal action taken with delinquency in payment occurs. UCSB CAREER SERVICES P U T T I N G S C H O L A R S H I P, L E A D E R S H I P, A N D C I T I Z E N S H I P T O W O R K 13