• ANATOMY: branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts (structures that can be seen with the naked eye)• PHYSIOLOGY: study of body functions; can be approached from a cellular, organismal, or systems point of view
• Organization: molecules combine together to form organelles. Organelles form cells. Cells form tissues. Tissues form organs. Organs form organ cells. And organ cells form organ systems• Cellular composition: living matter is compartmentalized into one or more cells• Biochemical unity: living things have a universal chemical composition that is rare in nonliving matter. This includes DNA, proteins, lipids and carbs• Metabolism: living things use molecules from the environment and chemically change them into molecules that form their own structures, control their own physiology, or provide them with energy. Metabolism is the sum of all this internal change.• Reproduction: production of offspring
• Responsiveness: the ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli changes in the environment.• Stability: living organisms maintain a relatively stability internal environment while the surrounding environment continuously changes.• Development: a change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism• Growth: an increase in size through chemical change• Evolution: genetic changes passed from generation to generation
• The body can be considered conceptually at seven structural levels: chemicals (atom, molecule, macromolecules, organelle , cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and complete organism).• Chemical: interactions between atoms and their combination into molecules• Organelles: microscopic structures in the cell, composed of molecules that are specialized to carry out functions of the cell.• Cells: the basics units of living organisms. Cells are organized into tissues ( skin cells, nerve cells, and red blood cells)• Tissues: a group of cells with similar structure and function, together with the extra cellular substances located between them• Organ composed of two or more tissue types• Organ systems: groups of organs with a unique collective function• Organism: a single complete individual
• Homeostasis: state of equilibrium in the body with respect to functions, composition of fluids and tissues.• Positive feedback: a self- amplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction.• Negative feedback: is commonly used to maintain stable internal environments
• Ventral (toward the belly)• Dorsal (toward the back)• Anterior (front)• Posterior (back)• Superior (above)• Inferior (below)• Medial (toward the midsagittal plane)• Lateral (away from the midsagittal plane)• Proximal (near the point of attachment orgin)• Distal (farther from the point of attachment orgin)• Central (toward the middle of the body)• Peripheral (away from the midline of the body)• Superficial (near the surface)• Deep (farther from the surface)
• Sagittal- refers to a cut that divides the body from left to right• Midsagittal or Median- refers to a sagittal line through the midline of the body and divides it equally• Transverse- refers to a horizontal cut that divides the body Superior (toward the head) and Inferior (toward the feet)• Coronal or Frontal- refers to a cut that divides the body anterior (front) and posterior (back)• Parasagittal- refers to a section that is parallel to the midsagittal but either on the left or right side and causes uneven left and right parts.