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Stepper motor control


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Controlling various parameters of stepper motor namely Speed, Direction and rpm

Published in: Engineering, Business, Technology

Stepper motor control

  1. 1. Speed Control of stepper Motor PROJECT GUIDE- Mr. Pramod Kumar Gangwar Electrical & Electronics Engg. Dept. S.R.M.S.C.E.T, Bareilly SUBMITTED BY- Jatin Arora Gaurav Singh Ameer- Uz -Zama
  2. 2. Introduction • Stepper motors are used for precision position control in many applications like floppy drives, printers, process control instruments, robotics and machine tool control. • Here is a microcontroller AT89C51-based stepper motor controller that can accurately control the rotation direction, speed and number of revolutions with help of six tactile switches.
  3. 3. Block Diagram
  4. 4. Components Used  Hex converter (7404) IC: • 7404 is a NOT GATE IC. • It consists of six inverters (NOT gates). • The output of an inverter is the complement of its input logic state .
  5. 5.  LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC: • LM78XX • It is a three Terminal voltage regulator IC. • Gives a constant 5v output voltage. • Output Current up to 1A. • Short circuit protection. • Output voltages 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 ,15, 18, 24V.
  6. 6. Crystal oscillator: • It is an electronic oscillator that creates an electric signal with very high frequency. • Provides a stable clock signal to the MCU. • Max. 16 MHz can be used with the MCU.
  7. 7. Stepper Motor • Brushless Digitally controlled motor • Input is give in the form of electrical pulses. • Converts Electric pulses into specific rotational movements. • Divides a full rotation into a large no of steps. • Rotation in both directions.
  8. 8. STEP : For every input pulse the motor shaft turns through a specified number of degree called a step. • Depending on the motor, this step angle may be as small as 1 (or less) or as large as 45. The stepper motor used in the project has following characteristics: • Step Resolutions: 18 degrees per pulse. • Max revolutions per minute: 1000
  9. 9. Types of Stepper Motor  Permanent Magnet • Magnetic rotor  Variable Reluctance • Non Magnetic , Geared Rotor. Hybrid • Combines characteristics from PM and VR Stepper Motors. • Magnetic , Geared Rotor.
  10. 10. Types of Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor Wave Drive: Only one coil is energised in a rotatory fashion. • The bit pattern is 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000. • In this example, step angle is 90 degrees.
  11. 11.  Full step drive : • Two adjacent coils are energized successively in a rotary fashion. • The bit pattern will be 0011,0110,1100,1000,1001 , 0001.
  12. 12.  Half Step Drive : • The stepper motor operates at half the given steeper solution. • The bit pattern is 0001,0011,0010,0100,1100,1000,1001and 0001
  13. 13. Unipolar and Bipolar Stepper Motor  Bipolar Stepper Motor: • Bipolar uses entire winding at a time. • There is no centre tapping. • Bidirectional current flow through each winding. • Four wire bipolar motor.
  14. 14.  Unipolar Stepper Motor: • There is a centre tap added between the two leads. • Unidirectional current flow in each half of the winding.
  15. 15. Microcontrollers • Special purpose computers. • Dedicated to one task ( i.e no Multitasking). • Low power device. • Operates on 5v dc. • In our project we are using AT89C51 MICROCONTROLLER.
  16. 16. AT89C51 • 4k bytes of Programmable and erasable Read Only memory. • Power consumption of 50 mW. • Manufactured by ATMEL and belongs to 8051 family. • 40 pin DIP package. • Four I/P bidirectional ports. • Two 16 bit timers/counters. continued…
  17. 17. Project Description  Motor : Stepper Motor • Type : Bipolar Stepper motor. • Step Angle : 18 degrees. • Step Sequence: Half step Drive.  Parameters of Stepper Motor to be controlled: • Direction • Speed • No. of Rotations
  18. 18. Software Simulation •We have simulated our project on Proteus 8 Professional software. •The project underlines the complete controlling of Stepper Motor.
  19. 19. Computer Interfacing • We can connect our project to the serial port of computer and can control the speed of it using keyboard. • It follows synchronous data link standard. • Serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time.
  20. 20. Difference Between Stepper Motor and Conventional Motor Stepper Motor • It is a Digital electromechanical device. • Input is in the form of Electric Pulses. • The shaft moves through angular steps. Conventional Motor • It is an electromechanical device. • Input is given from a constant voltage source. • It has a free Running Shaft.
  21. 21. Industrial Applications Of Stepper Motor • Floppy Disk Drives. • Hard Disk Drives. • Printers, Plotters. • Electronic Watches. • Electronic Typewriters. • Teleprinter, Telex-machines. • Robotics. • Instrumentation control.
  22. 22. Conclusion • The project can be used perfectly in many areas. • The device is easy to implement in hardware and software means. • The circuit is cost effective , consume less power and take minimum time.