• A political party is an organized group of
citizens who profess to share the same
political views and who by acting as a political
unit, try to control the government. -
FEATURES OF A POLITICAL PARTY
• A political party is a fairly large group of people.
• Members of a political party have similar political views or fait
in one political ideology.
• A political party always tries to get the power to form the
government and to rule the country.
• A political party has full faith in peaceful methods. In always
acts through peaceful means, like elections, for fulfilling its
• It fields its candidates, organizes election campaigns and tries
to win more and more seats in the elections.
• A political party is actively involved in politics either as a ruling
party or as an opposition party.
• Political party which run the govt. is called ruling party. When
several, essentially more than two political parties are actively
involved in politics, the system is called Multi-party system
FEATURES OF A POLITICAL PARTY
• In a democratic state, several political parties freely
participate in the political process. The people have the right
and freedom to organize their political parties.
• A political party always works for the promotion of interests
of the nation as a whole.
• A political party always acts according to the provisions of the
constitution and rules laid down by laws.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES
• They educate the masses, through their meetings and propaganda , about
the various problems facing the country at a particular time. They helps in
the formation of public opinion.
• They fight elections and try to get the maximum number of their
• The party which gets an absolute majority in the legislature, forms the
government and runs the administration of the country.
• Other parties form the opposition. They criticize the wrong policies of the
government and check it form becoming despotic.
• They serve as a link between the government and the people.
• These also perform several social welfare functions and help the people
during natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, famines, Tsunami and
Registration and Classification of
• The Election Commission recognizes each party either as a
national party, or a regional party to a local party or registered
and recognized party. The Election Commission grants such
recognition on the basis of the achievement of various parties
is elections, which are held from time to time.
• A party is recognised as a national party by the Election
Commission on the basis of a formula. The political party
which has secured not less than four percent of the total
validvotes in the previous general elections at least in four
states, is given the status of a national party.
• A regional parity is an active party in one or two states.
• The Constitution of India has granted to the people of India
the fundamental right to freely organize their political parties.
MAJOR NATIONAL POLITICAL
1.Bhartiya Janta Party
( BJP )
2.Bahujan Samaj Party
( BSP )
3.Communist Party of
India ( C PI )
4.Communist Party of
India ( C PM )
5.Indian National Congress
Party ( NCP )
REGIONAL POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDIA
PARTY RESERVED SYMBOL
1 Assam Gan Parishad Elephant
2 Telugu Desam Party Bicycle
3 DMK Rising Sun
4 All-India Anna DMK Two Leaves
5 Shiv Sena The Bow and Arrow
6 National Conference Plough
7 Shiromani Akali Dal Scales
8 Rastriya Janta Dal Lalten
9 Samajwadi Party Cycle
Ideology of bharatiya Janta Party
• The Bharatiya Janata Party ( Indian People's Party) was founded in 1980 .
The concept of Hindutva has a special place in its ideology, with the party
aiming to transform India in to a modern, progressive and enlightened
nation which draws inspiration from India's ancient Hindu culture .
"The party is pledged to build up India as a strong and prosperous nation,
which is modern, progressive and enlightened in outlook and which
proudly draws inspiration from India's ancient culture and values and thus
is able to emerge as a great world power playing an effective role in the
commity of Nations for the establishment of world peace and a just
• The Party aims at establishing a democratic state which guarantees to all
citizens irrespective of caste, creed or sex, political, social and economic
justice, equality of opportunity and liberty of faith and expression.
• A Ban on Cow Slaughter, to honor the Hindu tradition of not consuming
the flesh of cow, and prohibiting the consumption of beef.
Ideology of Bahujan Samaj Party
• The BSP acquired the status of a national party in 1996 .The ideology of the
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation"
of the "Bahujan Samaj ", which comprises of the Scheduled Castes (SCs), the
Scheduled Tribes (STs), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Religious Minorities
such as Sikhs, Muslims, Christians, Parsis and Buddhists which account for over 85
per cent of the country's total population.
• It's ideology is based on the argument that the majority are oppressed by the
select upper class. It aims to change this using the government power. The
Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, the other Backward Castes, and the
minorities, are the most oppressed and exploited people in India. Keeping in mind
their large numbers, such a set of people in India is known as the Bahujan Samaj.
The Party organize these masses.
• The party work for these down trodden masses to-
a. to remove their backwardness;
b. to fight against their oppression and exploitation;
c. to improve their status in society and public life;
d. to improve their living conditions in day to day life.
• The social structure of India is based on inequalities created by caste system. The
movement of the Party is geared towards changing the social system and rebuild it
on the basis of equality and human values.
• The two communist parties are the Communist Party of India
(CPI) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) [CPI(M)] next
to the Congress. They are supporting the United Progressive
Alliance (UPA) government at the Centre from outside.
• The Communist Party is the oldest in India. The communist
movement began in the early twenties and the Communist
Party was founded in 1925.
• The communists assert that the people should be
economically equal and the society should not be divided into
classes of rich and poor. The workers and peasants and other
toiling people who do most of the productive work for the
society, should be given due recognition and power.
Indian National Congress
• Indian National Congress (INC) or generally known as the Congress
Party is prominent political player in India. INC came in to existence
in 1885 in Bombay. W.C. Bonnarjee was the first President of the
Indian National Congress. The congress is ideologically committed
to socialism, secularism and democracy.
• Their special emphasis is on the planned economic development of
country in which the Govt, is expected to play a key role.
• The party enjoyed the support of the common people and played a
very significant role in the freedom struggle. Thus, party supports
common people and ensures development of a country as a whole.
• They try to inculcate a feeling of national unity to
eradicate the notion of race, creed and provincial
• Seek the co-operation of all the Indians in its efforts
and allow them to take part in the administrative
affairs of the country.
• Eradicate poverty has been a slogan of the Indian
National Congress for long. Their main motive is to
find a solution to the social problems of the country.
Nationalist Congress Party
The Nationalist Congress Party became a
registered political party when the Election
Commission of India accorded registration to the
party as a political party on 5th June 1999 under
section 29A of the Representation of Peoples'
Ideology of NCP Party
• Maintaining the unity and integrity of India by building up on the concept of unity in diversity
and by strengthening federalism and decentralisation of power consistent with the Gandhian
concept of taking it right down to the village level;
• Promoting economic growth and prosperity through competition, self-reliance, individual
initiative and enterprise with emphasis on equity and social justice;
• Strengthening the Rule of Law and Constitutional Order based on Parliamentary and
• Empowerment of the weaker sections through affirmative actions in favour of the
disadvantaged sections of the society like Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, Other
Backward Classes, Women and the Disabled.
• Promoting science and technology, including by drawing upon traditional indigenous know-
how and constantly adapting the same to the changing needs of modern Indian society;
monitoring the application of science and technology so adapted, immediately for the overall
betterment of the people and ultimately for generation, amongst them, of the spirit of
inquiry and scientific temper;
• Strengthening the forces of peace within the country and in the world; attempting to secure
universal, non-discriminatory disarmament; maintaining an independent Indian position and
identity in world affairs; and committing to resolving international conflicts through a
strengthened and truly representative United Nations;
• Ensuring institutionalised and democratic functioning of the Party at all levels by
encouraging free exchange of views and permitting the members of the Party to make their
best individual contribution to enrich the lives of the people in all spheres;
CRISIS OF INDIAN PARTY SYSTEM
1. Multiple Party system
2. One Dominant Party System
3. Rise of Effective Opposition Party
4. Independent Members
5. Lack of Continuous Contact with the Masses
6. Absence of Clear-cut Ideology
7. Criminalisation of Politics
8. Existence of many Cummunal and Regional Parties