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Advertisement effectiveness.


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Advertisement effectiveness.

  1. 1. Measuring the Effectiveness of the Promotional Program 1 9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Pros and Cons of Measuring Effectiveness Objections of creativesObjections of creatives Evaluate alternative strategies Evaluate alternative strategies Avoid costly mistakesAvoid costly mistakes Increase efficiency in general Increase efficiency in general Disagreement on what to test Disagreement on what to test Research problemsResearch problems Cost of measurementCost of measurement Determine if objectives are achieved Determine if objectives are achieved TimeTime Advantages Disadvantages
  3. 3. Evaluating Alternative Strategies
  4. 4. Measuring Effectiveness: Marketers’ Views Issue Agree MPM is a key priority for today’s technology companies. 90% I am dissatisfied with our ability to demonstrate marketing programs’ business impact and value. 80% It is important to define, measure, and take concrete steps in the area of advertising accountability. 61.5% I can forecast the impact on sales of a 10% cut in marketing spending. 37%
  5. 5. How to test • Testing guidelines • Appropriate tests How to test • Testing guidelines • Appropriate tests Measuring Advertising Effectiveness When to test • Pretesting • Posttesting When to test • Pretesting • Posttesting Where to test • Laboratory tests • Field tests Where to test • Laboratory tests • Field tests What to test • Source factors • Message variables • Media strategies • Budget decisions What to test • Source factors • Message variables • Media strategies • Budget decisions
  6. 6. Pretesting Methods On-air Tests Dummy Ad VehiclesConsumer Juries Portfolio Tests Physiological Measures Theater Tests Rough Tests Concept Tests Readability Tests Comprehension and Reaction Tests Laboratory Field
  7. 7. Posttesting Methods Recall TestsRecall Tests Inquiry TestsInquiry Tests Association Measures Association Measures Single- Source Systems Single- Source Systems Tracking Studies Tracking Studies Recognition Tests Recognition Tests MethodsMethods
  8. 8. Posttesting the Value of a Sponsorship
  9. 9. Test Your Knowledge Laboratory methods of testing for advertisement effectiveness generally offer high control but low _____. A) realism B) external validity C) costs D) generalization E) value
  10. 10. Where to Test In the Field   In the Lab
  11. 11. Positioning Advertising Copy Test (PACT) 1. Provide measurements relevant to objectives of advertising 2. Require agreement on how results will be used 3. Provide multiple measures 4. Be based on a model of human response to communications 5. Consider multiple versus single exposure to the stimulus 6. Require alternative executions to have same degree of finish 7. Provide controls to avoid biasing effects of exposure context 8. Take into account basic considerations of sample definition 9. Demonstrate reliability and validity
  12. 12. Test Points 3.Finished art or commercial pretesting 3.Finished art or commercial pretesting 1.Concept Testing1.Concept Testing 2.Rough Testing2.Rough Testing 4.Market testing (posttesting) 4.Market testing (posttesting) Occurs at Various Stages Occurs at Various Stages
  13. 13. Concept Testing Explores consumers’ responses to ad concepts expressed in words, pictures, or symbols ObjectiveObjective Alternatives are exposed to consumers who match the target audience Reactions & evaluations sought through focus groups, direct questioning, surveys, etc. Sample sizes depend on the number of concepts and the consensus of responses MethodMethod Qualitative and/or quantitative data evaluating and comparing alternative concepts OutputOutput
  14. 14. Rough Art, Copy, and Commercial Testing Number of ads that can be evaluated is limited Preference for ad types may overshadow objectivity Consumer may become a self-appointed expert A halo effect is possible Cost effectiveness Endorsements by independent third parties Achievement of credibility Comprehension and Reaction Tests Consumer Juries Control Advantages Disadvantages
  15. 15. Rough Testing Terms Photomatic RoughPhotomatic Rough Animatic RoughAnimatic Rough Live-action RoughLive-action Rough TermsTerms
  16. 16. An Animatic Example from Airwalk *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  17. 17. Spot Resulting from Animatic Rough *Click outside of the video screen to advance to the next slide
  18. 18. Pretesting Finished Print Ads Based on syllables per 100 words Other factors also considered Readability Tests Readability Tests A laboratory method Includes test and control ads Portfolio test have problems Portfolio Tests Portfolio Tests Distributed to random sample homes Product interest may still bias results Dummy Advertising Vehicles Dummy Advertising Vehicles
  19. 19. Test Your Knowledge _____ is a method of testing ads by placing them randomly in certain copies of regularly distributed magazines. A) Vehicle source testing B) Burke's reflection test C) A Flesch test D) Dummy advertising vehicle testing E) A contextual test
  20. 20. Pretesting Finished Broadcast Ads Theater Tests •Measures changes in product preferences •May also measure . . . •Interest in and reaction to the commercial •Reaction from an adjective checklist •Recall of various aspects included •Interest in the brand presented •Continuous reactions On-Air Tests •Insertion in TV programs in specific markets •Limitations are imposed by “day-after recall” •Physiological Measures
  21. 21. Physiological Measures Eye trackingEye tracking Pupil dilationPupil dilation Galvanic skin response Galvanic skin response Brain wavesBrain waves TestingTesting
  22. 22. Market Testing Print Ads Recall TestsRecall Tests Inquiry TestsInquiry Tests Recognition Tests Recognition Tests Tracking StudiesTracking Studies TestingTesting
  23. 23. Starch-Scored Sports Illustrated Ad Noted score– the percentage of readers who remember seeing the ad Seen-associated score— the percentage who remember seeing or reading any part of the ad identifying the product or brand Read most score—the percentage of readers who report reading at least half of the copy portion of the ad.
  24. 24. Posttests of Broadcast Commercials Test marketing Day after recall tests Persuasive measures Diagnostics Comprehensive measures Single-source tracking Tracking studies Testing
  25. 25. Comprehensive Testing by Ipsos-ASI
  26. 26. Problems With Current Research Methods
  27. 27. Essentials of Effective Testing Use a consumer response model Use a consumer response model Use pretests and posttests Use pretests and posttests Use multiple measures Use multiple measures Understand and implement proper research Understand and implement proper research Establish communications objectives Establish communications objectives TestingTesting
  28. 28. Test Your Knowledge Good tests of advertising effectiveness must address the nine principles established by PACT. One of the easiest ways to do this is to follow a decision sequence model. The first step in the model is to: A) Understand the appropriate research B) Create a model that uses multiple measures C) Establish communication objectives D) Decide whether to use posttests or pretests E) Develop a consumer response model
  29. 29. Measuring Effectiveness of Other Programs Shopping cart signageShopping cart signage Ski resort-based mediaSki resort-based media In-store radio and televisionIn-store radio and television Other mediaOther media Non- traditional media Non- traditional media Sales promotions Sales promotions Sponsor- ships Sponsor- ships Exposure methodsExposure methods Tracking measuresTracking measures
  30. 30. Measuring Effectiveness + Efficiency