Environmental Science 3rd Lecture


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Environmental Science 3rd Lecture

  1. 1. Environmental Science 3 rd Lecture FEU Makati
  2. 2. Environmental / Ecological Impact Assessment <ul><li>Refers to a wide range of predictive tasks within environmental planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the prediction and evaluation of the effects of human activities on the structure and functions of normal ecosystem components. </li></ul><ul><li>- Required for selected actions that one expects to have significant effects on human environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Main rationale: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To have an opportunity to identify costly and undesirable effects. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To modify projects in the design stage. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Definition of Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ecological – refers to ecosystem components (structures) and their interactions ( functions). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Impact – refers to both human-induced action, </li></ul><ul><li>or activity and to its effects on ecosystems, or to the effect on and its significance to human society. 3 distinct concepts: Action, effect and significance </li></ul><ul><li> - effect of human-induced action on the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. Assessment – refers to analyzing and evaluating impacts on ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis – is the objective task of identifying actions, and of taking measurements of baseline conditions that are likely to occur as a result of the actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – is a subjective or normative task which depends on the application of human values. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Phases of EIA <ul><li>Phase I: Defining Study Goals </li></ul><ul><li>What information is needed and how precise must it be? </li></ul><ul><li>a. the proponent to minimize environment impact </li></ul><ul><li>b. the government agency to reach a decision on approving the project </li></ul><ul><li>c. concerned groups to know how they will be affected </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. What resources are needed for the study? What resources are available? </li></ul><ul><li>a. Expertise needed/available </li></ul><ul><li>b. Time needed for baseline and experimental studies/ Time remains before the project is supposed to begin </li></ul><ul><li>c. Money needed to conduct the proposed studies. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Phase II: Identifying Potential Impacts <ul><li>What are the boundaries of potential impacts ? </li></ul><ul><li>a. area affected </li></ul><ul><li>b. Organisms or ecological function affected </li></ul><ul><li>c. Duration of the project </li></ul><ul><li>d. Interval before effects occur </li></ul><ul><li>e. Duration of effects with and without mitigation </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>2. What is the range of potential impacts? </li></ul><ul><li>Major direct actions </li></ul><ul><li>Major ecological components (air, water, land, biota, structures affected) </li></ul><ul><li>Major ecological processes affected </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect effects triggered at a future time or different place </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of cumulative effects </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>3.Which potential impacts are most significant? </li></ul><ul><li>a. violate existing laws, plans or policies </li></ul><ul><li>b. cause major adverse effects on species population numbers </li></ul><ul><li>c. cause major disruption to ecosystem processes, or species </li></ul><ul><li>d. cause health risks, economic loses or significant social disruption to people </li></ul>
  11. 11. Phase III: Measuring Baseline Conditions and Predicting Significant Impacts <ul><li>Baseline Conditions: Significant features of the ecosystem at present </li></ul><ul><li>A. Current pattern of fluctuation in population sizes for important species </li></ul><ul><li>B. Dominant species / critical role in the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>C. Condition of the Physical resources (quality, quantity, dynamics) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Major pathways of interaction between ecological components </li></ul><ul><li>E. Sources of stress ( natural /human induced) ex. Fire, air pollution, grazing </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2. Predictions: Major effects of the proposed action </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies – effects from similar instances </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling – quantitative models of similar interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Bioassay and Microcosm Studies – Experiments </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>3. Estimation of Likelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Probability of occurrence of the predicted events </li></ul><ul><li>Precise – magnitude and likelihood of impacts </li></ul><ul><li>4. Summarizing and Analyzing Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Findings – tables, graphs or indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological interpretation of the findings </li></ul>
  14. 14. Phase IV: Evaluating Significance of Findings <ul><li>1. Distribution of the effects among affected groups </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and magnitude of the impact </li></ul><ul><li>2. Goals achieved by the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Proponent’s goal </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental goal and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of affected group </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>3. Overall social significance of the predicted ecological effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects as compared with other social goods, services and values </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary values on normally unpriced goods and services </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phase V: Considering Alternatives to the Proposed actions <ul><li>Effect of not proceeding with the project </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving ultimate goals by an entirely different means( Maintaining electr. services instead of creating a new power plant </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative designs to achieve project goals </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. Mitigations of adverse environmental effects of the proposed project </li></ul><ul><li>a. Modification of the design to reduce effects </li></ul><ul><li>b. Monitoring and provisions made for future mitigation of project effects </li></ul><ul><li>c. Replacement of affected components </li></ul>
  18. 18. Phase VI: Communication of Findings and Recommendation <ul><li>Communicate the findings of the proposed project </li></ul><ul><li>Decision for probable action for recommendation of project for approval </li></ul>
  19. 19. Phase VII: Monitoring Effects of Action <ul><li>Monitor the effects of the implemented Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure public participation and comments in the project monitoring of the effects of action. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Legal Framework of EIA <ul><li>Philippine Environmental Policy </li></ul><ul><li>National Environmental Policy </li></ul><ul><li>a. create, develop, maintain and improve conditions so man and nature will have productive harmony. </li></ul><ul><li>b. fulfill social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations </li></ul><ul><li>c. ensure environmental quality that is conducive to dignified life and well-being. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>2. National Environmental Goal </li></ul><ul><li>recognize, discharge and fulfill the responsibilities of each generation </li></ul><ul><li>Assure the people of a healthy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the use of the environment w/o degrading it </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve important historic and cultural aspects of heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Attain balance between population and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the utilization of renewable and non-renewable resources. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>3. Right to a Healthy Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Recognize the duty and responsibility of every individual to preserve and enhance the environment </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>4. E nvironmental I mpact S tatement </li></ul><ul><li>- refers to the comprehensive process of assessing the significance of the effects of a project or undertaking on the quality of the physical, biological and socio-economic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>E nvironmental C ompliance C ertificate </li></ul><ul><li>- Document issued by the DENR Secretary or his authorized rep. ( EMB Central Office Director or EMB regional director </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention.