How it Works 1. Biological Metaphor Just like getting a shot to build up resistance to an illness. 2. Application If we want someone to be resistant to a message, give them enough of it and guide them through resistance of it.
Warning of future persuasive intent 1. Tell them that someone will be trying to persuade them in the future 2. This makes an audience more resistant and more likely to listen to a counterargument later when they have listened to the other message
Warning of specific future arguments 1. Tell the audience specific arguments they may encounter in the future 2. This makes the audience more resistant to the message and even gets them to begin counterarguments against the message
Inoculation and Issue Involvement Warnings tend to create greater resistance to persuasion on topics of high issue involvement for the receivers.
Implications This is an effective way to make persuasive messages last longer.
When the strength of some aspect of a communicated message weakens over time. It could be the source’s effect or some type of peripheral cue.
How it Works 1. Cues attached to the message a. Positive: The source is credible. The argument is solid. b. Negative: Source is not credible, few arguments, or weak arguments. 2. Over time, cues detach from message – we forget the source, and arguments
3. Impact of the Message Changes a. When the message is detached from positive cues, the effectiveness of the message decays over time. b. When the message is detached from negative cues, the message may become more effective over time.
Necessary Conditions 1) Message impact on attitudes – message must have influenced the audience’s attitudes. 2) Cue power – The cue must have had some effect on the attitudes 3) Timely detachment of cues – Audience forgets the cue before they forget the message’s content
Processing Route & Persistence to Change Persuasion is more persistent when it occurs centrally