A Brief List of In & Out <ul><li>Left vs. Right </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks vs. Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Rome vs. Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Rome vs. Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>1960s Civil Rights Movement </li></ul>
Who are the current In & Out-Groups in our world?
Rejection of Out-Groups Bias Displays: This can include things like hasty generalizations of an out-group, stereotyping, hostile epithets, verbal aggression towards out group members.
Discrimination Discrimination comes about only when we deny to individuals or groups of people quality of treatment which they may wish. Discrimination is about equal rights, not special rights.
Cycle of Confrontation 1) Period of categorical judgment about the out-group. 2) Period of verbal complaint against out-group. 3) Growing discrimination.
Cycle of Confrontation 4) Outside stain on the in-group. 5) Irrationalism surfaces as a predominant in-group motto. 6) Organized groups surface against out-group.
Cycle of Confrontation 7) These organizations provide the individual courage. 8) Trigger Event Ex. Detroit race riots was fueled by a rumor that an African American man had thrown a white women’s baby into the Detroit River.
How Rumors Work against Out-Groups <ul><li>Build up animosity towards out-group members </li></ul><ul><li>Create a state of emergency for in-group </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain excitement during crises </li></ul>
Group Traits vs. Stereotypes Group Trait: Biological difference between two groups of people.
Stupid Minor Differences (ex. Finger Prints) Loops – Europeans, black Africans, East Asians Whorls – Mongolians and Australia Aborigines Arches – Khoisans & Central Europeans
Stereotype: An exaggerated belief associated with a category. Its function is to justify (rationalize) our conduct in relation to that category.
Stereotyping Exercise 1) Asian American 2) Hispanic 3) Gay Man 4) Woman over 75
Eric Shinseki First Japanese American member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Dr. Ellen Ochoa A veteran of four space flights, Ochoa has logged over 978 hours in space.
Congressman Barney Frank He has been serving in the US congress since 1981.
Maya Angelou She is a famous American poet, memoirist, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Two Types of Stereotypes <ul><li>Heterostereotypes - One group’s stereotype of another group. </li></ul><ul><li>Autostereotypes - A group’s stereotypes of its own group members: a kind of self-image defined at the group level. </li></ul>
How do we learn Stereotypes ? 1) Directly: We experience people from group X. 2) Indirectly: Another person relays experiences of group X.
Indirect Ways to Learn Stereotypes <ul><li>Other People </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological Study </li></ul><ul><li>Examine Media Outlets for the group </li></ul>
Classic Charges against Stereotypes <ul><li>Stereotypes are factually incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are illogical in origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are based in prejudice. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are irrationally resistant to new information. </li></ul>
Accurate Charges <ul><li>Stereotypes are exaggerations of real group differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are ethnocentric. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes imply genetic origins of group differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes presume Out-group Homogeneity. </li></ul>
Stereotyping and Research Little to No Research in this area Little to No Research in this area Positive Most of the research is in this area Little to No Research in this area Negative Inaccurate Accurate
J-Curve of Conformity Behavior The essential attributes of a group – those characteristics that define the group tend to follow a J-curve type distribution. Stereotype: All Catholics Go to Mass on Sunday
Rare-Zero Differentials When people think the majority of people within a group have a specific characteristic when only a few really do. Stereotype: All Texans own horses and live on ranches.
Overlapping Normal Curves Overlapping between groups on a specific construct. In 1994, Richard Herrnstein & Charles Murray Published The Bell Curve.
Problems with the Book 1) Herrnstein & Murray attempt to make their argument completely race based (genetic difference), while discounting a possible cultural reason. 2) However, socio-economic status, cultural background, parental education, and other factors account for the difference as well.
Categorical Differentials These are actual differences that are seen more so in specific groups. The information given previously in this lecture on finger prints is an example of a categorical difference.
Physiological shifts of the species that have occurred from mutation, selection, migration, and genetic drifts.
Realistic Outlook on Race Jared Diamond (1994) 1. Khoisans of South Africa 2. African Blacks – would form 3 distinct races alone 3. The REST of the World – Norwegians, Europeans, Navajo, Greeks, Japanese, Australian Aborigines