2,000 Died Instantly 20,000 Died in the First Week 200,000+ were injured
Three Phases of Risk Communication Phase I (1975-1984) – Risk Assessment Model Phase II (1985-1994) – Risk Management Model Phase III (1994-Present Day) – Risk Communication Model
Basic Terminology Hazard: Anything that can cause morbidity (injury) or mortality (death). Risk: The probability of morbidity (loss of limb or injury) or mortality (loss of life) associated with a specific hazard.
Risk Communication The process by which an individual or group of individuals (risk communicator[s]) stimulates meaning in the minds of another individual or group individuals (receiver[s]) about the morbidity and mortality associated with a specific hazard by means of verbal, nonverbal, and mediated messages.
Wrench, Fiore, & Charbonnette “The Impact of Crisis Communication on Levels of Acute-Traumatic Stress Disorder As a Result of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the United States” .20 .50 Canonical Correlation .28 -.76 Hyperarousal .82 -.41 Intrusion .19 -.91 Avoidance .82 .58 Crisis Knowledge .29 -.96 Receiver Apprehension Variate #2 Variate #1
Impact of Receiver Characteristics + + Locus of Control + + Psychoticism + Neuroticism Extraversion Human Temperament Receiver Characteristics Belief About Harm Risk Knowledge Technical Democratic Communication Variables
Future Directions <ul><li>More research is needed on crisis communication in general. </li></ul><ul><li>More receiver characteristics that could impact perceived Risk. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to experimentally test the effect of political affiliation on people’s perceptions of a source of risk communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Risk and Crisis Communication is fairly a theoretical, which needs to change. </li></ul>