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This slide corresponds with Wrench, McCroskey, and Richmond's (2008) Human Communication in Everyday Life: Explanations and Applications published by Allyn and Bacon.

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  1. 1. Chapter 14: Mediated Communication <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of this program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Evolution of Human Communication <ul><li>Early human communication probably involved nothing more than grunting, squealing, smiling, pushing, and grabbing. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, approximately 5,000 oral languages exist on earth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Written Communication <ul><li>Today there are about 100 written languages. </li></ul><ul><li>If the history of human communication were represented by a typical 12-inch ruler, the history of writing would be included in less than the last quarter of an inch . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pictographic System: form of writing where there is no pretense that the written language is the same as the oral language (aka. Chinese). </li></ul><ul><li>Orthographic System: form of writing where the alphabetical symbols are put together to approximate the sounds of the oral language. </li></ul>Two Systems of Writing
  5. 5. Problems Understanding Written Language <ul><li>Cultural idioms from one time period may make no sense in a different time period. </li></ul><ul><li>Translating writing from one language to another language often is an impossible task. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically only highly educated and trained people were able to read, write, and understand written language. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Viewing Communication Multidimensionally (p. 307) Book Newspaper Magazine Film Videotape CD Rom Book Newspaper Magazine Film Videotape Billboard CD ROM Microphone Ham Radio Live Radio Live TV Chat Rooms Public Speech or a Series of Speeches Mass Audience Videotape Film Videotape Film Interactive TV Interactive Computer Formal Meeting Speeches & Questions Large Group Meeting E-mail with Copies Letter with Copies E-mail with Copies Letter with Copies Teleconference Videoconference Chat Rooms Interactive Computer Live Group Discussion Small Group Interaction Memo/Letter E-mail Voice mail Virtual Reality Memo/Letter E-mail Voice Mail Art Telephone Computer Mediated Communication Video Phone C.B. Radio Live Conversation Dyadic Interaction Level of Mediation Potential Receivers
  7. 7. Media and Dyadic Communication <ul><li>Letter Writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Einstein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>CB Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Ham Radio </li></ul>
  8. 8. Media and Group Communication <ul><li>Written Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Computer Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mediated Public Communication <ul><li>One to Many Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Communication </li></ul>
  10. 10. Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) Brief History of CMC Located on pp. 312-313.
  11. 11. Two Types <ul><li>Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication (CMC): Form of mediated communication where people interact with each other at varying times. </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (CMC): Form of mediated communication that occurs in real-time (or approximates real-time). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Walther’s Social Information Processing (SIP) Theory
  13. 13. Walther (1996) proposed that CMC and face-to-face (FtF) interactions were functional equivalents of each other, but online relationships needed more time to develop. SIP theorizes that individuals interacting online will adapt existing communicative cues to replace the lack of cues in the CMC situations caused by a like of nonverbal communication (touch, feel, taste, smell, proximity, etc.).
  14. 14. Three Primary Assumptions <ul><ul><li>Online interaction is a result of a drive for affiliation, impression management, or the need for dominance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating online requires individuals to learn how to transmit relational content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People communicating online take longer to learn the medium (than face to face) and longer to get to know other. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. CMC & CA
  16. 16. Wrench, Fiore, & McCroskey (2006) <ul><li>CA & WTC did not relate to perceived CMC Competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraverts were more CMC Competent. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraverts were more likely to turn CMC interactions into FtF interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>High CA people were more comfortable in CMC than in FtF interactions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Wrench & Punyanunt-Carter (2007) – Fill out the CMCA Scales (pp. 405-407) <ul><li>CMCA was negatively related to computer efficacy. </li></ul><ul><li>CMCA was negatively related to internet efficacy. </li></ul><ul><li>CMCA was negatively related to CMC competence. </li></ul><ul><li>CMCA was negatively related to CMC Presence. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Future Considerations <ul><li>Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul>