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This slide corresponds with Wrench, McCroskey, and Richmond's (2008) Human Communication in Everyday Life: Explanations and Applications published by Allyn and Bacon.

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  1. 1. Chapter 12: Biological Sex and Gender in Communication <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of this program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Two Types of Differences
  3. 3. Differences of Kind <ul><li>Differences that occur when two groups do different things associated with their groups. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Differences of Degree <ul><li>Differences that occur when two groups have differing degrees on a trait that that they both display. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Biological Differences Between Males and Females
  6. 7. Hormonal Differences <ul><li>Hormone: A chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland or group of endocrine cells that acts to control or regulate specific physiological processes, including growth, metabolism, and reproduction. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Sex Differences Related to Hormones <ul><li>Reaction to Narcotics (especially cocaine) </li></ul><ul><li>Body Fat Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma Incidence & Severity </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of Depression (especially following child birth) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing (especially linked with testosterone) </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sexually Dimorphic Brain Structures
  9. 10. The Case of Aggression <ul><li>Neuroscientist Simon LeVay (1993) has found that aggressive behavior in humans is primarily seated in a portion of the brain called the amygdala (the Greek word for almond). </li></ul>
  10. 11. The amygdala in humans is the central point for many behaviors that have strong emotional aspects: aggression, fear-driven behavior, and sexual behavior.
  11. 12. <ul><li>Males’ amygdala is almost twice as large as females’. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, highly aggressive and uncontrolled individuals often undergo a bilateral ablation of the amygdala (removal) to decrease the unwanted behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Verbal Fluency <ul><li>Females tend to process information bilaterally (using both sides of their brain), while males tend to compartmentalize information in either the left or the right side. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Verbal language is processed in the left hemisphere, but women do have some activity in the right hemisphere while men do not. This is one reason why females recover verbal skills quicker if a stroke happens in the left hemisphere. </li></ul>
  14. 15. BIG NOTE <ul><li>Canary and Hause (1993) analyzed 1,200 research articles and found that only about 1% of social behavior can be attributed to a person’s biological sex. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Development of Sex Roles Expectations <ul><li>Cultural Level (how females and males should behave) </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Level (clothing, education, occupation, leisure ) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Level (our expectations for significant others – Wife cooks; man mows) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Expectations of Sex Roles Instrumental Task-Oriented Expressive Other-Oriented
  17. 18. Psychological Gender Orientation <ul><li>Level of Self-Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance (Instrumentality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submissiveness (Expressiveness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Sex-Typed (males = dominance; female = submissive) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex-Reversed (males = submissive; female = dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Androgyny </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Metrosexual (Simpson, 2002) Dandyish narcissist in love with not only himself, but also his urban lifestyle; a straight man who is in touch with his feminine side.
  19. 20. Gender and Friendships
  20. 21. Females <ul><li>Tend to be Communal (high in intimacy, personal/emotional expressiveness, high in self-disclosure, quality of self-disclosure, confiding, and emotionally supportive). </li></ul>
  21. 22. Males <ul><li>Tend to be Agentic (friendships tend to be activity centered or task oriented – certain friends for certain activities). </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be less self-disclosure. </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to include exhibitions of dominance and competition. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Female-Male Friendships <ul><li>Can men and women just be friends? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Plato right, will female and male relationships never get past sexuality? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Intimate Female-Male Relationships
  24. 25. Male Views <ul><li>Men equate intimacy with sexual activity much more so than do women. </li></ul><ul><li>For the males studied, intimacy with females could not be discussed without reference to sex, and many males reported that their first thoughts when meeting a female in a work environment were about her possibilities as a sexual partner. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Female Views <ul><li>Unlike males, females do not openly admit to seeing sex as highly important in male-female relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to feel that opposite-sex relationships can develop and be sustained without implications for sex. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Clark and Hatfield (1989) <ul><li>Confederates approached strangers of the opposite sex and asked them to (a) go out tonight, (b) come over to my apartment, or (c) go to bed with me. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Female Participants <ul><li>Half would go on a date. </li></ul><ul><li>3% would come over to my apartment. </li></ul><ul><li>0 would have sex with the confederate. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Male Participants <ul><li>Half would go on a date. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the men were willing to either go to the women’s apartment or go to bed with the female stranger. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Sexual Communication
  30. 31. Sexual Communication Satisfaction <ul><li>“ Satisfaction with communication about sexual behavior and the satisfaction that sexual behavior itself communicates” (Wheeless, Wheeless & Baus, 1981, p. 2). </li></ul>
  31. 32. Sexual Communicator Style (p. 397) <ul><li>Nonverbal Sexual Communication: The process of one person stimulating meaning in the mind of another person or persons their sexual desires by means of nonverbal messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Sexual Communication: The process of one person stimulating meaning in the mind of another person or persons their sexual desires through the use of verbal symbols or words. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Scoring Information <ul><li>Verbal Sexual Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Over 30 are High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Under 30 are Low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Sexual Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Over 30 are High </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Under 30 are Low </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Sexually Competent Communicators Sexual Verbalizers High Verbal Sexual Demonstrators Sexual Repressives Low Verbal High Nonverbal Low Nonverbal