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Internal Consulting Skills

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Internal Consulting Skills

  1. 1. OH 1-2 Skills for InternalSkills for Internal ConsultantsConsultants Penny L Ittner, Donald G. Roberts, Alex F. Douds Facilitated by Jason R. Murphy Manager, Employee Training and Organizational Development American Express CSBS Operations Training
  2. 2. Workshop ObjectivesWorkshop Objectives By the end of the workshop, you will be able to: • Use systematic consulting processes in performing your role as a consultant. • Build client credibility and maintain strong client relationships throughout the consulting process.
  3. 3. Module 2: OverviewModule 2: Overview  Fundamentals of consulting  Peter Block’s five-phase model  Key principles in consulting flawlessly
  4. 4. Module 2: ObjectivesModule 2: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Describe the general principles involved in consulting effectively. • Describe a five-phase consulting model and the consulting tasks associated with the model. • Describe the principles involved in “flawless consulting.”
  5. 5. ConsultantConsultant A Person . . . • In a position to have some influence • With no direct power to make changes
  6. 6. ClientsClients Individuals or Groups … • With authority to implement your recommendations • Whom you want to influence, without exercising direct control
  7. 7. ProblemProblem The difference between what “is” and what “should be” The “gap”
  8. 8. An InterventionAn Intervention The goal or endThe goal or end product of aproduct of a consulting activityconsulting activity
  9. 9. Three Kinds ofThree Kinds of Consulting SkillsConsulting Skills  Technical skills  Interpersonal skills  Consulting skills
  10. 10. Consultant RolesConsultant Roles Expert
  11. 11. Consultant RolesConsultant Roles Collaborative
  12. 12. Block’s ModelBlock’s Model Entry and Contracting Data Collection and Diagnosis Feedback and the Decision to Act Implementation Extension, Recycle, or Termination
  13. 13. Seven Step Problem-SolvingSeven Step Problem-Solving ModelModel 1. Problem Definition 2. Data Collection 3. Analysis 4. Decisions 5. Implementation Plans 6. Implementation 7. Evaluation Client Consultant Note: The consultant provides support at each step—The client is involved in taking action at each step and is in control. Block’s Model Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
  14. 14. FlawlessFlawless ConsultingConsulting  Partnering with clients  Developing commitment for change  Acting authentically  Trusting yourself and your experience
  15. 15. Module 2: Key PointsModule 2: Key Points  Consulting starts with a “gap”  Block’s model provides a road map  Flawless consulting requires: » Partnering » Developing commitment for change » Acting authentically » Trusting yourself
  16. 16. Module 3: OverviewModule 3: Overview  Sources of consulting projects  Entry/contracting steps  Exploration meetings  Contracting
  17. 17. Module 3: ObjectivesModule 3: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Conduct an exploratory meeting with a client. • Contract with a client about a consulting project.
  18. 18. Sources ofSources of ConsultingConsulting ProjectsProjects  The client  A “third party”  The consultant
  19. 19. Entry/ContractingEntry/Contracting StepsSteps  Initial Contact  Exploration  Contracting
  20. 20. ExplorationExploration Meeting: GoalsMeeting: Goals  Collaborative consulting relationship  Clearer image of:  the problem  how you can help  the requirements
  21. 21. EExplorationxploration Meeting: ProcessMeeting: Process Begin/enhance the relationship » Demonstrate eagerness to help » Express positive feelings Scope the project » Get client’s view » Ask what’s happened so far » Help clarify desired future state
  22. 22. ExplorationExploration Meeting ProcessMeeting Process (continued)(continued) Explore the help needed » Get client’s view » Suggest how you can help Identify parameters » Identify constraints, resources » Identify decision maker(s)
  23. 23. ExplorationExploration Meeting ProcessMeeting Process (continued)(continued) Agree on next steps » What you will do » What the client will do » Set date for contract review
  24. 24. ContractingContracting GoalsGoals  Collaborative consulting relationship  Agreement on:  The project goals  The project approach  The expectations of each party
  25. 25. Contract ElementsContract Elements  Background  Project goals  Suggested project approach  Schedule  Roles  Evaluation  Next steps
  26. 26. Module 3: Key PointsModule 3: Key Points  Entry/Contracting phase holds the key to project success  Consider exploration meetings as means of clarifying projects and enhancing client relationships  Contracting encourages agreement on project goals, approach, and mutual expectations
  27. 27. Block’sBlock’s ModelModel  Entry and Contracting  Data Collection and Diagnosis  Feedback and the Decision to Act  Implementation  Extension, Recycle, or Termination
  28. 28. Module 4:Module 4: OverviewOverview  One-to-one interviewing  Focus groups  Questionnaires  Data analysis
  29. 29. Module 4: ObjectivesModule 4: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Conduct a one-to-one interview. • Run a focus group. • Describe how to develop and administer questionnaires. • Analyze data collected about a client’s problem.
  30. 30. Data CollectionData Collection MethodsMethods  Interviews  Questionnaires  Observation
  31. 31. PreparationPreparation  The interviewer  The interviewee  The environment
  32. 32. Interviewing SkillsInterviewing Skills  Establishing and maintaining rapport  Questioning efficiently  Listening and observing  Taking notes and preparing summaries
  33. 33. Focus Group:Focus Group: CharacteristicsCharacteristics  Lasts 1–2 hours  Consists of 8–12 people who:  Have particular knowledge/experience with the topic, or  Share common characteristics  Conducted by a facilitator
  34. 34. Focus Group:Focus Group: StepsSteps Discuss the focus group with the client Clarify logistics Select participants Clarify the client’s role Discuss feedback with participants
  35. 35. Focus Group:Focus Group: StepsSteps (continued)(continued) Draft a focus group guide An introductory section The questions A closing section Review the guide with the client and make modifications, as needed
  36. 36. Ground RulesGround Rules  All points of view are encouraged and accepted  Silence is OK  One person speaks at a time  Disagreement is ok, but no personal attacks  Confidentiality will be maintained
  37. 37. Facilitator TasksFacilitator Tasks Conduct introductory activities Introductions, purpose/objectives of meeting, ground rules Facilitate discussion of the issues Follow the guide Encourage participation Listen, elicit elaboration, gatekeep Limit own statements Test for consensus
  38. 38. Facilitator TasksFacilitator Tasks (continued)(continued) Summarize the issues Close the meeting Thank participants for their contributions Explain what will happen with the data Communicate client’s intentions regarding feedback
  39. 39. CreatingCreating QuestionnairesQuestionnaires Determine what you need to know Choose a response format Write the questions Prepare a summary sheet Pilot test/revise questions Develop introduction
  40. 40. Factors inFactors in Choosing aChoosing a Data-CollectionData-Collection MethodMethod  Data to be collected  Resources  Organizational preferences  Own preferences
  41. 41. Potential Areas forPotential Areas for ChangeChange  Findings that appear significant to solving the problem  Issues that were significant to the respondents
  42. 42. Module 4: Key PointsModule 4: Key Points  Phase II of the consulting process provides the data the client needs to improve the organization.  Use data-collection methods that will provide the quantity and quality of data needed.  The end result of data analysis is the identification of potential areas for change.
  43. 43. Block’s ModelBlock’s Model  Entry and Contracting  Data Collection and Diagnosis  Feedback and the Decision to Act  Implementation  Extension, Recycle, or Termination
  44. 44. Module 5:Module 5: OverviewOverview  Feedback principles  Feedback meetings
  45. 45. Module 5: ObjectivesModule 5: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Identify key elements involved in providing organizational feedback. • Plan for a data-feedback meeting. • Deliver feedback effectively.
  46. 46. Possible Effects of FeedbackPossible Effects of Feedback (Used with the permission of David Nadler) Feedback Energy? Positive Direction? Structures/ Processes? No Change Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Change No Change Change
  47. 47. Expressions ofExpressions of ResistanceResistance  Deny the data  Deny responsibility
  48. 48. Feedback CriteriaFeedback Criteria  Is it relevant?  Is it understandable?  Is it descriptive?  Is it limited?  Is it impactable?  Is it comparative?  Is it unfinalized?
  49. 49. PresentingPresenting Feedback DataFeedback Data  Present positive data first  Order your findings/recommendations  Highest payoffs first  Quick fixes, then long- term solutions  Limit the data
  50. 50. Module 5: Key PointsModule 5: Key Points  Effective feedback creates positive energy for change  Meet with client in advance of the feedback meeting  Give meeting recipients time to understand/discuss the data  End meeting with action planning
  51. 51. Block’s ModelBlock’s Model  Entry and Contracting  Data Collection and Diagnosis  Feedback and the Decision to Act  Implementation  Extension, Recycle, or Termination
  52. 52. Module 6:Module 6: OverviewOverview  Focus on the “people” issues  William Bridges’ work on “Transitions”  An implementation case study
  53. 53. Module 6: ObjectivesModule 6: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Identify key elements required for implementing change successfully. • Identify actions that help support people through the change process.
  54. 54. WheelbarrowWheelbarrow
  55. 55. ChangeChange The new external situation
  56. 56. TransitionTransition The internal psychological process people go through
  57. 57. Bridges’ Change ModelBridges’ Change Model ENDINGS NEUTRAL ZONE BEGINNINGS
  58. 58. EndingsEndings Letting go of the past Predominant emotion is fear—losing something of value What helps—two-way communication, empathy, involvement
  59. 59. Neutral ZoneNeutral Zone Trying out the change Predominant emotion is confusion—Will it work? Will I succeed? What helps—two-way communication, empathy, involvement
  60. 60. BeginningsBeginnings Commitment to the change Positive attitudes prevail— the change is working out What helps—Reinforcement of efforts, celebrations of success
  61. 61. Module 6 Key PointsModule 6 Key Points  Resistance to change is natural  Bridges’ framework can be useful:  Endings, Neutral Zone, Beginnings  Essential elements:  Two-way communication  Empathy  Involvement
  62. 62. Module 7:Module 7: OverviewOverview  Evaluating consulting projects  Phase V: Extension, Recycle, Termination
  63. 63. Module 7: ObjectivesModule 7: Objectives By the end of this module, you will be able to: • Plan for an evaluation of a consulting project • Describe the elements involved in the final phase of consulting
  64. 64. Types ofTypes of EvaluationsEvaluations  Process evaluations  Results evaluations
  65. 65. EvaluationEvaluation PlanningPlanning What do we want to know? What should be measured to determine what we want to know? Where should the data come from, and how should it be collected? When should we measure? What will be done with the results?
  66. 66. Kirkpatrick ModelKirkpatrick Model  Results Data  Reaction Data  Behavior Data  Learning Data
  67. 67. Block’s ModelBlock’s Model  Entry and Contracting  Data Collection and Diagnosis  Feedback and the Decision to Act  Implementation  Extension, Recycle, or Termination
  68. 68. Module 7: Key PointsModule 7: Key Points  Develop a preliminary evaluation plan  Review the plan with the client  Perform the final consulting phase, as appropriate—Extension, Recycle, or Termination  Leave when the client is able to continue without you
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