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PAST, PRESENT AND
FUTURE
OF APIS
Jason Harmon
@jharmn
JASON
HARMON
• From Austin, TX
• Head of API Design at Paypal
• Blogger at apiux.com,
pragmaticapi.com
• Organizer austina...
AGENDA
• What is an API?
• History of integration
• How APIs changed the
landscape
• The future of M2M +
humans
• Importan...
WHAT IS AN API
• “Application Programming Interface”
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programm
ing_interface
• P...
PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGESLandmark case between Oracle and Google
http://www.programmableweb.com/news/supreme-court-reviews-ora...
LIBRARIES AND
FRAMEWORKSLegal ramifications in language/framework APIs
will affect how we handle Web APIs
WHAT IS AN API
“Web APIs”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_API
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_service
http://en.wikipedi...
THAT’s what I’m talking about
HISTORY OF APIS
It’s all about integration
These problems are not new
WESTERN UNION
TELEGRAPH1850s
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Tel
egraph
TELETYPE
Teletype data of 300 baud modem used in1948 Berlin Airlift
Over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 8,89...
EDI
First standard published in 1968
EDI
First implementation, London Heathrow 1971
EDI
1978 ANSI formed Accredited Standard Committee
1983, ANSI published the first five American National Standards
for EDI
EDI
1987 EDIFACT becomes international standard
United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce
an...
EDI
Industry specific standards proliferate
Largely complete by 1996
NOT FUN TO
LOOK AT
Nobody thought about
humans.
STANDARDS
Government to government
Company to company
~30 years
THOSE WHO
CANNOT
REMEMBER THE
PAST ARE
CONDEMNED TO
REPEAT IT
George Santayana -1905
RESPECT HISTORY
• Standardization was slow, nearly impossible
• Global data exchange was explored
throughout the 20th cent...
INTERNET
Maybe the Internet will fix this?
DATA IS NOT
ENOUGH
Remote procedure calls
Distributed computing
Language Interop
XML-RPC
• Dave Winer 1998
• Began collaboration with
Microsoft
• Developed within
COM/MTS team
• XML wasn’t even really a
...
SOAP
Took into account:
• Existing serialization formats
(ASN.1 BER, NDR, XDR, CDR,
JRMP)
• RPC protocols (GIOP/IIOP,
DCE/...
SOAP
Proliferation of standards
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_web_service_specifications
SOAP
Not fun to look at either.
SOAP STANDARDS
Massive effort across multiple industries
D
5 years
+5 years of non-stop expansion
ROY
FIELDING
Part of SOAP standardization
Key contributor to HTTP 1.1, URI
Co-founder of Apache HTTP
Server
Wrote a disser...
REST CONSTRAINTS
“Representational State Transfer (REST)”
• Client-Server
• Stateless
• Cache
• Interface / Uniform Contra...
REST IS AN
EXPRESSIO
N OF HTTP
The World Wide Web
represents the largest
implementation of a system
conforming to the REST...
NOT SO BAD
TO LOOK AT
Stripped down compared
to prior standards
REST STANDARDS >
NULLREST is an architectural style, not a standard
D
5 years to practical examples
+5 years of evolution
...
STANDARDS
Restrictive standards stifle
innovation
Broad constraints are why
the web has been
successful
De facto best prac...
A LITTLE MORE RECENT
HISTORY
BEFORE YOU LEARN MUCH
MORE
Curators of API history
• apievangelist.com
• programmableweb.com
WEB SERVICES
SOA, SOAP, XML over HTTP took off
http://apievangelist.com/2012/01/12/the-secret-to-amazons-success-
internal...
COMMERCE
SOCIAL
CLOUD/INFRASTRUCTU
RE
MOBILE
GOVERNMENT
Open Data Initiative -
http://www.whitehouse.gov/open
Long-time publisher of public data
REST OUTSIDE | SOAP
INSIDEPublic APIs in REST
Internal/Partner APIs in SOAP
https://jegatech.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/soap...
THE LANDSCAPE TODAY
REST WON
Now 13k
GROWTH OF APIS
Now 13k
GROWTH OF APIS
From 2014
PUBLIC APIS ARE
A STRATEGIC NECESSITY
http://www.forbes.com/site
s/mckinsey/2014/01/07/rea
dy-for-apis-three-steps-to-
unl...
PUBLIC IS
NOT
ALWAYS
RIGHT
Public programs closing
• Netflix
• LinkedIn
Still heavily using APIs
Not strategically valuabl...
MAINSTREA
M
• APIs are becoming
powerful
• API management
consolidation in
2013/2014
• Twilio (API-only startup)
IPO comin...
ALL MOBILE
APPS USE
APIS
Not all publicly
documented
Frequently reverse
engineered
PRIVATE APIS ARE THE DARK
MATTER
Internal APIs are a much, much bigger landscape
http://apiux.com/2014/02/06/dark-matter-a...
MICROSERVICES
REST APIs inside and outside
http://martinfowler.com/articles/microservices.html
API ADOPTION
Machine to Machine = API
http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918
WILL HISTORY REPEAT
ITSELF?
REST APIs offer nothing to
save us from past
complexities of integration
Microservices could b...
DEVELOPER EXPERIENCE
UX transformed the app
world
DX is an emerging field
• AKA DX, APIUX, APX
Designing developer
interfa...
DESIGN THINKING
Interfaces humans can understand
Documentation that explains things for developers
Less reference, more gu...
THE FUTURE
OF APIS
What’s next?
TRANSPAREN
CY
Governments
Companies
Personal
SHARING
CAPABILITIESCompanies are almost exclusively building on top of
APIs
Stick to core competencies
OPEN GOVERNMENT
Citizens demand it
Governments need it to scale
IOT
“Internet of Things”
QUANTIFIED
SELF
Sensor data about yourself
IOT ADOPTION
The things are coming
http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918
CONNECTED…EVERYTHI
NGAppliances, sports equipment, shoes…whatever.
CONNECTED CARS
By 2020 152 million cars will have connectivity
http://business.time.com/2014/01/07/your-car-is-about-to-ge...
SMART CITIES
Songdo, South Korea is a cutting edge
experiment
IOT: BECAUSE BIG
DATAUnimaginable volumes of sensor data are
coming
APIS ALL
THE WAY
DOWN
Connected devices will use
APIs at the edge and the
backend
PROTOCOLS
• Industrial and consumer
needs
• Pub/Sub will be critical
• Streaming sensor data
• HTTP might not be good
enou...
EDGE CONNECTIVITY
• TCP protocols often not
useful in the field
• Location-awareness
• Wifi/cell
insecure/unreliable
• Blu...
SECURE THE THINGS
INFORMATION
WANTS TO BE
FREE …
“I believe that all generally useful
information should be free. By 'free'
I am not referri...
LOFTY GOALS,
BIG RESPONSIBILITY.
A GENERATION
OR TWO LATER…
DATA BREACHES
“Information wants to be free”
IF YOU WANT IT SECRET
YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE
TO WORK REALLY HARD
FOR IT.
SECURITY
• The best HTTP has is
HTTPS
• Constant threats to
transmission-level security
are nerve wracking
• Government in...
AUTH
OAuth 2 and SAML are broadly accepted
MAKING UP AUTH
Not following accepted practices is perilous
“The Snappening”
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/14/us-...
RELAX.
There are people thinking about these things.
Past, Present, Future of APIS
Past, Present, Future of APIS
Past, Present, Future of APIS
Past, Present, Future of APIS
Past, Present, Future of APIS
Past, Present, Future of APIS
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Past, Present, Future of APIS

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A history of integration and ultimately APIs, as well as a current state of the space and a future look at where we're headed.

As presented by Jason Harmon at Booz Allen Hamilton's "Distinguished Speaker Series" 3/1/2015

Published in: Technology
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Past, Present, Future of APIS

  1. 1. PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF APIS Jason Harmon @jharmn
  2. 2. JASON HARMON • From Austin, TX • Head of API Design at Paypal • Blogger at apiux.com, pragmaticapi.com • Organizer austinapi.com meetup • Youtube: API Workshop • https://www.youtube.com/ch annel/UCKK2ir0jqCvfB- kzBGka_Lg
  3. 3. AGENDA • What is an API? • History of integration • How APIs changed the landscape • The future of M2M + humans • Important people along the way
  4. 4. WHAT IS AN API • “Application Programming Interface” • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programm ing_interface • Programming languages • Libraries, frameworks • Web APIs
  5. 5. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGESLandmark case between Oracle and Google http://www.programmableweb.com/news/supreme-court-reviews-oracle-v.- google-copyright-case/elsewhere-web/2015/01/25
  6. 6. LIBRARIES AND FRAMEWORKSLegal ramifications in language/framework APIs will affect how we handle Web APIs
  7. 7. WHAT IS AN API “Web APIs” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_API http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_s tate_transfer
  8. 8. THAT’s what I’m talking about
  9. 9. HISTORY OF APIS It’s all about integration These problems are not new
  10. 10. WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH1850s http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Tel egraph
  11. 11. TELETYPE Teletype data of 300 baud modem used in1948 Berlin Airlift Over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 8,893 tons of necessities daily, such as fuel and food Led to formation of Transportation Data Coordinating Committee in 1968
  12. 12. EDI First standard published in 1968
  13. 13. EDI First implementation, London Heathrow 1971
  14. 14. EDI 1978 ANSI formed Accredited Standard Committee 1983, ANSI published the first five American National Standards for EDI
  15. 15. EDI 1987 EDIFACT becomes international standard United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN/EDIFACT)
  16. 16. EDI Industry specific standards proliferate Largely complete by 1996
  17. 17. NOT FUN TO LOOK AT Nobody thought about humans.
  18. 18. STANDARDS Government to government Company to company ~30 years
  19. 19. THOSE WHO CANNOT REMEMBER THE PAST ARE CONDEMNED TO REPEAT IT George Santayana -1905
  20. 20. RESPECT HISTORY • Standardization was slow, nearly impossible • Global data exchange was explored throughout the 20th century • Developers broadly weren’t able to contribute to these standards
  21. 21. INTERNET Maybe the Internet will fix this?
  22. 22. DATA IS NOT ENOUGH Remote procedure calls Distributed computing Language Interop
  23. 23. XML-RPC • Dave Winer 1998 • Began collaboration with Microsoft • Developed within COM/MTS team • XML wasn’t even really a standard yet
  24. 24. SOAP Took into account: • Existing serialization formats (ASN.1 BER, NDR, XDR, CDR, JRMP) • RPC protocols (GIOP/IIOP, DCE/DCOM, RMI, ONC) 1998-1999 Version 1.0 Microsoft- only 2000 Version 1.1 IBM modifications 2002 Version 1.2 became a W3C recommendation on June 24, 2003
  25. 25. SOAP Proliferation of standards http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_web_service_specifications
  26. 26. SOAP Not fun to look at either.
  27. 27. SOAP STANDARDS Massive effort across multiple industries D 5 years +5 years of non-stop expansion
  28. 28. ROY FIELDING Part of SOAP standardization Key contributor to HTTP 1.1, URI Co-founder of Apache HTTP Server Wrote a dissertation in 2000, while defining HTTP 1.1 http://www.ics.uci.edu/~fielding/p ubs/dissertation/rest_arch_style. htm
  29. 29. REST CONSTRAINTS “Representational State Transfer (REST)” • Client-Server • Stateless • Cache • Interface / Uniform Contract • Layered System • Code-On-Demand (opt)
  30. 30. REST IS AN EXPRESSIO N OF HTTP The World Wide Web represents the largest implementation of a system conforming to the REST architectural style
  31. 31. NOT SO BAD TO LOOK AT Stripped down compared to prior standards
  32. 32. REST STANDARDS > NULLREST is an architectural style, not a standard D 5 years to practical examples +5 years of evolution HTTP REST API
  33. 33. STANDARDS Restrictive standards stifle innovation Broad constraints are why the web has been successful De facto best practices have risen from successful APIs
  34. 34. A LITTLE MORE RECENT HISTORY
  35. 35. BEFORE YOU LEARN MUCH MORE Curators of API history • apievangelist.com • programmableweb.com
  36. 36. WEB SERVICES SOA, SOAP, XML over HTTP took off http://apievangelist.com/2012/01/12/the-secret-to-amazons-success- internal-apis/ ~2002
  37. 37. COMMERCE
  38. 38. SOCIAL
  39. 39. CLOUD/INFRASTRUCTU RE
  40. 40. MOBILE
  41. 41. GOVERNMENT Open Data Initiative - http://www.whitehouse.gov/open Long-time publisher of public data
  42. 42. REST OUTSIDE | SOAP INSIDEPublic APIs in REST Internal/Partner APIs in SOAP https://jegatech.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/soap-vs-rest/
  43. 43. THE LANDSCAPE TODAY
  44. 44. REST WON Now 13k
  45. 45. GROWTH OF APIS Now 13k
  46. 46. GROWTH OF APIS From 2014
  47. 47. PUBLIC APIS ARE A STRATEGIC NECESSITY http://www.forbes.com/site s/mckinsey/2014/01/07/rea dy-for-apis-three-steps-to- unlock-the-data-economys- most-promising-channel/
  48. 48. PUBLIC IS NOT ALWAYS RIGHT Public programs closing • Netflix • LinkedIn Still heavily using APIs Not strategically valuable publicly
  49. 49. MAINSTREA M • APIs are becoming powerful • API management consolidation in 2013/2014 • Twilio (API-only startup) IPO coming http://blogs.wsj.com/venturecapital/2015/02/20/twilio-positions-itself-for-an-ipo-after-logging-100m-in-2014-revenue/
  50. 50. ALL MOBILE APPS USE APIS Not all publicly documented Frequently reverse engineered
  51. 51. PRIVATE APIS ARE THE DARK MATTER Internal APIs are a much, much bigger landscape http://apiux.com/2014/02/06/dark-matter-api- universe/
  52. 52. MICROSERVICES REST APIs inside and outside http://martinfowler.com/articles/microservices.html
  53. 53. API ADOPTION Machine to Machine = API http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918
  54. 54. WILL HISTORY REPEAT ITSELF? REST APIs offer nothing to save us from past complexities of integration Microservices could be SOA with a new brand
  55. 55. DEVELOPER EXPERIENCE UX transformed the app world DX is an emerging field • AKA DX, APIUX, APX Designing developer interfaces for humans and machines http://uxmag.com/articles/effective-developer-experience
  56. 56. DESIGN THINKING Interfaces humans can understand Documentation that explains things for developers Less reference, more guides
  57. 57. THE FUTURE OF APIS What’s next?
  58. 58. TRANSPAREN CY Governments Companies Personal
  59. 59. SHARING CAPABILITIESCompanies are almost exclusively building on top of APIs Stick to core competencies
  60. 60. OPEN GOVERNMENT Citizens demand it Governments need it to scale
  61. 61. IOT “Internet of Things”
  62. 62. QUANTIFIED SELF Sensor data about yourself
  63. 63. IOT ADOPTION The things are coming http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2819918
  64. 64. CONNECTED…EVERYTHI NGAppliances, sports equipment, shoes…whatever.
  65. 65. CONNECTED CARS By 2020 152 million cars will have connectivity http://business.time.com/2014/01/07/your-car-is-about-to-get-smarter-than- you-are/
  66. 66. SMART CITIES Songdo, South Korea is a cutting edge experiment
  67. 67. IOT: BECAUSE BIG DATAUnimaginable volumes of sensor data are coming
  68. 68. APIS ALL THE WAY DOWN Connected devices will use APIs at the edge and the backend
  69. 69. PROTOCOLS • Industrial and consumer needs • Pub/Sub will be critical • Streaming sensor data • HTTP might not be good enough HTTP/2 CoAP MQTT
  70. 70. EDGE CONNECTIVITY • TCP protocols often not useful in the field • Location-awareness • Wifi/cell insecure/unreliable • Bluetooth LE • NFC
  71. 71. SECURE THE THINGS
  72. 72. INFORMATION WANTS TO BE FREE … “I believe that all generally useful information should be free. By 'free' I am not referring to price, but rather to the freedom to copy the information and to adapt it to one's own uses... When information is generally useful, redistributing it makes humanity wealthier no matter who is distributing and no matter who is receiving” Richard Stallman -1990 http://www.rogerclarke.com/II/IWtbF.html
  73. 73. LOFTY GOALS, BIG RESPONSIBILITY.
  74. 74. A GENERATION OR TWO LATER…
  75. 75. DATA BREACHES “Information wants to be free”
  76. 76. IF YOU WANT IT SECRET YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE TO WORK REALLY HARD FOR IT.
  77. 77. SECURITY • The best HTTP has is HTTPS • Constant threats to transmission-level security are nerve wracking • Government intercept and decrypt capabilities have left the private sector shaken http://dayswithoutansslexploit.com
  78. 78. AUTH OAuth 2 and SAML are broadly accepted
  79. 79. MAKING UP AUTH Not following accepted practices is perilous “The Snappening” http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/14/us-snapchat-future-security- idUSKCN0I32UJ20141014
  80. 80. RELAX. There are people thinking about these things.

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