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FINAL- LESSON 4.ppt

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FINAL- LESSON 4.ppt

  1. 1. GENDER ISSUES IN THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT PROF. JASON IGLESIA CAMA
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES ; • identify and articulate the key gender issues facing the country. • understand what are the root-causes of persisting inequality, specifically those that are against women, in the context of Philippine experience. • explain the existing national policies in promoting gender equality in the country.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The Philippines accords high priority to the promotion of gender equality. It is one of the few countries with gender provision in its Constitution, and one of the earliest signatories to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). It also signed the Millennium Declaration, wherein gender equality plays an integral role in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. On top of the international commitments, the Philippines has a long list of laws and policies promoting gender equality. The Philippines also has a vibrant women’s movement which is recognized for its work in the international and national levels. However, Filipino Women also suffer from domestic violence, economic disadvantages, discrimination at the workplace, exploitation as migrant workers, and as prostituted women and displacement brought about by the intermittent wars in conflict affected areas in the Philippines.
  4. 4. An Overview of Gender Situation in the Philippines  The gender situation in the Philippines is characterized by sharp contradictions. It graphically showcases samples of women’s advancement in politics, academic and professional excellence, and even legislation. But this is contrasted by images of prostituted women, battered wives, economically disadvantaged women and exploited migrant workers.  The socio-cultural traditions are clashing with the MTV and cyberspace generation. The long history of colonialism has embedded a patriarchal culture among Filipinos. The conception of women as full-time homemakers, as subordinated to men, violence against them is private, as reserve labor force, and as sexual objects is now being eroded by modern women asserting themselves in many aspects of life. But on the other hand, some are either marginalized, discriminated, or even exploited by the harsh realities of global economy and consumerism.  Both the changes and the inertia of traditions are the backdrop of a very active and dynamic women’s movement. The Philippines is a main player in the international women’s arena and this is anchored on a very vibrant local women’s movement. Numerous organizations and NGOs exist for the cause of gender equality and other related women issues.
  5. 5.  This puts the gender equality issues at the forefront of national discourse and precludes further downslide of women status in the modern Philippine society. Indeed, there are many handles for the changes to happen. These legal and policy gains resulted from the strong voice of women that started even during the anti- dictatorship struggle that culminated with the ascension of Corazon Aquino as the first woman president of the country.
  6. 6. Women and Gender Concerns in Legal and Policy Frameworks  The 1987 Constitution states two prominent provisions. The first in the Declaration of Principles Article II Section 14 which asserted that: “The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men.” Additionally, the Article XIII-Labor: Section 14 provided that: “The state shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation”.
  7. 7. Following from constitutional provisions and the subsequent efforts to broaden its principles, numerous legislation were enacted that relates to the various aspects of women and gender concerns. The list include • Gender and Development Law (5% of government agencies' budget is for gender concerns) • Party-List Law (women as a particular sector for representation in the legislature through party-list elections) • Anti-Sexual Harassment Law (defining SH and providing mechanisms) • Anti-Rape Law (elevation of rape as crime against person) • Barangay Day Care Center Law (day care center for every village) • Women in Nation-Building Law (allocation of budget for women from development funds from foreign governments and multilateral institutions) • Anti Mail-Order-Bride Law (making the practice unlawful) • Repatriation Law (repatriation of Filipinas who lost citizenship by marriage in case of need) • Non-Discrimination Law in Labor Code (women protection in hiring and pay) • Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (equal rights for women to be recipients of land) • Military Training equality (women can enter the military and police schools and providing facilities for them.
  8. 8. • While the legal framework is there, the actual situation mirrors the deep gender divide. In the aspect of women in politics, the notable success of several women is overshadowed by the actual ground level statistics. The lady Vice President is up to now a shoo-in in the next presidential elections in 2004. • But the big picture shows that of all the elective positions occupied through the 1998 elections, only 15% are women. • In the two-chamber Congress, the Senate (Upper House) has 17.4% women membership (4 out of 23 seats) which the House of Representatives (Lower House) has 12.4% (27 out of 217 seats). The first party-list elections in 1998- - wherein sectoral groups like women competed to get a maximum of 3 seats per party in the House of Representatives--resulted in the winning of one (1) seat for a single women's party. Five (5) other women's party did not make the minimum votes required. • At the local government level, women Provincial Governors constitute 17% while Vice-Governors are at 11.5% level. Among the City and Town Mayors, 14.5% of them are women while the ranks of the Vice-Mayors are at low of 10.8%.
  9. 9. • The labor force statistics show also a mixed picture. Since there was a notable feminization of the workforce in the past years, July 2000 figures showed that there are 1.942 million unemployed women while there are 2.631 million unemployed men. However, more women are taken in for labor flexibility arrangements especially in the big services sector like in retail trade. This leaves them exposed to employment insecurity and unfair compensation schemes. • Women still accounts for 53% of the unpaid family workers while they constitute only 37.7% of the wage and salary earners. Though this shows that the regular income possibilities for women are still limited, the average household annual income of female-headed families is higher. The situation also pushes them to seek employment overseas. Increasing numbers of domestic helpers and entertainers are also being deployed both legally and illegally.
  10. 10. • Within organizations, the gender balance is under overhaul. Trade union leadership is still male-dominated but women committees and affirmative actions have changed the complexion of decision- making. The public sector unions have made great inroads as four (4) of the major federations are under the strong leadership of women. • However, the social fabric remains tainted by arrogance of male power. Police statistics remains indicative of the traditional ways of how women are seen in the social and family context. In 1998, 6,518 cases of violence against women were reported with rape accounting for 1,054 cases and physical injuries at a high of 2,633 cases. Last year, the former was pegged at 13.79% and the latter reached 35.17% of the cases reported.
  11. 11. The Civil Society’s Response to Women and Gender Issue • In response to problems that continue to face the Filipina, numerous civil society groups were organized. The vocal women’s movement was instrumental in the enactment of the laws that seek to protect women and broaden their role in the society. • Sub-sectoral groupings of women guaranteed the articulation of specific interests and agendas while issue-based networks and coalitions advocated and lobbied to policy- makers and legislators. The campaign for the sexual harassment and the anti-rape laws saw the synergy of the different organizational forms within the women’s movement. Their current engagement deals with the law that deals with domestic violence, abortion and divorce. • Such advocacy work is also complemented with concrete projects at the ground level. Community-based groups tackle violence against women, rural and urban women establish economic undertakings that help them increase their income, wives and families of migrant workers establish their own savings and insurance network, and crisis centers are organized in some parts of the country. Even prostituted women have found both protection and solidarity within their organizations.
  12. 12. These activities have seen successes and failures but they constitute as challenges to the socio-cultural bondage and blinders that up to this age of Internet and globalization has victimize the Filipina. The gender situation in the Philippines can be described in sum as: 1.The legal framework has provided basic frameworks and processes for women empowerment and gender fairness but the dynamics of political and social institutions reinforced by the cultural standpoints continue to provide a push-pull effect on gender equality. 2.Women have made significant advances in politics. Though there may be several factors that tend to lessen its importance --like belonging to a political dynasty, the role of women in national and local decision-making can no longer be ignored and their competence, in some cases, suits up or even exceeds that of male politicians.
  13. 13. 3. The women's voice in the society is very strong due the vibrant women's movement. Recognized for their work in the international and national levels, the movement has been instrumental in pushing for many changes in the various facets of the Philippine society. Additionally, the various organizations have worked on --with pioneering educational approaches and service-specific projects-- the "culture shift" of both men and women. 4. The statistics on women remain indicative of the deep-rooted and widespread problems they encounter in their daily lives. The labor market has stereotyped women, disadvantaged them in jobs and incomes, and even forced them into prostitutions and slave-like work. The social image of a Filipina is still that of a weak person, poster girl of domestic help, expert in double burden, and a sexual object. While the mainframe of gender politics is changing, the struggle of women to escape from the traditional mold everyday life continues.
  14. 14. THANK YOU !!!
  15. 15. Survey of Laws on Women and Gender Issues in the Philippines PROF. JASON IGLESIA CAMA
  16. 16. • As the government recognizes the role and influence of women in the Philippines, many laws have been crafted to guarantee their protection and well-being, may it be in work or household. • The following list pertains to laws covering gender issues, specifically of Filipino women’s rights in the Philippines 1. 105-Day Expanded Maternity Leave Law Signed into law on February 2019 by President Rodrigo Duterte, Republic Act 11210 or the Expanded Maternity Leave Law extends the previous 60-day (78 days for caesarian section delivery for women workers in the private sector) paid maternity leave to 105 days. The law also entails an option to extend for an additional 30 days of unpaid leave. Additional 15 days paid maternity leave shall also be granted to female solo parents. 2. Prohibition on Discrimination Against Women RA 6725 prohibits discrimination with respect to terms and conditions of employment solely on the basis of sex. Under this law, any employer favoring a male employee over a female in terms of promotion, training opportunities, and other benefits solely on account of sex is considered discrimination.
  17. 17. 3. Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004 RA 9262, or An Act Defining Violence Against Women and Their Children, Providing Protective Measures for Victims, Prescribing Penalties Therefor and for Other Purposes, recognizes the need to protect the family and its members particularly women and children, from violence and threats to their personal safety and security. Under this law, the state also recognizes the need to protect the family and its members particularly women and children, from violence and threats to their personal safety and security. 4. Assistance for small-scale women entrepreneurs This law seeks to provide all possible assistance to Filipino women in their pursuit of owning, operating and managing small business enterprises. RA 7882, or the act that states the Provision of Assistance to Women Engaging in Micro and Cottage Business Enterprises, and for other purposes, was approved in February 1995.
  18. 18. 5. Anti-Sexual Harassment Act of 1995 RA 7877 addresses the issue of sexual harassment committed in employment, education or training environment. It was signed into law on February 14, 1995, under former President Fidel Ramos' administration. Sexual favors made as a condition in the employment or granting promotions or privileges; or the refusal to grant the sexual favor results in limiting, segregating or classifying the employee which in any way would discriminate, deprive or diminish employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect is punishable by law. 6. The Anti-Rape Law of 1997 RA 8353 states that any person having carnal knowledge of a woman through force, threat, or intimidation or by means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority will be punished. Depending on the severity of the case, the offense may be punishable reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment.
  19. 19. 7. Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act of 1998 RA 8505 declares the policy of the State to provide necessary assistance and protection for rape victims. The government shall coordinate its various agencies and non- government organizations to work hand in hand for the establishment and operation of a rape crisis center in every province and city that shall assist and protect rape victims in the litigation of their cases and their recovery. 8. Magna Carta of Women RA 9710 is a comprehensive women's human rights law that seeks to eliminate discrimination through the recognition, protection, fulfillment, and promotion of the rights of Filipino women, especially those belonging in the marginalized sectors of the society. t conveys a framework of rights for women based directly on international law. Pursuant to this law is Executive Order 273 that states the approval and adoption of Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development, 1995-2025.
  20. 20. 9. National Women's Day RA 6949 declares the eighth day of March every year as a special working holiday. This ensures meaningful observance of the holiday, where all heads of government agencies and instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations as well as local government units, and employers in the private sector shall encourage and afford sufficient time and opportunities for their employees to engage and participate in any activity conducted within the premises of their respective offices or establishments to celebrate National Women's Day.
  21. 21. THANK YOU !!!

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