Respiratory infections

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Respiratory infections

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS Prof. Dr. N. Ribarova, MD
  2. 2. <ul><li>RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory infections represent a large group of anthropozoonotic diseases, characterized by airborne mechanism of transmission and broad prevalence, esp. in children. This group includes diphtheria, streptococci infections /scarlatina/, measles, chickenpox, rubella, pertussis, parapertussis, influenza, mumps, staphilococci and meningococci infections, Legionnaires' disease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The etiology of these diseases is various. The causative agents are bacteria and viruses that have low stability in outer environment besides streptococci, staphylococci and diphtheria bacteria. Their considerable resistance favors the inoculation in the host organism through the skin and mucous membranes or by means of the air dust aerosol. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The intensity of the epidemic process of these infections is quite variable. Most of them spread out as epidemics amongst children's population. Epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases appear too. Their prevalence is limited in diseases where reliable specific prophylaxis is available (diphtheria, measles, mumps). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The first infection, considered as eradicated in the whole world by WHO in 1980, is smallpox, which belongs to the group of respiratory anthropozoonoses. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In Bulgaria diphtheria is regarded as an eradicated infection - sporadic single cases are reported and the circulation of the diphtheria etiology agent is persistent. The elimination of diphtheria is a result of the extended use in early childhood of diphtheria toxoid as a fundamental measure for prophylaxis and treatment of diphtheria. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Typical for respiratory infections is the seasonal winter-spring incidence with the exception of pertussis that spreads in warmer months of the year. Prerequisites for this seasonal character are the chilly factor, inadequate nourishment, decreased resistance of the host organism, closed indoor contact that favors the spread of infections. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Contemporary prophylaxis for restricting these infections includes specific vaccines (for diphtheria, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza), antibiotic prevention (for streptococci and meningococci infections), chemotherapeutic agents (for influenza), immunoglobulines (for rubella, pertussis, streptococci and meningococci infections). </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The effectiveness of the antiepidemic measures when dealing with an epidemic point of respiratory infection without any specific means for prophylaxis is negligible. Such an epidemic process is out of control and its intensity is manifested in epidemics among children groups and organized communities. </li></ul>

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