1.Draw a pie chart with three sections2.List in it the three most important things to you in life3.Divide the chart to show the relative importance of these to you. We will be reading these out!
Today’s Objectives1. Understand the difference between quantitative and qualitative research2. Develop a practical approach to qualitative research3. Clarify your own qualitative research question and methods
• Juliet Corbin & Anselm Strauss, Basics of Qualitative Research:Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory• Norman Denzin & Yvonna Lincoln, The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research• David Silverman, Doing Qualitative Research• Scott VanderStoep & Deidre Johnson, Research Methods For Everyday Life: Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Did your answers fall into these categories? Life Work Health What were the exceptions?
Establish Design Questions Collection DevelopCollect Data Code Data Categories Write
Planning Qualitative Research (I)• Why use qualitative methods?• Mapping the range of qualitative methods.• What can qualitative methods do and not do?
Qualitative Quantitative General Framework Develop hypotheses Test hypotheses Reﬂexive & iterative categorisation Rigid categorisation Semi-structured data collection Structured data collection Textual data* Numerical data In depth data Broad data [How] [How Many]* Text can include images, video, spoken word, literature, etc.Adapted from: Qualitative Research Methods Overview, Family Health International
Qualitative Quantitative Analytical Objectives Describe variation Measure variation Explain relationships Predict causal relationships Describe characteristics Describe norms Descriptive* Predictive [How] [How Many]* Qualitative methods such as Delphi surveys are used for forecastingAdapted from: Qualitative Research Methods Overview, Family Health International
Qualitative Quantitative Flexibility in Study Design Some ﬂexibility Fixed from beginning Responses can affect questions Responses do not affect asked questions asked Design can change based upon Design based on statistical ﬁndings methods Open ended questions Closed questions [How] [How Many]Adapted from: Qualitative Research Methods Overview, Family Health International
Reactive ✴Action Research ✴Participant Observation ✴Interviews ✴Delphi ✴Phenomenography ✴Focus Groups ✴Grounded Theory ✴Ethnography ✴Diaries ✴Surveys ✴EthnomethodologyHigh Aggregation Low Aggregation ✴Case Study ✴Observation ✴Narrative Analysis ✴Discourse Analysis ✴Objective Hermeneutics ✴Conversation Analysis ✴Semiotics ✴Content Analysis ✴Archival Research Non Reactive
UK Branded Coffee Outlets• Turnover of £1.63 billion in 2009• More than 11,000 outlets• Estimated 4,158 branded outlets• 64% of consumers visit at least once a week• 42% of consumers say price of coffee affects their visiting frequency• Average spend is £3.50• Latte remains the most popular espresso-based beverage, followed by cappuccinoSource: Allegra, ProjectCafe 2009
Brand Loyalty vs ConvenienceI am not very brand loyal and tend to visit the coffee shop which is closest to me at the time 2008 2009 2010 40 30 20 10 10 9 6 33 31 27 20 21 21 28 29 32 9 10 14 0 Agree Strongly Neither Strongly Disagree Source: Allegra, ProjectCafe 2010
“Will never told you?... Ah, Probably just as well. He wouldhave told it wrong anyway. All thefacts and none of the flavour.”Edward Bloom, Big Fish (2003)
In groups, build a description of what happens in a coffee shop. Consider your description through the following:• The owner’s view• The work of employees/baristas• The customer experience• How does it appeal to the senses?• What difference is there between chains and independents?• Are coffee shops different in other places?• How do people interact?• How is business done?• Is the experience different for different types of people?
Qualitative Research Methods 1 March 24th 2011, KU Leuven Jason Rutter
So far.... • Differences between quantitative and qualitative methods • What qualitative research can offer • Overview of different approaches • The ﬂexibility of qualitative methods • The importance of choosing your data collection • Working with categories • Dealing with the exceptions and the identifying what’s missing. • The importance of developing a research question
Who tells the story? How do they tell it? What form does it take? What references do they use? What do they emphasise? What do they ignore?What does it tell us about them and the world the live in?
There is no story without an audience. As a qualitative researcher you are a vital element in the research process and the building of understanding.
Explain your research to a partner considering the research story: • Who is the story about? • Where is it set? • What is the problem faced? • How will qualitative research help? • Why do you care?
Now your partner has to present your research to the group...
Planning Qualitative Research (II) • Identifying a research problem • Choosing the case(s) • Choosing a methodology
Say a lot about a little rather than a little about a lot.
A good research question will: • Organise the project giving it direction and cohesiveness • Create boundaries to your investigation • Keep you focused • Provide a framework for writing up • Point to the methods and data you will needAdapted from: K Punch, Introduction to Social Research
• Developmental Puzzle: How did X develop?• Mechanical Puzzle: How does X work?• Causal Puzzle: What causes X or what inﬂuence will X have on Y?
Most Importantly - Is your question answerable?
All good stories need a point.What are the challenges your protagonists face?
Story types Philip Parker The Art and Science of Screenwriting
The RomanceA person is missing somethingor someone. There is lack anddesire for that thing orperson. The character strugglesin overcoming all or many ofthe barriers between him/herself and the object ofdesire. The closure of unity iseventually achieved.
The UnrecognisedVirtueA virtuous person entersanother world and falls in lovewith a powerful person in thatworld. The person seeks lovebut the power gets in the way.The person tries to help thepowerful person and theirvirtue is eventually recognised.
The Fatal FlawA successful person usesopportunities for personalgain, often at the expense ofothers. Then, seeing thedamage, the person seeks torepair it, but the quality thatled to success eventually leadsto failure.
The Debt ThatMust Be RepaidA person wants something orsomeone, for which there is ahigh price. The person acceptsthe price but seeks to put offpaying the debt. Eventually,though, they have to pay it.
The Spider andthe FlyA person wants anotherperson to do something.Lacking the inﬂuence or powerto demand it, they seek toensnare the other person,tricking them into compliance.They are successful and a newfuture is faced.
The QuestA person is set a task to ﬁndsomeone or something. Thechallenge is accepted and thequest is eventually won. Theremay or may not be a prize.
The Rites ofPassageA person knows they havereached a new stage in life andseeks to ﬁnd what must bedone to complete thetransition. They pretend thatthey already know, then meet achallenge that shows they donot, yet also provides the routeby which they achieve the fulltransition.
The WandererA person arrives somewherenew and ﬁnds a problemthere. In facing the problemthey show why they left thelast place. They then seek tomove on, repeating thepattern.
The CharacterWho Cannot BePut DownA person demonstratesprowess, but then faces abigger challenge that tests thatprowess. They succeed.
In groups, take it in turns to present your research.As a group, decide which story type/s the research ﬁt best with. • Who is your story about? • How did they get where they are? • What is the challenge they face? • What is their background? • What changes have/may happen? • What caused these changes? • Do you know how the story ends yet?
The Romance The Gift Taken Away A person is missing something or someone. There is lack and A person has a gift which is lost. Seeking to regain the gift leads desire for that thing or person. The character struggles in them into a new situation, to which the person eventually overcoming all or many of the barriers between him/herself and becomes reconciled. the object of desire. The closure of unity is eventually achieved. Example: Rain Man Example: When Harry Met Sally The Unrecognised Virtue The Quest A virtuous person enters another world and falls in love with a A person is set a task to ﬁnd someone or something. The powerful person in that world. The person seeks love but the challenge is accepted and the quest is eventually won. There may power gets in the way. The person tries to help the powerful or may not be a prize. person and their virtue is eventually recognised. Example: Star Wars Example: Pretty Woman The Fatal Flaw The Rites of PassageA successful person uses opportunities for personal gain, often at A person knows they have reached a new stage in life and seeks to ﬁndthe expense of others. Then, seeing the damage, the person seeks what must be done to complete the transition. They pretend that theyto repair it, but the quality that led to success eventually leads to already know, then meet a challenge that shows they do not, yet also failure. provides the route by which they achieve the full transition. Example: Macbeth Example: Stand By Me The Debt That Must Be Repaid The WandererA person wants something or someone, for which there is a high A person arrives somewhere new and ﬁnds a problem there. Inprice. The person accepts the price but seeks to put off paying the facing the problem they show why they left the last place. They debt. Eventually, though, they have to pay it. then seek to move on, repeating the pattern. Example: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Example: Shane The Spider and the Fly A person wants another person to do something. Lacking the The Character Who Cannot Be Put Downinﬂuence or power to demand it, they seek to ensnare the other A person demonstrates prowess, but then faces a bigger challenge person, tricking them into compliance. They are successful and a that tests that prowess. They succeed. new future is faced. Example: Die Hard Example: Double Indemnity
These stories give us: • Research area • Research ﬁeld (setting) • Research objectives • Research questions • Sensitising concepts