Playing with Moral Panics:
The framing of young people in the
reporting of crime and video games
Jason Rutter
Jason.Rutter...
Moral
Friday, 26 November 2010
Jock Young, 1971, The Drugtakers: The Social
Meaning of Drug Use
Stanley Cohen, 1972, Folk Devils and Moral Panics
Goode &...
What makes a moral
panic?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Reporting of events not
unbiased - tends to
stylise and
sensationalise
Friday, 26 November 2010
Specific types of
activity singled out for
large amounts of media
attention
Friday, 26 November 2010
Framed as a
consequence of larger
social problems
Friday, 26 November 2010
Segments of a society
are singled out a
deviant, dangerous or
demanding regulation
(‘folk devils’)
Friday, 26 November 2010
“Right and proper way for a
person of this gender, age and
nation to behave and to be.”
Critcher, 2009, p.18
Critcher, C.,...
Moral EntrepreneurFolk Devil
Friday, 26 November 2010
Moral EntrepreneurFolk Devil
Friday, 26 November 2010
Jack Thomson
Moral Entrepreneur
Friday, 26 November 2010
1. Concern - some reported conduct or event sparks
anxiety
2. Hostility - the perpetrators are portrayed as folk
devils)
3...
Experts
Friday, 26 November 2010
Moral barricades are manned by
editors, bishops, politicians
and other right-thinking
people; socially accredited
experts ...
Jack Thomson
Expert
Friday, 26 November 2010
GENDER
RACE
VIOLENCE
SEXUAL CONTENT
ADDICTION
Friday, 26 November 2010
Young People
Friday, 26 November 2010
Children can be both the focus
of moral panics and the
victims of the panic’s subject
Friday, 26 November 2010
Victims
Friday, 26 November 2010
Obesity
Friday, 26 November 2010
The camp’s clinical director, Susan
Borgman, agrees about the causes of the
obesity epidemic and says: ‘We can
trace it ba...
8th Jan 2009
Friday, 26 November 2010
DESPERATE Billy Robbins holds the unenviable
title of the World's Heaviest Teenager - after
topping 60 STONE.
His life-thr...
Friday, 26 November 2010
The Sun, 13th Nov 2010
Friday, 26 November 2010
CRIPPLING bone disease rickets has made a shock
comeback - because kids are staying indoors with
video games instead of pl...
Raoul Moat
Friday, 26 November 2010
FURY erupted last night over plans for a Raoul
Moat book, movie and game ... before the man he
killed has even been laid t...
Grand Theft Auto: Rothbury
Friday, 26 November 2010
• Story had no truth
• Did not contact Rockstar games
• Box cover was a photoshop creation
• ‘Substantial’ damages donated...
ON 21 July we published an article claiming that
the video games company Rockstar Games were
planning to release a version...
Perpetrators
Friday, 26 November 2010
Game
Violence
Friday, 26 November 2010
Death Race (1976)
• 1 & 2 player
• Run over ‘Gremlins’ to
convert them to
‘tombstones’
• Gremlins would scream
• ‘Sick and...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikKHhiCpTgI
Friday, 26 November 2010
School Shootings
Friday, 26 November 2010
LOCATION DATE No DEAD
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA April 2007 33
Dunblane Primary School, Dunblane, UK March 1...
April 16th 2007
Seung-Hui Cho - 2nd year BIS student
Two attacks separated by two hours
Killed 32: Wounded 17
Committed su...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sbbwyF6o1hw
Friday, 26 November 2010
Pictures of himself holding
weapons, an 1,800-word
rambling diatribe, and video
clips in which he expresses
rage, resentme...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KElyLrrTLB0
Friday, 26 November 2010
Seung-Hui Cho
Friday, 26 November 2010
Seung-Hui Cho
Friday, 26 November 2010
Friday, 26 November 2010
Park Chan-wook’s ‘Oldboy’
Friday, 26 November 2010
Park Chan-wook’s ‘Oldboy’
Friday, 26 November 2010
Diagnosis of ‘selective
mutism’ & ‘major
depression’ in childhood
Friday, 26 November 2010
Hide mental health history in high
School
Counselling sessions withdrawn
given slight improvement in
communication
Suicida...
‘Pathological shyness’ worsened in
college
Increasingly ‘dark’ contributions to
creative writing course
Reports of stalkin...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWJm5cZ3SNM
Friday, 26 November 2010
So is there a moral
panic about games?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Is there a
MORAL PANIC
concern?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Is there
MORAL PANIC
hostility?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Is the
MORAL PANIC
disproportional?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Female
40%
Male
60%
ESA, 2009
Gender of Game
Players
Friday, 26 November 2010
34The average age of USA gamer
ESA, 2009
Friday, 26 November 2010
<18 yrs
25%
18-49 yrs
49%
50> yrs
26%
ESA, 2009
Age of Game
Players
Friday, 26 November 2010
40The average age of the most
frequent game purchaser
ESA, 2009
Friday, 26 November 2010
67%USA households who play
video games
ESA, 2009
Friday, 26 November 2010
3+
50%
7+
10%
12+
24%
16+
12%
18+
4%
T=9847
PEGI Age Ratings
for Games
PEGI, 2008
Friday, 26 November 2010
Is there
MORAL PANIC
volatility?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Young People
Friday, 26 November 2010
Health
Family
Friends
Control
Innocence
‘Protecting
Childhood’
Friday, 26 November 2010
‘To seek for evidence of the ‘the
effects of media violence’ is to
persist in asking simplistic
questions about complicate...
Moral Panics on Games hide discussions
about young people and:
Sexuality
Access to guns
Parenting
Mental health
Care by sc...
Who Benefits?
• Media?
Attracts audiences; Drive sales; Develops a voice
• Moral Entrepreneurs?
Publicise agenda; Strength...
But...
Do Young
People?
Friday, 26 November 2010
Jason Rutter
Web: 	

 www.madebyjase.com
Slides: 	

www.slideshare.net/Jasieboy
Twitter: @JaseRutter
@StevoProject
@Digipl...
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Playing with Moral Panics

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'Playing with Moral Panics: The framing of young people in the reporting of crime and video games'
Presentation given at The Faculty of Education, Anglia Ruskin University, 25th November 2010

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Playing with Moral Panics

  1. 1. Playing with Moral Panics: The framing of young people in the reporting of crime and video games Jason Rutter Jason.Rutter@soc.kuleuven.be Friday, 26 November 2010
  2. 2. Moral Friday, 26 November 2010
  3. 3. Jock Young, 1971, The Drugtakers: The Social Meaning of Drug Use Stanley Cohen, 1972, Folk Devils and Moral Panics Goode & Ben Yehuda, 1994, Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance Friday, 26 November 2010
  4. 4. What makes a moral panic? Friday, 26 November 2010
  5. 5. Reporting of events not unbiased - tends to stylise and sensationalise Friday, 26 November 2010
  6. 6. Specific types of activity singled out for large amounts of media attention Friday, 26 November 2010
  7. 7. Framed as a consequence of larger social problems Friday, 26 November 2010
  8. 8. Segments of a society are singled out a deviant, dangerous or demanding regulation (‘folk devils’) Friday, 26 November 2010
  9. 9. “Right and proper way for a person of this gender, age and nation to behave and to be.” Critcher, 2009, p.18 Critcher, C., (2009) 'Widening the Focus: Moral Panics as Moral Regulation', British Journal of Criminology. 49 (1), pp.17-34. Moral Panics reinforce Friday, 26 November 2010
  10. 10. Moral EntrepreneurFolk Devil Friday, 26 November 2010
  11. 11. Moral EntrepreneurFolk Devil Friday, 26 November 2010
  12. 12. Jack Thomson Moral Entrepreneur Friday, 26 November 2010
  13. 13. 1. Concern - some reported conduct or event sparks anxiety 2. Hostility - the perpetrators are portrayed as folk devils) 3. Consensus - the negative social reaction is broad and unified 4. Disproportionality - the extent of the conduct or the threat is exaggerated 5. Volatility - reporting and panic emerge suddenly, but can dissipate quickly too Friday, 26 November 2010
  14. 14. Experts Friday, 26 November 2010
  15. 15. Moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right-thinking people; socially accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions. Cohen, Moral Panics (1972) Friday, 26 November 2010
  16. 16. Jack Thomson Expert Friday, 26 November 2010
  17. 17. GENDER RACE VIOLENCE SEXUAL CONTENT ADDICTION Friday, 26 November 2010
  18. 18. Young People Friday, 26 November 2010
  19. 19. Children can be both the focus of moral panics and the victims of the panic’s subject Friday, 26 November 2010
  20. 20. Victims Friday, 26 November 2010
  21. 21. Obesity Friday, 26 November 2010
  22. 22. The camp’s clinical director, Susan Borgman, agrees about the causes of the obesity epidemic and says: ‘We can trace it back to the early Eighties. ‘Kids began buying video and computer games and this also coincided with a time when the rising cost of living meant more parents were going out to work and less supervision meant more convenience meals. Wellspring UK Britain’s first fat camp for teenagers The Sun, 28th Jul 2008 Friday, 26 November 2010
  23. 23. 8th Jan 2009 Friday, 26 November 2010
  24. 24. DESPERATE Billy Robbins holds the unenviable title of the World's Heaviest Teenager - after topping 60 STONE. His life-threatening weight - half a ton - follows years of overfeeding by his misguided mother, Barbara. Billy, 19, was housebound for three years before doctors told Barbara she was literally killing him with love. He spent his days watching TV and playing video games as Barbara waited on him hand and foot. 8th Jan 2009 Friday, 26 November 2010
  25. 25. Friday, 26 November 2010
  26. 26. The Sun, 13th Nov 2010 Friday, 26 November 2010
  27. 27. CRIPPLING bone disease rickets has made a shock comeback - because kids are staying indoors with video games instead of playing in the sunshine. The condition - rife in gloomy 19th-century slums but wiped out in Britain in the 1930s - has been found in more than A FIFTH of children in a Southampton study. And unlike the olden days, when it was linked with poverty, medics say it is now just as rife in middle-class youngsters. [...] Stunned study leader Professor Nicholas Clarke said: "It is quite astonishing. This is a completely new occurrence that has evolved over the last 12 to 24 months. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/3225824/Game-addict-kids-hit-by-extinct-bone-disease.html Friday, 26 November 2010
  28. 28. Raoul Moat Friday, 26 November 2010
  29. 29. FURY erupted last night over plans for a Raoul Moat book, movie and game ... before the man he killed has even been laid to rest. [...] And last night gaming websites showed the cover of Grand Theft Auto Rothbury - a version of the Xbox hit Grand Theft Auto. It is named after the Northumberland town where Moat, 37, hid then shot himself after his gun rampage in which he shot ex-lover Samantha Stobbart, 22, killer her lover Chris Brown, 29, and shot and blinded Pc David Rathband, 42 in both eyes. [...] Samantha’s grandmother, Ann Hornsby, 69, said [...] “It is sick - it’s blood money. The game is beyond belief.” Daily Star, 21st July 2010: http://www.mcvuk.com/static/images/assets/565/1055_DailyStar_GTARothbury.jpg Friday, 26 November 2010
  30. 30. Grand Theft Auto: Rothbury Friday, 26 November 2010
  31. 31. • Story had no truth • Did not contact Rockstar games • Box cover was a photoshop creation • ‘Substantial’ damages donated to charity of Rockstars choosing • Daily Star apologised • Removed story from web site Take 2 sue Express Newspapers Friday, 26 November 2010
  32. 32. ON 21 July we published an article claiming that the video games company Rockstar Games were planning to release a version of their popular Grand Theft Auto video games series titled “Grand Theft Auto Rothbury”. We also published what we claimed would be the cover of this game, solicited comments from a family member impacted by the recent tragedy and criticised Rockstar Games for their alleged plans. We made no attempt to check the accuracy of the story before publication and did not contact Rockstar Games prior to publishing the story. We also did not question why a best selling and critically acclaimed fictional games series would choose to base one of their most popular games on this horrifying real crime event. Daily Star, 26th July 2010: http://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/view/145880/Rockstar-Games-Grand-Theft-Auto-An-apology Friday, 26 November 2010
  33. 33. Perpetrators Friday, 26 November 2010
  34. 34. Game Violence Friday, 26 November 2010
  35. 35. Death Race (1976) • 1 & 2 player • Run over ‘Gremlins’ to convert them to ‘tombstones’ • Gremlins would scream • ‘Sick and morbid’: National Safety Council • Featured on 60 Minutes • 500 made Friday, 26 November 2010
  36. 36. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikKHhiCpTgI Friday, 26 November 2010
  37. 37. School Shootings Friday, 26 November 2010
  38. 38. LOCATION DATE No DEAD Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA April 2007 33 Dunblane Primary School, Dunblane, UK March 1996 18 Gutenberg-Gymnasium, Erfurt, Germany April 2002 17 Albertville Secondary School, Winnenden, Germany March 2009 16 University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA August 1966 16 École Polytechnique Montreal, Quebec, Canada December 1989 14 Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado, USA April 1999 13 Azerbaijan State Oil Academy,Baku, Azerbaijan April 2009 13 Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences Kauhajoki, Finland September 2008 11 Mercaz HaRav Yeshiva, Jerusalem, Israel March 2008 9 Jokela High School Tuusula, Finland November 2007 9 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minnesota, USA March 2005 8 California State University, Fullerton, California, USA July 1976 7 Al-Tallai private high school, Sana’a, Yemen March 1997 6 Cleveland Elementary School, Stockton, California, USA January 1989 6 Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA February 2008 6 Freiherr-vom-Stein Gesamtschule, Eppstein, Germany June 1983 6 West Nickel Mines School, Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania, USA October 2006 6 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA November 1991 6 Westside Middle School, Jonesboro, Arkansas, USA March 1998 5 St.-Marien-Schule, Bremen, Germany June 1913 5 Friday, 26 November 2010
  39. 39. April 16th 2007 Seung-Hui Cho - 2nd year BIS student Two attacks separated by two hours Killed 32: Wounded 17 Committed suicide. Virginia Tech Massacre Friday, 26 November 2010
  40. 40. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sbbwyF6o1hw Friday, 26 November 2010
  41. 41. Pictures of himself holding weapons, an 1,800-word rambling diatribe, and video clips in which he expresses rage, resentment, and a desire to get even with oppressors. Virginia Tech Review Panel, 2009, p.29) A Media Friendly Massacre Friday, 26 November 2010
  42. 42. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KElyLrrTLB0 Friday, 26 November 2010
  43. 43. Seung-Hui Cho Friday, 26 November 2010
  44. 44. Seung-Hui Cho Friday, 26 November 2010
  45. 45. Friday, 26 November 2010
  46. 46. Park Chan-wook’s ‘Oldboy’ Friday, 26 November 2010
  47. 47. Park Chan-wook’s ‘Oldboy’ Friday, 26 November 2010
  48. 48. Diagnosis of ‘selective mutism’ & ‘major depression’ in childhood Friday, 26 November 2010
  49. 49. Hide mental health history in high School Counselling sessions withdrawn given slight improvement in communication Suicidal and homicidal thoughts Friday, 26 November 2010
  50. 50. ‘Pathological shyness’ worsened in college Increasingly ‘dark’ contributions to creative writing course Reports of stalking Involuntary hospitalisation Friday, 26 November 2010
  51. 51. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWJm5cZ3SNM Friday, 26 November 2010
  52. 52. So is there a moral panic about games? Friday, 26 November 2010
  53. 53. Is there a MORAL PANIC concern? Friday, 26 November 2010
  54. 54. Is there MORAL PANIC hostility? Friday, 26 November 2010
  55. 55. Is the MORAL PANIC disproportional? Friday, 26 November 2010
  56. 56. Female 40% Male 60% ESA, 2009 Gender of Game Players Friday, 26 November 2010
  57. 57. 34The average age of USA gamer ESA, 2009 Friday, 26 November 2010
  58. 58. <18 yrs 25% 18-49 yrs 49% 50> yrs 26% ESA, 2009 Age of Game Players Friday, 26 November 2010
  59. 59. 40The average age of the most frequent game purchaser ESA, 2009 Friday, 26 November 2010
  60. 60. 67%USA households who play video games ESA, 2009 Friday, 26 November 2010
  61. 61. 3+ 50% 7+ 10% 12+ 24% 16+ 12% 18+ 4% T=9847 PEGI Age Ratings for Games PEGI, 2008 Friday, 26 November 2010
  62. 62. Is there MORAL PANIC volatility? Friday, 26 November 2010
  63. 63. Young People Friday, 26 November 2010
  64. 64. Health Family Friends Control Innocence ‘Protecting Childhood’ Friday, 26 November 2010
  65. 65. ‘To seek for evidence of the ‘the effects of media violence’ is to persist in asking simplistic questions about complicated social issues’ Buckingham (1997: 67) Buckingham, D. (1997) ‘Electronic child abuse? Rethinking the media’s effects on children’, in M. Barker & J. Petley (Eds.), Ill Effects:The Media /Violence Debate (pp. 63–77). Routledge, London: Sage. Friday, 26 November 2010
  66. 66. Moral Panics on Games hide discussions about young people and: Sexuality Access to guns Parenting Mental health Care by schools Food industry Friday, 26 November 2010
  67. 67. Who Benefits? • Media? Attracts audiences; Drive sales; Develops a voice • Moral Entrepreneurs? Publicise agenda; Strengthen importance; influence policy • Experts? Develop profile; User engagement; REF... • Games Industry? Publicise games; Develop mainstream; Show responsibility Friday, 26 November 2010
  68. 68. But... Do Young People? Friday, 26 November 2010
  69. 69. Jason Rutter Web: www.madebyjase.com Slides: www.slideshare.net/Jasieboy Twitter: @JaseRutter @StevoProject @DigiplayProject Jason.Rutter@soc.kuleuven.be Friday, 26 November 2010

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