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Knowing Our Textbooks.ppt


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Knowing Our Textbooks.ppt

  1. 1. How Much Do We know about Our Textbook? Zhang Lu
  2. 2. Task 1 In pairs, discuss: What is the relationship between a classroom teacher & the textbook?
  3. 3. A textbook  serves to facilitate learning  is a tool A teacher  is a consumer, a master & a designer  must be innovative, reflective & creative
  4. 4. Task 2 Here are three teachers’ opinions about textbooks. Which one do you agree with most? Teacher 1: “I don’t use a textbook. I prepare all my own teaching materials. After all, I know my students’ needs better than any coursebook writer does” Teacher 2: “I couldn’t teacher without a textbook. I use it just like a recipe. Follow it page by page, and you can’t go wrong.” Teacher 3: “I find my coursebook very useful. I use it a lot of the time. But not all the time.”
  5. 5. Task 3 In groups of 4, answer the following question. What does a coursebook offer?
  6. 6. A textbook offers:  The syllabus  Language presentation material  Language practice material  Skills development material  A sequence of work  Recycling and review of language  Additional material
  7. 7. Task 4 In pairs, discuss What is the relationship between a syllabus & a textbook?
  8. 8. Language content Process/ means Syllabus objectives General Goals of a Curriculum Product/ outcomes
  9. 9. Key questions about three components of a syllabus contains: content -- a. what ? b. order ? c. criteria for the decisions? process – a. how to present? b. roles of t & Ss ? c. how can materials contribute to learning process ? Product: a. knowledge of language ? b. language skills ? c. techniques of evaluation ?
  10. 10. Types of Syllabus:  Structural--grammatical syllabus  Notional syllabus  Functional syllabus  Notional-functional syllabus  Situational syllabus  Communicative Syllabus  Task-based Syllabus
  11. 11. Definition of “a task” : … an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language。 For example, drawing a map while listening to an instruction and performing a command… A task usually requires the teacher to specify what will be regarded as successful completion of the task. Richards, platt, and Weber 1985
  12. 12. Criticizing task-based Syllabus  no guidance is provided on the selection of tasks  no guidance is provided on how tasks might be related to the real-world language needs of the learners.  there are usually a variety of factors which will interact to determine task difficulty.  some of the factors will be dependent on the characteristics of the learner, what is difficult for learner A may not necessarily be difficult for learner B
  13. 13. Which syllabus We should 1. take account of what language teaching aims are. 2. to focus on content is too restricted and the language educator needs to draw the principles and procedures of curriculum studies and to apply principles of effective management
  14. 14. Various ways of using coursebooks A. Follow very closely and in the exact order of presentation disadvantages of this approach B. A more balanced relationship between teacher & coursebook advantages of this approach C. No set textbook; select their own lessons & sequences of lessons from a large array of published material
  15. 15. Why are some teachers so dependant on the textbook?
  16. 16. Factors influence the degree of dependence or autonomy in using coursebooks • type of educational system/environment • Syllabus/materials constraints imposed by education authorities • Culture & expectation of learners • Nature & amount of training for the teachers • Teachers’ experience & confidence • Teachers’ command of English • Availability of alternative coursebooks & resources for materials
  17. 17. Adapting the coursebooks
  18. 18. Adapting published materials  Why adapt coursebooks?  When to adapt?  How can teachers adapt the coursebook?  Supplementing & replacing materials
  19. 19. Why adapt coursebooks? Every learning situation is unique and depends on the following factors:  The dynamics of the classroom  The personalities involved  The constraints imposed by the syllabuses  The availability of resources  The expectations and motivations of the learners.
  20. 20. When to adapt? We may need to adapt coursebooks because they are not ideal as they stand in any of the following areas:  Methods (an exe. may be too mechanical, lacking in meaning, too complicated)  Language content (e.g. there may be too emphasis on grammar)  Subject matter (e.g. topics may not be interesting, outdated, not authentic enough)  Balance of skills (there may not emphasis on skills )  Cultural content (there may be some cultural references that need omitting or changing)  Image (a coursebook may project an unfriendly image through poor layout, low quality visuals, etc.)
  21. 21. How can teachers adapt the coursebook? i) Analyzing the coursebook , i.e. seeing what is actually in the book and assessing its value & relevance ii) Either omitting or adding or re-ordering parts of the lessons, so as to bring the coursebook closer to what the teacher considers is necessary to achieve the objectives of the syllabus
  22. 22. Supplementing & replacing materials Areas that usually need to be supplemented:  Reading  Listening  Pronunciation  Vocabulary  Grammar
  23. 23. Evaluating for potential & evaluating for suitability
  24. 24. Guidelines for evaluation 1. Coursebooks should correspond to learners’ needs. They should match the aims & objectives of the language-learning programme. 2. Coursebooks should reflect the uses which learners will make of the language. Select coursebooks which will help to equip students to use language effectively for their own purposes. 3. Coursebooks should take account of students’ needs as learners & should facilitate their learning processes, without dogmatically imposing a rigid “method”. 4. Coursebooks should have Coursebooks a clear role as a support for learning. Like teachers, they mediate between the target language & the learner.
  25. 25. The overall evaluation  The usability factor: how far the materials could be integrated into a particular syllabus as “core” or supplementary?  The generalizability factor: is there a restricted use of “core” features that make the materials more generally useful?  The adaptability factor: can parts be added/extracted/used in another context/modified for local circumstances?  The flexibility factor: how rigid is the sequencing & grading?
  26. 26. Examine a coursebook. Find out:  What elements of language content are specified?  What course outcomes or objectives in terms of specific achievements are stated?  What processes are suggested for actual classroom activities?
  27. 27. Than You