ELECTRICPOWER PLANTS Amanda Jorge Jorge Juan Arroyo Asensio2011/2012 3ºA
IndexConventional elctric power plants Nuclear power plants Fossil fuel thermal power plants Hydroelectric power plantsNon-conventional electric power plants Wind power plants and wind farms Solar power plants Geothermañ power plants Biomass thermal power plants Ocean power plantsEnviromental impactNew use of wind turbine
CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTSThis type of power plants are most commonly used in industrialised countries. They are the one that pollute the most. Its got some problems, but they are the most used:
CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS (PROBLEMS)Extracting coal, oil and gas is dangerous and can be polluting; and these fossil fuels are non-renewable. As we use up easily-accessible sources of coal, oil and gas extracting them becomes harder, more expensive and more dangerous. Burning fossil fuels is the main source of ‘greenhouse gases’ which affect the atmosphere and are altering the climate.
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.It is a type of thermoelectric power plant that includesa nuclear fission reactor. The fission of an atomreleases a lot of energy in for of heat. The heat makewater hotter and it for a steam that moves the turbinethat produce the final electricity. The main fuel that isused are uranium-235 and plutonium-239 that areisotopes of these elements.
FOSSIL FUEL AND THERMAL POWER PLANTSIn these type of energy the combustion of a fossil fuel (For example: coal, pretroleum and natural gas) is carried out in a boiled to heat the water that forms a steam that moves the turbine conected to a generator, these generator poduce the final electricity.There is a special type called Combined cycled power plant: Electricity is generated as a result of two cycles, the first cycles uses air and gas, as a conventional thermal plant, in the first cycle a compressor is included, these machine increase the pressure of the gas. Gas and air are mixed. These mix is burnt and generate electricity, one part goes to a boiler, where the water is heated in the second cycle, and these produce electricity.
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTSThese type of power plants provide the energy by storing water in a dam and then converting it into kinetic energy, for producing it,the energy moves the blades of the turbine .Depending on the destination of the water, this kind of power plants are divided in two groups:gravity or pump:Gravity ones: Water used follows the course of a river and wont be reusedPump ones: Water descends into a reservoir located at a lower height, then pumped to a higher reservoir to reuse it.
NON-CONVENTIONAL ELCTRIC POWER PLANTSThese group of power plants pretent to pollute less than conventional electric power plants, because these ones produce lots of enviromental problems.Advantages: They contaminate much less than conventional, they use renewbable sources so we dont depend on pretroleum and natural gas.Disadvantages: Theyre not competentb because they produce much less energy than conventional ones. That the reason of the next graphic.
WIND POWER PLANTS AND WIND FARMSThese power plants use kinetic energy generated by the wind. The energy from the wind moves the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower, these rotor moves a turbine that produce elctricity, this is refer to the wind turbines.Wind farms: they are a clean form of generating electricity. However, they can only be installed in places with appropiate wind conditions.
SOLAR POWER PLANTSThese are plants that use the enrgy from the sun to produce the energy that we need.There are two types:Photo -thermal power plants.Photovoltaic power plants.
PHOTO-THERMAL POWER PLANTSThese type of power plant consist of colecting the heat generated by the sun that moves a rotor in a generator, to do these they use special mirrors called heliostats, they reflect sunlight and concentrate it in a specific point, in these point temperature is high.
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTSIn photovoltaic power plants the solar radiation is transformed in electricity by panel of photovoltaic cells.The power plant consist of large areas of photovoltaic panels, they are isolated power plants, they are very small in size and they are used to supply the electricity in homes or in rural areas.
GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTSThese type of energy uses the heat found at deep levels in the earth and much reach the surface in the form of steam, gases or hot water.Geothermal energy ust be used:Directly: for hot water and for heating, for industrial use and so on.Inderectly: for electricity.
BIOMASS THERMAL POWER PLANTSBiomass consist of organic compounds that are produced by natural sources, they may come from the following sources:Forestry and agricultural waste.Specific crops, such as sunflowers and sugar beet.Waste from agri-food industries.Biomass produce charcoal, alcohol, biogas, etc.The organic materials are burnt in biomass power plants.
OCEAN POWER PLANTSThese type of power pants uses the energy from the seas and the ocean. Types:The mechanical energy from tides.The mechanical energy from waves.The energy from the oceans thermal gradient.
Type of Enviromental impact Type of Advantages Disadvantagespower plant energy Fossil fuel -It produce green The chepest power The fossil fuels thermal house efect gases Non- plants taking in care used like oil in -Water is lost Renewable the incomes using up Nuclear -Danger of disaster Non- They are very Theyre like Fukushima Renewable powerful expensive and -Radioactive waste takas many to build itHydroelectric Divering the natursl The availability of The risk of river course Renewable the water flow disappearance of some species Wind Huge visual impact Renewable Clean, Non polluting Discontinuous production Solar Affects ecosystem if it Renewable You assure 25-30 High installing covers lots of land years of activity. cost Biomass Beneficial if it is used Renewable Reuse household Explotation of correctly waste natural resources Ocean Enviromental Renewable The cost of Negative effect in changes because of maintenance is low flora and fauna the construction work
NEW USE OF WIND TURBINEThe eole water is a turbine design to create fresh water from the air. First, the air is sucked ,then it travels to a cooling compressor where the water from the air is condensed and collected. Finaly the water is filtered and purified.This new discovered is very useful because you can have a source of water wherever you want if the situation of this city in faraway from a river or something. Example the population in the middle of the Sahara desert.