World War 1


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World War 1

  1. 2. American History
  2. 3. <ul><li>WW 1 began August 1914 in Europe, but the USA remained neutral until April 1917 when it declared war against Germany </li></ul><ul><li>American entry helped defeat Germany by November 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>President Wilson’s peace settlement was rejected by the Senate </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy  hoped to lead the world by moral example (unselfishness vs. nationalistic self-interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Political Unrest in Mexico  General Victoriano Huerta seized power but Pres. Wilson refused to recognize his gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson Intervenes  Wilson sent marines to take the Mexican port city of Veracruz in 1914 </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Negative world reaction to Wilson’s move forces him to allow Argentina, Brazil & Chile to mediate the dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Despite mediation tensions continue as Pancho Villa leads Mexican guerilla raids into New Mexico and Pres. Wilson sends 6000 troops into Mexico to capture him </li></ul><ul><li>In the Caribbean  purchased Virgin I. & marines sent to Nicaragua, Haiti, Dom. Rep. </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>War in Europe  after 50 years of peace war </li></ul><ul><li>Setting the Stage for War  nationalism & militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Alliances  Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) vs. Triple Entente (France, Russia, Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>War Begins  June 1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>War Begins  alliance system brings many European countries into conflict between Austria and Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) vs. Allies (France, Russia, Britain, Italy) </li></ul><ul><li>United States Neutrality  Atlantic Ocean separates USA from Europe </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>Taking Sides  8 million German Americans and many Irish Americans supported Germans, but most Americans supported France & Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Both Sides Strain Neutrality  British blockaded Central Powers & Germans used U-boats </li></ul><ul><li>Americans lend $4 billion to Allies </li></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Sussex Pledge  in 1915 German U-boat sinks British passenger liner Lusitania with 128 Americans dying and in March 1916 French ship Sussex sunk injuring Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Germans agree to sink no more merchant ships without warning </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>“ Peace Without Victory”  Pres. Wilson tries to get warring nations to negotiate a peace settlement in Dec. 1916 that would not lead to future wars of vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>Submarine Warfare Resumes  1917 Germany hurt by British naval blockade resume U-boat attacks on merchant ships </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Drawn Into War  German foreign minister Zimmermann cable to German ambassador in Mexico promises Texas, Arizona, New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>March 12 – 19, 1917 four American merchant ships sunk  April 2 Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the Allies  Germany (Central Powers) on the brink of victory after Russia defeated </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Raising an Army  spring 1917 American forces only 200,000 men, 1,500 machine guns, 55 obsolete planes </li></ul><ul><li>The Draft  2,000,000 American soldiers reached France before the war ended </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans  200,000 served overseas but segregated and not allowed to be Marines </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Victory on Land & Sea  American troops stopped Germans June 1918 at Chateau-Thierry 50 miles from Paris </li></ul><ul><li>September 1918 “doughboys” won at St. Mihiel and then Sedan </li></ul><ul><li>American navy effectively neutralized U-boats with mines in the North Sea and depth charges </li></ul><ul><li>November 11, 1918 armistice signed </li></ul>
  13. 20. <ul><li>Mobilizing the Economy  efficiency, control, and conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Industries  most industries placed under the control of federal agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies headed by America’s business leaders  United States a single factory </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of Women  women filled jobs left vacant by men fighting overseas </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>Involvement of African Americans  500,000 moved from South to North for good factory jobs and in Europe treated better than USA </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of War on Civilians  “food will win the war, don’t waste it”  victory gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of the War  $33 billion  raised taxes for $10 billion and the rest from Liberty Bonds </li></ul>
  15. 23. <ul><li>Controlling Public Opinion  needed to voluntary civilian population </li></ul><ul><li>Selling the War to Americans  propaganda led to intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Control of War Protesters  Espionage and Sedition acts passed causing thousands to be imprisoned and media to be censored or banned </li></ul>
  16. 24. <ul><li>Persecution of Germans  German language banned at schools and music of Beethoven, Schubert and Wagner stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson’s Fourteen Points  based on “the principle of justice to all peoples” wanted to end militarism, secret agreements </li></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>The Peace Plan Opposed  Pres. Wilson a Democrat faced a hostile Republican Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Conference  dominated by US, France, Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson’s League of Nations accepted by Europeans but not by Republicans at home </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles  a victor’s peace </li></ul>
  18. 27. <ul><li>Difficulty at Home  Pres. Wilson traveled 8000 miles in less than a month across USA to gain support for Treaty of Versailles, but just as he was gaining support had a stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Versailles never ratified </li></ul><ul><li>America’s Postwar Problems  Demobilization caused a difficult economic adjustment for farmers, businesses and consumers </li></ul>
  19. 28. <ul><li>Labour Unrest  3600 strikes in 1919 most meeting with little success  inflation led many workers to demand higher wages  gov’t frequently used force to put down strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Red Scare  600 suspected Communists deported without trials </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Tension  between African & white Americans  Chicago 40 killed, 500 injured over jobs & housing </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>Prohibition  18 th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, transportation & sale of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>by January 1919 66% of states ratified 18 th A. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nineteenth Amendment  1920 women could vote </li></ul><ul><li>A Warning  Wilson warns of WW 2 before he dies in 1923 </li></ul>
  21. 30. <ul><li>America would prosper after World War One, but the Great Depression and the Treaty of Versailles would allow World War Two </li></ul>