Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
   Hunger of knowledge paved a way for    searching information in a systematic way    to get answers to questions   Pur...
 Research   is an endeavor to discover answers to intellectual and practical problems through the application of scientif...
   When search for information is to solve    business problems   Business Research is a Systematic and    objective pro...
   It extends to all the activities of a business    organization   It covers areas like sales, consumer    behaviour, c...
Business Intelligence: Itis designed to provide the manager with ongoing information about events     and     trends    i...
1-7                 Government/                                             Competitive                  RegulatoryDemogra...
Strategy: The general approach an organization will  follow to achieve its goals A firm may implement more than one  str...
Visionaries     Standardized    Decision MakersIntuitive Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers                         ...
Visionaries    Standardized   Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers                            1-10
Visionaries      Visionaries    Standardized   Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers                            1-11
   Classification on the basis of Application    ◦ Pure/Basic Research    ◦ Applied Research   Classification on the bas...
 The    purpose of research is to discover answers    through the application of scientific procedures. The   objectives...
 Research   is directed towards the solution of a problem Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evid...
 Research   activities are characterized          by carefully designed procedures Research  requires expertise i.e., sk...
Clearly defined purpose   Detailed research process       Thoroughly planned design             High ethical standards    ...
   Help in decision-making and is not a substitute of    Decision-Making    Provide a number of facts rather than action...
 Manager requires information to make day  to day business decisions Features of Information gathered:  ◦ Relevant  ◦ Up...
Induction andConcepts    Constructs                             deduction                           OperationalModels     ...
Concepts:   Collection of meanings or characteristics    which are associated with events, objects,    behaviours, situat...
Construct:   An abstract concept   It can be built up by combining the    simpler and concrete concepts   Ex: motivatio...
Deduction: Premises are given and from that we draw  conclusion It works from the more general to more  specific Also c...
Induction: Specific to general Conclusion is drawn from facts or pieces of  evidencesEx: this ice cube is cold.Through e...
   A variable is a symbol of an event, act,    characteristic, trait or attribute that can be    measured and to which we...
Dependent Variable What we measure in the experiment and  what is affected during the experimentIndependent Variable A f...
Moderating Variable   It affects the relationship between IV and DVEx: commission from sales (IV) may lead to increased s...
Exraneous Variable   Any variable other than independent    variable that could cause a change in the    dependent variab...
Intervening Variable   The factor which theoretically affects the    observed phenomenon but cannot be seen,    measured ...
 Proposition is a statement about observable phenomena (concept) that may be judged as true of false
Hypothesis: Proposition      or    question    formulated    for   empirical    testing    ◦ The effect of the independen...
 Types   of Hypotheses: ◦ Descriptive Hypothesis ◦ Relational Hypothesis    Correlational Hypothesis    Causal      or ...
The Role of the Hypothesis   It guides the direction of the study   It defines facts that are relevant and those    that...
AdequateAStrong             TestableHypothesisIs             Better             than rivals
Theory: It is a set of systematically interrelated  concepts, definitions and propositions that  are   used    to    expl...
1. research intro.
1. research intro.
1. research intro.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

1. research intro.

561 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

1. research intro.

  1. 1.  Hunger of knowledge paved a way for searching information in a systematic way to get answers to questions Purpose of information search may be for satisfying the thirst for knowledge or for solving problems or to test validity of existing knowledge
  2. 2.  Research is an endeavor to discover answers to intellectual and practical problems through the application of scientific method. “Researchis a systematized effort to gain new knowledge”. -Redman and Mory. Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.
  3. 3.  When search for information is to solve business problems Business Research is a Systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for supporting business decisions
  4. 4.  It extends to all the activities of a business organization It covers areas like sales, consumer behaviour, customer retention, customer satisfaction, marketing channel decisions, product research, customer relation, productivity, machine efficiency, return on investment, profitability, expansion etc
  5. 5. Business Intelligence: Itis designed to provide the manager with ongoing information about events and trends in the technological, economic, political & legal, demographic, cultural, social and competitive arenas
  6. 6. 1-7 Government/ Competitive RegulatoryDemographic Economic Business Intelligence Technological Cultural/ Social
  7. 7. Strategy: The general approach an organization will follow to achieve its goals A firm may implement more than one strategy at a timeTactics: Specific and timed activities that execute a strategy
  8. 8. Visionaries Standardized Decision MakersIntuitive Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers 1-9
  9. 9. Visionaries Standardized Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers 1-10
  10. 10. Visionaries Visionaries Standardized Decision MakersIntuitive Decision Makers 1-11
  11. 11.  Classification on the basis of Application ◦ Pure/Basic Research ◦ Applied Research Classification on the basis of Objectives ◦ Descriptive Research ◦ Explanatory Research ◦ Exploratory Research ◦ Correlational Research Classification on the basis of Inquiry Mode ◦ Quantitative Research ◦ Qualitative Research
  12. 12.  The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of scientific procedures. The objectives are: To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
  13. 13.  Research is directed towards the solution of a problem Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence Research demands accurate observation and description Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose
  14. 14.  Research activities are characterized by carefully designed procedures Research requires expertise i.e., skill necessary to carryout investigation, search the related literature and to understand and analyze the data gathered Research is objective and logical – applying every possible test to validate the data collected and conclusions reached Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  15. 15. Clearly defined purpose Detailed research process Thoroughly planned design High ethical standards Limitations addressed Adequate analysis Unambiguous presentation Conclusions justified Credentials
  16. 16.  Help in decision-making and is not a substitute of Decision-Making Provide a number of facts rather than actionable results All problems cannot be researched Provide a set-of guidelines Many a times rely more on intuition and judgment Time and budgetary constraints
  17. 17.  Manager requires information to make day to day business decisions Features of Information gathered: ◦ Relevant ◦ Up-to-date ◦ Accurate ◦ Meet needs of the user ◦ Easy to use and understand ◦ Economic ◦ Reliable
  18. 18. Induction andConcepts Constructs deduction OperationalModels definitions Terms used in research Theory Variables Propositions/ Hypotheses
  19. 19. Concepts: Collection of meanings or characteristics which are associated with events, objects, behaviours, situations, condition etc. Ex: Running, Walking, Talking, Identifying a male or female or a horse
  20. 20. Construct: An abstract concept It can be built up by combining the simpler and concrete concepts Ex: motivation, personality, satisfaction
  21. 21. Deduction: Premises are given and from that we draw conclusion It works from the more general to more specific Also called top-down approach Ex: 1) all men are mortal (premise 1) 2) Shyam is a man (premise 2)So we can conclude that, Shyam is mortal False premises will lead to false conclusions
  22. 22. Induction: Specific to general Conclusion is drawn from facts or pieces of evidencesEx: this ice cube is cold.Through experiences, we know that all icecubes are cold The conclusion explains the facts and the facts support the conclusion The nature of Induction is that, the conclusion is only a hypothesis
  23. 23.  A variable is a symbol of an event, act, characteristic, trait or attribute that can be measured and to which we assign categorical values Variables can be of three types : ◦ Dichotomous variable ◦ Continuous variable ◦ Discrete variable
  24. 24. Dependent Variable What we measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experimentIndependent Variable A factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment and it will affect the dependent variableEx: Sales(DV) and Advertising Expenses(IV)
  25. 25. Moderating Variable It affects the relationship between IV and DVEx: commission from sales (IV) may lead to increased sales productivity(DV), especially into younger workers(MV)Ex: loss of minning jobs (IV) leads to acceptance of higher risk jobs like car racing (DV) to earn a family supporting income, especially due to the limited education of the residents (MV)
  26. 26. Exraneous Variable Any variable other than independent variable that could cause a change in the dependent variableEx: Prior work experience (IV) and Grades in classroom performance (DV) Here, grades can be affected by some other variables like family history of a student, education of parents, interest in the class topic, intelligence of a student etc.
  27. 27. Intervening Variable The factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured or manipulated Motivation, job satisfaction Ex: A promotional campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), this result comes from enhancing the motivation to save
  28. 28.  Proposition is a statement about observable phenomena (concept) that may be judged as true of false
  29. 29. Hypothesis: Proposition or question formulated for empirical testing ◦ The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable An unproven proposition A possible solution to a problem
  30. 30.  Types of Hypotheses: ◦ Descriptive Hypothesis ◦ Relational Hypothesis  Correlational Hypothesis  Causal or Explanatory Hypothesis
  31. 31. The Role of the Hypothesis It guides the direction of the study It defines facts that are relevant and those that are not It suggests which form of research design is likely to be most appropriate It provides framework for organizing the conclusion that result
  32. 32. AdequateAStrong TestableHypothesisIs Better than rivals
  33. 33. Theory: It is a set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that are used to explain and predict phenomena(facts) Hypothesis helps in development of theoryModels: A representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspect of that system or the system as a whole Models can be descriptive, predictive or normative

×