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  • MOL jurisdiction for X-ray > 0.115 mR/h or 1 uG/h
    CNSC licences high energy x-rays ? 10 MeV
  • Get to atomic level
  • X-ray production whenever electrons of high energy strike a heavy metal target, like tungsten or copper. When electrons hit this material, some of the electrons will approach the nucleus of the metal atoms where they are deflected because of there opposite charges (electrons are negative and the nucleus is positive, so the electrons are attracted to the nucleus). This deflection causes the energy of the electron to decrease, and this decrease in energy then results in forming an x-ray.
    Medical x-ray machines in hospitals use the same principle as the Crooke’s Tube to produce x-rays. The most common x-ray machines use tungsten as there cathode, and have very precise electronics so the amount and energy of the x-ray produced is optimum for making images of bones and tissues in the body.
  • X-ray production whenever electrons of high energy strike a heavy metal target, like tungsten or copper. When electrons hit this material, some of the electrons will approach the nucleus of the metal atoms where they are deflected because of there opposite charges (electrons are negative and the nucleus is positive, so the electrons are attracted to the nucleus). This deflection causes the energy of the electron to decrease, and this decrease in energy then results in forming an x-ray.
    Medical x-ray machines in hospitals use the same principle as the Crooke’s Tube to produce x-rays. The most common x-ray machines use tungsten as there cathode, and have very precise electronics so the amount and energy of the x-ray produced is optimum for making images of bones and tissues in the body.
  • What we know about radiation caused cancers is a result of the accidental or nuclear weapon related exposure of people. Many people who worked with radiation before we were aware of its hazardous nature received high exposures that caused some later cancers. For example, about 1700 women were employed in the United States during the 1920's to paint radium paste on the dials and numerals of clocks and watches to make them luminous. They used their tongues to tip the brushes to a fine point and ingested radium in the process. Their average bone dose was 17,000,000 mrem. For comparison, natural and medical sources (diagnostic) cause an average yearly exposure to a person in the United States of about 200 mrem to the whole body. A dose as high as 17,000,000 mrem could cause immediate death if delivered to the whole body over a short time. These women did not experience early effects because this dose was not to the whole body and was protracted over many years. Forty-eight of these women died of bone cancer, compared to the zero or one death due to bone cancer that would normally be expected in 1700 people.
    Early uranium mine workers were exposed to high levels of airborne radioactivity. Among 4100 U.S. miners studied, the average lung dose was 4,700,000 mrem. One hundred thirty‑five lung cancer deaths had been observed up to 1972 compared to an expected incidence of about sixteen.
    Radiation therapy has caused cancers in medical patients. For example, there were 15,000 British patients treated with x rays for arthritis of the spine (ankylosing spondylitis) with average doses of 370,000 mrem. About 115 extra cancers occurred in this group of 15,000 because of their exposure.
    Among survivors of the atomic bomb attacks on Japan, a group of 24,000 people have been studied who received an average dose of 130,000 mrem. Up until 1972 about 120 extra cancers had resulted. No extra genetic effects in their offspring have been proven. This fact is an important contribution to our "knowledge base" for the genetic effects from radiation.
    It is surprising that even with doses as high as these listed here only a small fraction of these people died of radiation related diseases. To determine from this kind of information what the chance any one person has of dying of cancer from a low dose of radiation is impossible. We can, however, determine a reasonable average. This estimate is obtained by extrapolating the data at high doses down to low doses of radiation. The actual number obtained depends more on how the extrapolation is done than on the actual data used for this purpose. Different methods of extrapolation will result in different estimates of cancer risk. This is why the experts don't always agree on how carcinogenic radiation is and this is the source of much controversy. The best way to describe this estimate is to say how many cancer deaths would be added if a large group of people received a particular dose. The number accepted by most experts is shown here. If 10,000 people each received 1,000 mrem, then we would expect one extra cancer death over the lifetime of this entire group because of this radiation. For comparison, we would normally expect about 1,640 cancer deaths in this group. You can see why it's difficult to prove that low doses of radiation cause cancer. The 1,640 "normal" cancer deaths is an average. The actual number can be quite different, larger or smaller. To prove that radiation is the cause, the dose has to be high enough to add more cancer deaths than this natural fluctuation. Otherwise it gets drowned out statistically and we can't say that radiation caused these cancers.
  • The ALARA principle is defined as “making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation and releases of radioactive material in effluents as low as is reasonably achievable, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of ionizing radiation in the public interest”.
  • Web Based training

    1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA Office of Risk Management
    2. 2.  The X-ray device that you are/will be usingThe X-ray device that you are/will be using mustmust bebe registered with the Office of Risk Management (ORM) toregistered with the Office of Risk Management (ORM) to ensure that potential exposure controls are in place and haveensure that potential exposure controls are in place and have not been compromisednot been compromised  The X-ray deviceThe X-ray device must alsomust also be registered with the Ministry ofbe registered with the Ministry of Labour (MOL), ORM can inform you if this has been doneLabour (MOL), ORM can inform you if this has been done  If you will be using an open X-ray beam device, a moreIf you will be using an open X-ray beam device, a more comprehensive training is mandatory. Please contact ORMcomprehensive training is mandatory. Please contact ORM for assistancefor assistance UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 2 IMPORTANT FACTORSIMPORTANT FACTORS
    3. 3.  Creating and maintaining a safe workCreating and maintaining a safe work environmentenvironment  Developing proper work procedures, habitsDeveloping proper work procedures, habits and attitudesand attitudes UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 3 TRAINING OBJECTIVESTRAINING OBJECTIVES
    4. 4.  Legislation  Sources and Use of X-rays  Biological & Health Effects  X-ray safety in the lab › Exposure › SOPS › Security › Emergencies › Summary  References UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 4 TRAINING OUTLINETRAINING OUTLINE
    5. 5. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 5 LEGISLATIONLEGISLATION
    6. 6.  Health Canada Safety Code 32: Safety Requirements & Guidance for Analytical X-ray Equipment (outlines responsibilities of owners of equipment, safety procedures, standards, surveillance and monitoring)  Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations (C.R.C., c. 1370): regulate the interpretation, standards of design and construction and standards of functionning of radiation emitting devices UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 6 Analytical X-ray Safety Training – User TrainingAnalytical X-ray Safety Training – User Training LEGISLATIONLEGISLATION Federal GuidelinesFederal Guidelines
    7. 7.  Operates in accordance with the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act. › sets standards › establishes regulations for:  Possession, safe use of X-ray equipment for non medical uses UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 7 LEGISLATIONLEGISLATION Ontario Ministry of LabourOntario Ministry of Labour
    8. 8.  Legislation  Sources and Use of X-rays  Biological & Health Effects  X-ray safety in the lab › Exposure › SOPS › Security › Emergencies › Summary  References UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 8 TRAINING OUTLINETRAINING OUTLINE
    9. 9.  How are X-rays produced  Atomic properties and interaction with matter  X-ray machine vs X-ray source  What you can find at Ottawa U UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 9 SOURCES AND USESSOURCES AND USES OutlineOutline
    10. 10.  X-rays are part of electromagnetic spectrum (energy range of 10eV – 120KeV)  type of ionizing radiation (made of photons) originating from the electron shell  May be produced by machines UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 10 What Are X-rays?What Are X-rays?
    11. 11. X-rays can be produced by a variety of phenomena. When high-energy X- rays, gamma-rays or electrons bombard materials, the excited atom within emit characteristic fluorescent X-rays. Alternatively, whenever charged particles pass within certain distances of each other without being in fixed orbits, the accelerations can give off X-rays Examples of X-ray production: Bremsstrahlung (see next page), Ionization, X-ray tube, tesla coil, synchrotron radiation, cyclotron radiation, photoelectric effect, compton scattering, pair production UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 11 How Are X-rays Produced?How Are X-rays Produced?
    12. 12. X-rays can be produced from acceleration of electrons which are deflected from their original paths by other charged particles such as the nucleus UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 12 Electron (-) X-Ray Target Nucleus Tungsten X-ray Production - BremsstrahlungX-ray Production - Bremsstrahlung
    13. 13.  X-rays produced whenever a high voltage, a vacuum and a source of electrons present  Most x-ray devices emit electrons from a cathode, accelerate them with a voltage and hit the anode (target) that emits X-ray UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 13 X-ray devicesX-ray devices
    14. 14. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 14 Cathode (-) Anode (+) X-Rays X-ray TubeX-ray Tube
    15. 15. X-ray machine electrically powered device with a PRIMARY purpose of producing X-rays analyzes structures or materials X-ray source any part of a device that emits X-rays, whether or not the device is an X-ray machine, e.g.: electron microscope UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 15 SOURCES AND USESSOURCES AND USES
    16. 16. X-ray Diffraction (XRD)  commonly used in structural analysis  powder and single-crystal diffractometers are available X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)  observes fluorescent emissions of x-ray and UV as atoms hit by x-rays  commonly used to study earth materials UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 16 SOURCE AND USESSOURCE AND USES The University of Ottawa holds two types of X-ray instruments used for academic research
    17. 17.  Legislation  Sources and Use of X-rays  Biological & Health Effects  X-ray safety in the lab › Exposure › SOPS › Security › Emergencies › Summary  References UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 17 TRAINING OUTLINETRAINING OUTLINE
    18. 18.  Dose and equivalent dose  Total dose and dose rate  Energy of radiation  Amount of body exposed  Cell and individual sensitivity UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 18 BIOLOGICAL & HEALTHBIOLOGICAL & HEALTH EFFECTSEFFECTS Factors determining biological effectsFactors determining biological effects
    19. 19.  Effects from radiation depend on amount of radiation received (absorbed) by the body  Called Dose or Absorbed Dose (D) › quantity of energy deposited in a unit of mass of material  Units of Measure: Gray (Gy) or rad 1 Gy = 100 rad UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 19 Dose (D)Dose (D)
    20. 20.  Biological effect caused by radiation being deposited in human body  Dependant on type of radiation and energy  Quality factor (QF) used to relate the absorbed dose of various kinds of radiation to the biological damage caused to the exposed tissue since different kinds of radiation cause different degrees of damage.  The higher the quality factor, the greater biological risk or greater effect than the radiation with a lower quality factor (for the same absorbed dose) UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 20 Equivalent Dose (H)Equivalent Dose (H)
    21. 21. TOTAL DOSE  Effects from acute doses (> 1 Sv = 100 rem) easily observed  < effects on chronic dose at 0.1Sv effects not reliably quantifiable due to no observable effects UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 21 Factors determining biological effectsFactors determining biological effects
    22. 22. DOSE RATE  Dependent on amount of radiation over period of time (exposure)  Acute (large) vs chronic (small)  If amount of radiation same, acute dose more damaging, since tissues does not have time for repairs UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 22 Factors determining biological effectsFactors determining biological effects
    23. 23. ENERGY OF RADIATION  X- rays have wide range of energies (10 to100 KeV)  Higher the energy deeper the penetration into tissue  Lower energy x-ray absorbed first layers of skin (shallow dose) UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 23 Factors Determining Biological EffectsFactors Determining Biological Effects
    24. 24. AMOUNT OF BODY EXPOSED  Harder and more damaging for body to recover from dose to large area of body than a small, localized area such as hand  Might include sensitive organs UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 24 Factors Determining Biological EffectsFactors Determining Biological Effects
    25. 25. SENSITIVITY  Individual sensitivity to absorbed radiation  Type of cells: some more radiosensitive such as those undergoing cell division UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 25 Factors Determining Biological EffectsFactors Determining Biological Effects
    26. 26. Biological effect inherited by children resulting from aBiological effect inherited by children resulting from a modification of genetic material in a parentmodification of genetic material in a parent  No genetic effects observed in humans only in animal studies  No statistically significant genetic effects observed in children in Japanese atomic bomb survivors (any effects on offspring from nuclear bombing survivors in Japan in WW2 from women already pregnant) UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 26 Genetic EffectsGenetic Effects
    27. 27. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 27 Biological effect observed in our lifetime to exposedBiological effect observed in our lifetime to exposed individual (not carried to offspring)individual (not carried to offspring) At doses 5 Sv (=5000 mSv), skin begins to show “sunburn” (MOL annual limit = 50 mSv) Eye damage (cataracts) can results at doses > 6 Sv (=6000 mSv) (MOL annual limit = 150 mSv) Somatic EffectsSomatic Effects
    28. 28.  Radiation exposure including exposure to x-rays does not cause any unique forms of cancer that are not normally observed in humans UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 28 Risk of CancerRisk of Cancer
    29. 29.  Due to localized nature of X-ray beams, acute doses to whole body NOT USUAL  Most health effects occur due to chronic exposure (hospital, dentist)  Most exposure to analytical X-rays results in exposure to skin and extremities UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 29 Health Effects of X-raysHealth Effects of X-rays
    30. 30. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 30 Worker ProtectionWorker Protection: Occupational Dose Limits: Occupational Dose Limits (designated X-ray worker)(designated X-ray worker) 50 mSv annually whole body50 mSv annually whole body 50 mSv annually – to any organ, skin, or50 mSv annually – to any organ, skin, or extremityextremity 150 mSv annually – eye dose equivalent150 mSv annually – eye dose equivalent < 5 mSv during pregnancy< 5 mSv during pregnancy General PublicGeneral Public:: 5 mSv annually (whole body)5 mSv annually (whole body) Doses limits imposed by Ministry of LaborDoses limits imposed by Ministry of Labor
    31. 31.  Legislation  Sources and Use of X-rays  Biological & Health Effects  X-ray safety in the lab › Exposure › SOPS › Security › Emergencies › Summary  References UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 31 TRAINING OUTLINETRAINING OUTLINE
    32. 32. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 32 The ALARA Principle is a philosophy of radiation safety that every reasonable effort should be made to minimize dose. This guiding philosophy has actually been incorporated in regulations for all entities that possess radioactive material. The ALARA provision in regulations facilitates proactive measures for radiation protection and safety. ALARA = As Low As is Reasonably Achievable X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Control of ExposureControl of Exposure
    33. 33. › AMOUNT & TYPE OF RADIATION EXPOSURE › TIME › DISTANCE › SHIELDING UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 33 X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Radiation Protection BasicsRadiation Protection Basics
    34. 34. Exposure to X-ray radiation is reduced if: TIME exposed to source is decreased DISTANCE from source is increased SHIELDING from source is increased UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 34 X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Radiation Protection BasicsRadiation Protection Basics
    35. 35. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 35 Alpha 0 −1β− 4 2α ++ Beta Gamma and X-rays Neutron Paper Plastic Lead Concrete 1 0 n 0 0 γ X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Comparisons on shielding requirements for X-raysComparisons on shielding requirements for X-rays
    36. 36. How do I apply the ALARA principle in my lab ? Be aware of potential X-ray hazards, exposure levels and safety controls Be aware of operating and emergency procedures Be aware of practice that does not follow the ALARA principle Report incident or unsafe working conditions to your supervisor and ORM UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 36 X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Radiation Protection BasicsRadiation Protection Basics
    37. 37. Am I at risk of a X-ray exposure? The engineering controls, such as interlocks and lead shielded doors, on the X-ray instruments used at Ottawa U prevent the user from being exposed to the X-ray beam ORM carries out leak testing every year on each registered instrument Consequently, no further exposure control isConsequently, no further exposure control is necessary for the user. HOWEVER …necessary for the user. HOWEVER … UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 37 X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Radiation Protection BasicsRadiation Protection Basics
    38. 38. Am I at risk of a X-ray exposure? However, should the engineering controls in place be overridden or additional work be carried out, besides the standard procedures recommended by the manufacturer, involving tasks such as Beam alignmentBeam alignment Change of X-ray tubeChange of X-ray tube General maintenanceGeneral maintenance YOU MUST CONTACT ORM FOR FURTHER ASSISTANCE. ADDITIONAL CONTROL MEASURES, SUCH AS THE USE OF PERSONAL DOSIMETER, MAY BE REQUIRED. UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 38 X-RAY SAFETY IN THE LABX-RAY SAFETY IN THE LAB Radiation Protection BasicsRadiation Protection Basics
    39. 39. DOSIMETRY Devices monitor and record ionizing radiation doses (occupational exposure) Must distinguish from background radiation UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 39 Control of ExposureControl of Exposure
    40. 40.  record cumulative whole body dose (mSv)  prevent over-exposure  worn at the chest or waist levels  Each badge is assigned to a specific individual and cannot be shared by others  worn only at work and not taken off campus UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 40 Control of Exposure – TLD BadgesControl of Exposure – TLD Badges
    41. 41.  Annual leak test recommended or after equipment has been moved or modified.  Dose rate must not exceed 1 microGray/h from any accessible external surface  Contact X-ray compliance safety specialist to arrange test  By Ontario Health and Safety Act, 28.1.c – you must report to your employer/supervisor the absence or defect in any equipment or protective device of which you are aware of and which may endanger yourself or others UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 41 Leak TestLeak Test
    42. 42. The following include hazards that are not directly associated with the X- ray beam:  Electrical Hazards: X-ray generator = high DC power supply that operates around 40-50 kV + may contain large capacitors that can store sufficient power to possibly kill a person even when turned off. They should only be handled by trained qualified personel.  Cryogenics: in the presence of cooling systems, cryogenic fluids such as helium, nitrogen or hydrogen, can cause frostbite upon eye or skin contact  Chemicals: could be toxic, corrosive, flammable. Appropriate or additional safety precaution may be required when use with X-ray equipment UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 42 Non-beam HazardsNon-beam Hazards
    43. 43.  X-ray warning signs or devices posted in visible location on equipment & door  ENERGIZED EQUIPMENT UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 43 Signs & LabelsSigns & Labels
    44. 44. Standard operating procedures are required to be developed by Supervisor for each individual X-ray device:  used under guidance and supervision of Authorized User  beam shall be directed toward an unoccupied area (eg. wall)  limit dimensions of beam  adequate shielding  energized equipment never unattended in unlocked area  no repairs or sample adjustment when equipment energized UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 44 SOPs for EquipmentSOPs for Equipment
    45. 45.  Only authorized users may have access to X-ray devices  Energized equipment must be attended at all times  Lock lab door when equipment not attended UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 45 SecuritySecurity
    46. 46.  Report any incidents of excessive exposure or theft to X-ray compliance safety specialist  After hours call Protection Services at 5499 or Emergency at 5411  If safe to do, de-energized equipment by turning power supply  Prevent further access by locking lab door UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 46 EmergenciesEmergencies
    47. 47.  Make sure your X-ray instrument is registered with ORM and MOL  Register with ORM as a user and complete the online training and the knowledge quiz  Respect and follow the ALARA principle  Be aware of: X-ray hazards, non-beam hazards, SOPs, emergency procedures and malpractices  Be compliant: report incidents/accidents, unsafe working conditions, wear dosimeter if required UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 47 Summary – Please rememberSummary – Please remember
    48. 48.  Legislation  Sources and Use of X-rays  Biological & Health Effects  X-ray safety in the lab › Exposure › SOPS › Security › Emergencies › Summary  References UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 48 TRAINING OUTLINETRAINING OUTLINE
    49. 49.  University of Ottawa X-ray safety program www.uottawa.ca/services/ehss/x-ray-safety-prgm.html  Ryerson University X-ray safety training www.ryerson.ca/cehsm/training/index.html#xray  Ontario Ministry of Labour O. Reg 861 www.e.laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Regs/English/900861_e.htm  Health Canada Safety Requirements and Guidance for Analytical X-ray Equipment (Safety Code 32) www.hc-sc.ca/hecs-secs/ccrpb/publication/94ejd186/print.htm  National Atomic Museum (New Mexico) www.atomicmuseum.com  Health Physics Historical Instrumentation Collection Museum www.orau.org/ptp/museumdirectory.htm UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA - OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT 49 REFERENCESREFERENCES

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