Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Structures
  2. 2. Definition of Structures <ul><li>Structures are a group of elements somehow united to support a loud with stability.
  3. 3. Everything has a structure, otherwise it would collapse under the forces of gravity, the force of wind or any other force. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of structures <ul><li>Frame structures
  5. 5. Shell structures
  6. 6. Arch
  7. 7. Mass structures
  8. 8. Suspension structures </li></ul>
  9. 9. Frame structures <ul><li>These structures are composed by long elements joined to each other. These joins are called unions.
  10. 10. There're empty space between elements and they support a load.
  11. 11. They're easy to design and buid, not requiere much material but they aren't good for expensive loads or strong impacts. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Shell structures <ul><li>They are made of thin outer of material that surrounds a volume.
  13. 13. It can be empty or filled with something.
  14. 14. Natural shell structures: Shellfish
  15. 15. Artificial: Boxes, bottles, …
  16. 16. They keep shape and support loads without frame or solid materials inside. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Arch structure <ul><li>Romans invented the arch and their style was the semicircular arch. The stone at the top was called the key stone. </li></ul><ul><li>The geometry of the arch and his main oload displaces the force to the sides, so there was a spece under it to span obstacles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mass structures <ul><li>They are simply made of clump materials.
  19. 19. The structure is normally thick
  20. 20. Natural: Mountains and coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Manmade: Sand castles, dams, ... </li></ul>
  21. 21. Suspension structures <ul>Suspension structures hold an element by cables held from the top of a tall column. <li>Because of this, they are often the best bridges that are needed to cover big rivers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Structuctural elements <ul><li>An element can be defined as the simplest part of the whole.
  23. 23. Elements: Column, foundation, primary beams and secondary beams. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Types of unions <ul><li>Structural elements must be united.
  25. 25. They are classified as:
  26. 26. Permanent: Not need to be dissambled. Examples are weldings, rivets, glue... </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Permanent:Be assembled and dissaembled as many times as necessary. Examples:nuts and bolts, clamps, friction... </li></ul>
  27. 27. Forces on structural elements <ul><li>A successful structure must be able to withstandall the forces thatit will experience.
  28. 28. Each element withstands a particular force </li></ul><ul><li>Types:
  29. 29. Tensional strain.
  30. 30. Compression forces.
  31. 31. Shear strain.
  32. 32. Torsion forces.
  33. 33. Bending forces </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tensional strain <ul><li>It is the strain that causes an element to strech.
  35. 35. It can be due to forces that pull an element from its ends. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Compression forces <ul><li>When you squeeze an element, it becomes shorter and thicker. </li></ul><ul><li>When an element buckles, it loses all its strength, and, If the force does not dissapear, it continues until catastrophic failure </li></ul><ul><li>They are those forces which cause an element to get squeezed or buckled. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Shear strain <ul><li>Shear forces act across a material in such a way that they can force one part of an element to slide over another. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Torsion forces <ul><li>If you apply a turning force or torque at one end of an element and only if the element is fixed to a support at the other end, it twists. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Bending forces <ul><li>Bending forces act as an angle to a member at 90º from the axis, making it bend. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Famous structures <ul><li>Eiffel Tower (frame structure): </li></ul><ul><li>Sidney's opera (shell structure): </li></ul>
  41. 41. Famous structures <ul><li>Roman's arch of Cordoba (arch structure): </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids of Giza (mass structures): </li></ul>
  42. 42. Famous structures <ul><li>Verrazzano Narrows Bridge (suspension structures): </li></ul>
  43. 43. Ejecutive Producers <ul><li>ALBERTO GIMÉNEZ BEJARANO.
  44. 44. JARA CADENAS URQUÍA. </li></ul>