Breast lump


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Breast lump

  1. 1. Approaches ofa Patient With aBreast Lump &NippleDischarge
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES• Identify & Discuss the Differential Diagnosis of a Breast Lump• Present and Interpret a Good History & physical Examination for a Patient with a Breast Lump.• Discuss the Possible Causes of Nipple Discharge According to the Color & Nature of the Discharge.• Present a sound Approach to Investigate a Patient with a Breast Lump & Nipple Discharge.• Present a Possible Approach for Treatment.
  3. 3. ANATOMY
  4. 4. ANATOMY
  5. 5. ANATOMY
  6. 6. ANATOMY
  9. 9. HISTORY• Personal Data• Chief Complaint• H.C.C : when and how first noticed, Pain, tenderness, change in size over time and with menstruation.
  10. 10. EVALUATION OF ABREAST LUMP Important things to ask about : • Mastalgia : Cyclic Vs. Non- Cyclic • Skin Changes : Redness, Warmth, Tenderness,Dimpling,Peau d’ orange • Nipple Inversion : Benign Vs. Malignant
  11. 11. EVALUATION OF ABREAST LUMP Important Things to Ask About : • Nipple Discharge - Clear, Yellow, White, Green - Blood Stained or Dark - Purulent Discharge - Galactorrhoea • Gynaecomastia ( Males )
  12. 12. EVALUATION OF ABREAST LUMP • Gynecologic History : parous state,breast feeding,last period, drugs (HRT) • Past Medical History : benign breast disease, breast cancer, radiation therapy to breast • Past Surgical History: breast biopsy, lumpectomy, mastectomy, hysterectomy, oophorectomy.
  13. 13. EVALUATION OF ABREAST LUMP• Family History : Especially in first degree relatives.• Constitutional Features : - Anorexia - weight loss - Respiratory Symptoms - Bone Pain
  14. 14. PHYSICAL EXAM – Inspection, Palpation• Skin changes: Edema, Dimpling, Redness, Retraction, Ulceration, Peau d’orande• Nipple: Bloody Discharge, Crusting, Ulceration, Inversion.• Prominent Veins• palpable axillary/supraclavicular lymph nodes• Arm Edema
  15. 15. EVALUATION OF ABREAST LUMPCharacteristics of a Breast mass• Size• Position• Mobility• Composition ( Fluctuant, Hard, Rubbery )• Fixation to underlying tissue or skin
  17. 17. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF NIPPLE DISCHARGE• Bloody: Papilloma, Papillary/Intraductal Carcinoma, Paget’s Disease, Fibrocystic change.• Serous: duct hyperplasia, pregnancy, OCP, menses, cancer.• Green/Brown: mamillary duct ectasia, fibrocystic change.
  18. 18. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISOF NIPPLE DISCHARGE• Purulent: superficial or central abscess• Milky: post-lactation, OCP, prolactinoma
  19. 19. INVESTIGATIONS• Standard Investigations• Mammography• U/S• Biopsy• Magnetic Resonance Imaging• Cytology• Imaging for metastases
  20. 20. INVESTIGATIONS• Standard Investigations• Mammography• U/S• Biopsy• Magnetic Resonance Imaging• Cytology• Imaging for metastases
  21. 21. Mammography Indications • screening – every 1-2 years for women ages 50-69. • metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary. • nipple discharge without palpable mass.
  22. 22. MammographyMammogram findings indicative of malignancy• stellate appearance and spiculated border - pathognomonic of breast cancer.• microcalcifications, ill-defined lesion border.• lobulation, architectural distortion
  23. 23. MammographyNOTE:• normal mammogram does not rule out suspicion of cancer, based on clinical findings.
  24. 24. Ultrasonography• Performed primarily to differentiate cystic from solid lesions.• Not diagnostic
  25. 25. Biopsy • The diagnosis of breast cancer depends upon examination of tissue or cells removed by biopsy. • The safest course is biopsy examination of all suspicious masses found on physical examination and of suspicious lesions demonstrated by mammography.
  26. 26. Biopsy• The simplest method is needle biopsy, either by aspiration of tumor cells ( fine – needle aspiration cytology) or by obtaining a small core of tissue with a hollow needle.• Open biopsy… ( incisional or excisional )
  27. 27. Magnetic Resonance Imaging • High Sensitivity for breast cancer • Can demonstrate the extent of both invasive & non-invasive disease. • Determines weather a mammographic lesion at the site of previous surgery is due to scar or recurrence. • The optimum method for imaging breast implants and detecting implant leakage or rupture.
  28. 28. cytology • Cytologic examination of nipple discharge or cyst fluid may be helpful on rare occasions. • As a rule, mammography and breast biopsy are required when nipple discharge or cyst fluid is bloody or cytologically questionable.
  29. 29. Imaging for metastases • Chest x-ray may show pulmonary metastases. • CT scanning of liver and brain is of value only when metastases are suspected in these areas.
  30. 30. Benign Breast Lumps • FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE • FIBROADENOMA • FAT NECROSIS • PAPILLOMA • FIBROADENOSIS-focal/diffuse nodularity • GALACTOCOELE • ABSCESS • PERIDUCTAL MASTITIS-secondary to duct ectasia
  31. 31. FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE • Benign breast condition consisting of fibrous and cystic changes in breast. • Age : 30-50 years • Clinical Features - breast pain - swelling with focal areas of nodularity or cysts - Frequently bilateral - varies with menstrual cycle
  32. 32. FIBROCYSTIC DISEASE Treatment • If no dominant mass, observe to ensure no mass dominates. • For a dominant mass, FNA • If > 40 years, mammography every 3 years • Avoid xanthine-containing products (coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks) and nicotine. • For severe symptoms – danozol (2- 3 months), or tamoxifen (4-6 weeks)
  33. 33. FIBROADENOMA • Most common benign breast tumour in women under age 30. • No malignant potential • Clinical features – smooth, rubbery, discrete, well circumscribed nodule, non-tender, mobile, hormonally dependant. • Management – usually excised to confirm diagnosis
  34. 34. FAT NECROSIS• Due to trauma (although positive history in only 50%).• Clinical features – firm, ill-defined mass with skin or nipple retraction, +/– tenderness.• Management – will regress spontaneously but complete excisional biopsy is the safest approach to rule out carcinoma.
  35. 35. PAPILLOMA • Solitary intraductal benign polyp. • Most common cause of bloody nipple discharge. • Management – excision of involved duct
  36. 36. Breast Cancer • Epidemiology • Risk factors • Pathology • Staging (clinical & pathological) • Metastasis • Treatment • Local/Regional Recurrence • Prognosis
  37. 37. EPIDEMIOLOGY • Most common cancer in women. • Second leading cause of cancer mortality in women. • Most common cause of death in 5th decade. • Lifetime risk of 1/9
  38. 38. RISK FACTORS• age - 80% > 40y.o• sex - 99% female• 1st degree relative with breast cancer - Risk increases if relative was premenopausal.• Geographic - highest national mortality in England and Wales, lowest in Japan.• Nulliparity• late age at first pregnancy>30y.o
  39. 39. • Early menarche < 12; late menopause > 55• obesity• excessive alcohol intake, high fat diet• certain forms of fibrocystic change• prior history of breast ca• history of low-dose irradiation• prior breast biopsy regardless of pathology• OCP/estrogen replacement may increase risk
  40. 40. Sites of Breast Cancer
  41. 41. Pathology Non-invasive (DCIS and LCIS)  (1)Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) •  proliferation of malignant epithelial cells completely contained within breast ducts • risk of development of infiltrating ductal carcinoma in same breast is 25-30% • considered a pre-malignant lesion.
  42. 42. Pathology Non invasive (2)Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) •  proliferation of malignant epithelial cells completely contained within breast lobule •  no palpable mass, no mammographic findings, usually found on biopsy for another abnormality.
  43. 43. Pathology Invasive (1)Ductal carcinoma (most common - 80%) •  originates from ductal epithelium and infiltrates supporting stroma   (2)Paget’s disease (1-3%) •  ductal carcinoma that invades nipple with scaling, eczematoid lesion
  44. 44. Pathology Invasive (3)Invasive lobular carcinoma (8- 10%) •  originates from lobular epithelium •  more apt to be bilateral, better prognosis •  does not form microcalcifications 
  45. 45. Pathology Invasive (4)Inflammatory carcinoma (1-4%) •  ductal carcinoma that involves dermal lymphatics •  most aggressive form of breast cancer •  presents with erythema, skin edema, warm swollen tender breast, +/– lump •  peau d’orange indicates advanced disease (IIIb-IV)
  46. 46. staging Clinical: • assess tumor size, nodal involvement, and metastasis • tumor size by palpation, mammogram • nodal involvement by palpation • metastasis by physical exam, CXR, LFTs, bone scan
  47. 47. stagingPathological• Histology• axillary dissection should be performed for accurate staging and to reduce risk of axillary recurrence• estrogen/progesterone receptor testing presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors,
  48. 48. Staging of Breast Cancer (AmericanJoint Committee) Stage Tumor Regional Metastasis Nodes O In situ no no 1 <2 cm no no 2 <2 cm or Movable no 2-5 cm or ipsilateral >5 cm 3 Any size fixed no 4 any any distant
  49. 49. Treatment • Primary Treatment of Breast Cancer • total mastectomy – removes breast tissue, nipple-areolar complex and skin • modified radical mastectomy (MRM) – removes breast tissue, pectorali fascia, nipple-areolar complex, skin and axillary lymph nodes
  50. 50. Treatment stage 0DCIS – total ipsilateral mastectomy vs. wide local excision (WLE) plus radiation therapy (XRT),• axillary node dissection is not required for DCISLCIS – close observation vs. bilateral total mastectomy, axillary node dissection is not requiredPaget’s disease – total mastectomy vs. MRM
  51. 51. Treatment stages I,II surgery for cure MRM vs. WLE with axillary node dissection plus XRT adjuvant chemotherapy in node- positive patients and high risk node- negative patient
  52. 52. Treatment Stages III,IV operate for local control includes surgery, radiation and systemic therapy individualized, but mastectomy is most common procedure• even with aggressive therapy most patients die as a result of distant metastasisIndication of chemotherapy tumors > 5 cm inflammatory carcinomas chest wall or skin extention
  53. 53. • Adjuvant Therapy – Combination Chemotherapy• indications – node-positive patients, high risk node-negative patients, and palliation for metastatic disease,• ER negative patients• CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5- flurouracil) x 6 months
  54. 54. Adjuvant Therapy - Hormonal• indications – ER positive, pre- or post-menopausal, node-positive or high risk node-negative patients.• • adjuvant or palliative therapy• Tamoxifen (anti-estrogen) – is agent of choice, continue for 5 years• alternatives to tamoxifen
  55. 55. • Adjuvant Therapy - Radiation• with breast-conserving surgery• those with high-risk of local recurrence• adjuvant radiation to breast decreases local recurrence, increases disease free survival• (no change in overall survival)
  56. 56. Post-Surgical Management 1.follow-up of post-mastectomy patienthistory and physical every 4-6 months yearly mammogram of remaining breast 2.follow-up of segmental mastectomy patient history and physical every 4-6 months mammograms every 6 months x 2 years, then yearly thereafter 3.when clinically indicated chest x-ray bone scan LFTs CT of abdomen CT of brain