Limitations of British policies of education
• The British wanted to use modern education to strengthen the
foundations of their political authority in India. Not many people were
educated. Thus, differences started to occur between the few educated
and the masses.
• Early education in Indian commenced under the supervision of a guru.
Education in India in its traditional form was closely related to religion.
Some famous institutions were of Taxila and Nalanda. But due to
British rule the traditional system of India declined , especially after
• Also, the education of women was highly neglected. They were only
allowed to sit at home and do the household work. No universities were
set up for girls till 1916. Only a few women could read and write.
• There was no sort of technological education for the Indians during the
The Famous Institute Of Taxila
During the British rule in India the downwards filtration theory was adopted in
the country. The downwards filtration theory had the following two chief
1. To educate only the high class people in order to give them higher posts in
the administration with a view to strengthening the roots of British empire in the
2. When the higher class people would receive English education their culture
would be improved and the general public would accept them as their models.
As a result, the lower class people would also be educated after being
influenced by the higher class people.
But this practice never worked.
GROWTH OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
In 1906 Indian nationalist leaders formed a National
Council Of Education for imparting education to all the
sections of the society.
Central Hindu School in Benaras established by Annie Besant in July 1898.
Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College(MAO) in Aligarh was established by
Sayed Ahmad Khan in1875.
National Muslim University was established by Sayyid Ahmad Baraveli in Aligarh
in the year 1875-78.
New English School(1880s) in Bombay was founded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak
who was a scholar, mathematician, philosopher, and militant nationalist and
helped lay the foundation for India’s independence.
National Council of Education1906 in Calcutta had Aurobindo Ghosh as the
The first women’s university was established by Dhonde Keshav Karve in Poona
Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) is the first women’s university
Amu is a public university funded by the central government of india.
Central Hindu University is located in Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. It is the largest
residential university in Asia.
CENTRAL HINDU SCHOOL
BY ANNIE BESANT.
COLLEGE BY SYED AHMED
UNIVERSITY BY SAYYID
NEW ENGLISH SCHOOL
BY BAL GANGADHAR
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF
EDUCATION WITH AUROBINDO
GHOSE AS ITS PRINCIPAL IN
SNDT BY DHONDO KESHAV
The idea of establishing a University at Baroda had engaged
the attention of the Government of the former State of Baroda
and its educational advisers long before the question of
regional universities and reconditioning of higher education to
suit the cultural educational needs of particular areas had
taken root in the country. The concept was first visualized by
Dr. Jackson, when, as Principal of the Baroda College in the
1908, he advocated the establishment of a Science Institute
at Baroda on an improved and independent basis.
In 1916 and in 1919 review commodities recommended
setting up a civic university at Baroda. In 1926, the Baroda
University Commission was appointed which submitted its
reports in 1929. Finally the Baroda University was approved
by the legislative assembly in 1949.
The university grew out of the work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the great Muslim
reformer and statesman, who in the aftermath of the Indian War of
Independence of 1857 felt that it was important for Muslims to gain education
and become involved in the public life and government services in India. Raja
Jai Kishan helped Sir Syed in establishing the university. In 1877, Sir Syed
founded the Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College in Aligarh and patterned
the college after Oxford and Cambridge universities that he had visited on a
trip to England. His objective was to build a college in tune with the British
education system but without compromising its Islamic values. Sir Syed's son,
Syed Mahmood, who was an alumnus of Cambridge prepared a proposal for an
independent university to the ‘Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College Fund
Committee’ upon his return from England in 1872. This proposal was adopted
and subsequently modified. Syed Mahmood continued to work along with his
father in founding the college. It was also around this time that a movement
began to have it develop into a university. To achieve this goal, expansions were
made and more academic programs added to the curriculum of the college. A
school for girls was established in 1907. By 1920 the college was transformed
into the Aligarh Muslim University. In 1927, a school for the blind was
established, and in the following year, a medical school was attached to the
university. By the end of the 1930s, the university had also developed its