CONGENITAL ANOMALY:-Something that is unusual or different at birth. A minor anomaly is defined as an unusualanatomic feature that is of no serious medical orcosmetic consequence to the patient. A minor anomalyof the feet might, for example, be curvature of thesecond toe so it overlaps the third toe a little.
A major anomaly, by contrast, might be a cleft lipand palate, a birth defect of serious medical andcosmetic consequence to the child.The word "congenital" means "at birth.""Anomaly" comes from the Greek word"anomalos" meaning "uneven" or "irregular."
Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function. Impairment refers to a problem with a structure or organ of the body
A disability is measurable impairment or limitation that interferes with a person’s ability, for example. To walk, lift, hear, or learn. It may refer to the a physical, sensory, or mental condition (Schiefelbusch Institute 1996)
Handicap is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability or impairment. The degree of the disadvantage (or the extent of the handicap) is often dependent on the adjustment made by both the person and his environment.
David is a 4-yr.-old who has aform of cerebral palsy (CP) calledspastic diplegia. Davids CP causeshis legs to be stiff, tight, anddifficult to move. He cannot standor walk
The inability to move the legs easilyat the joints and inability to bearweight on the feet is animpairment.
Davids inability to walk is a disability.His level of disability can be improved withphysical therapy and special equipment. Forexample, if he learns to use a walker, withbraces, his level of disability will improveconsiderably.
Davids cerebral palsy is handicappingto the extent that it prevents him fromfulfilling a normal role at home, inpreschool, and in the community. As he gets older, his handicap willincrease where certain sports and physicalactivities are considered "normal" activitiesfor children of the same age.
Mental Retardation refers to significantsub-average intelligence and deficits inadaptive behavior. There is difficulty inmanaging activities for daily living and inconducting themselves appropriately insocial situations. This is a condition inwhich there is delay or deficiency in allaspects of development.
MENTAL RETARDATION:Hashan is a four year old boy; he still cant walkindependently, but can take a few steps withsupport. He can recognize family members, butcannot show where his ear and nose are. He canbabble (say ba-ba-ba) but has not learnt to sayany meaningful word. He cant indicate toiletneeds. His parents say that he is like a one-year-old child in his mental abilities. Hashan hasmental retardation.
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION CAN BE ROUGHLY BROKEN DOWN INTO SEVERAL CATEGORIES:o Infections (present at birth or occurring after birth)o Chromosomal abnormalitieso Genetic abnormalities and inherited metabolic disorderso Nutritional (Malnutrition)o Toxic Intrauterine exposure to alcohol, cocaine,amphetamines, and other drugs
o Trauma (before and after birth) Intracranial hemorrhage before or after birth -Lack of oxygen to the brain before, during, or after birth -Severe head injury
NUGGET OF WISDOM “Our thoughts determine our responses to life. We are notvictims of the world. To extentthat we control our thought, we control the world. ”