Audience Segmentation – Marketing StrategyA – Higher Managerial, administration or professionalB – Intermediate managerial, administration orprofessionalC1 – Supervisory or clerical, junior managerial,administrative or professionalC2 – Skilled manual workersD – Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workersE – Casual labourers, unemployed, pensioners
Advertisers segment audiences on thebasis of ‘socio-economic values’ such as:Survivors – Those who want security and likeroutineSocial climbers – Those who have a strongmaterialistic drive and like status symbolsCare givers – Those who believe in ‘caring andsharing’Explorers – Those for whom personal growth andinfluencing social change are important
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs – Abraham Maslow (1954)Physiological Needs – food, drink, sleep, sex, relief frompainSafety Needs – security, protection, freedom from danger,orderLove and belonging- friends, a family, being part of a groupEsteem needs – respect, confidence, admiration, self-worthSelf-actualisation needs – fulfil one’s potential discovertruth, create beauty, promote justice, produce order
The Power Elite - C Wright Mills (1956)•Suggested that the Media perform four keyfunctions for audiences•IDENTITY•ASPIRATION•INSTRUCTION•ESCAPISM
Uses and Gratifications Theory Blumler and Katz (1974)•Sees the audience as active consumers whoselect and choose the media they consumeaccording to various needs that they have:.
•Diversion – a form of escape from everyday lives•Personal relationships – companionship throughidentification with TV characters and sociabilitythrough discussion about TV with others•Personal identity – The ability to compare one’sown life with the characters/situations and exploreown problems etc•Surveillance - Information about what ishappening in the World
Richard Dyer’s Utopian Theory (1977)Real life - UtopiaExhaustion - EnergyScarcity - AbundanceDreariness - IntensityDishonesty - TransparencyIsolation - Community
Effects Theory or The Hypodermic Needle Theory•This theory suggests that the Media ‘inject’ ideasinto a passive audience, like giving a patient adrug• Bandura & Walters’ Bobo Doll experiment (1963)•The Frankfurt School (1930s)