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Bioterrorism
Dr. M. Jane Esther
II YR MD(Microbiology) postgraduate,
CMCHRC, Trichy, Tamilnadu
Definition
• Terrorism : “The unlawful use of force and
violence against persons or property to
intimidate or coerce a gov...
Bioterrorism
Why are they used?
• Can be easily disseminated, and can cause widespread fear
and panic beyond the actual physical damage...
Key Features of Biologic Agents Used as
Bioweapons
• High morbidity and mortality
• Potential for person-to-person spread
...
Earliest attempts at biological warfare
• 400 BC – Scythian archers – arrows dipped in blood
• 300 BC – Greek & Romans – a...
• 1346 – Mongols catapulted bodies of plague victims over
city walls
• 1718 – Russians tried the same tactic against Swede...
20th century
• By the time World war 1 began, attempts to
use anthrax were directed at animal populations.
• Dilger from G...
• In 1972 police in Chicago arrested two college
students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had
planned to poison the...
21st century
• In Oregon , followers of the Shree
Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by
incapacitating the loc...
CLASSIFICATION
• Category A, B and C – CDC
Category A
•Easily disseminated
•High mortality rates
•Major public health impa...
Category A agents
Bacteria Viruses
•Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
•Botulism (Clostridium botulinum
toxin)
•Plague (Yersinia...
Tularemia
• Rabbit fever
• Inhalation
• Respiratory infection
• Life threatening pneumonia
Anthrax
• Bacillus anthracis
• Direct skin contact – cutaneous
• Inhalation – pulmonary
• Ingestion of carcasses of infect...
Small pox
• Highly contagious
• Inhalation
• High mortality
• Eradicated
Botulinum toxin
• Clostridium botulinum
• Respiratory failure and
paralysis
• High mortality
Bubonic plague
• Yersinia pestis
• Rodents
• Flea bite
• Bubonic
• Pneumonic
• Septicaemic
Category B agents
• Moderately easy to disseminate
• Result in moderate morbidity rates and low
mortality rates
• Require ...
Category B agents
• Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)
• Clostridium perfringens
• Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
• Melioidosis (...
Category C agents
• Include emerging pathogens
• Could be engineered for mass dissemination in the
future because of avail...
T2 - mycotoxins
• Tricothecene mycotoxins -are nonvolatile
compounds produced bi filamentous fungi
primarily of the genera...
Is it really bioterrorism?
• Outbreak of a rare disease
• Seasonal disease at a wrong time
• Unusual age distribution
• Un...
How to be prepared for a BT attack?
• Familiarize medical staffs with agents of BT
Incorporate into disaster planning –
• ...
Preparedness
• Laboratories are working on advanced
detection systems to provide early warning,
identify contaminated area...
References
• Bioterrorism – emergency preparedness and
response – CDC
• Bioterrorism – Dr.T.V.Rao ppt
• Bioterrorism – Inf...
Bioterrorism
Bioterrorism
Bioterrorism
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Bioterrorism

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"Bioterrorism" - this ppt comprises the definition, history and management of bioterrorism.I presented this ppt for M.B.B.S., students

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Bioterrorism

  1. 1. Bioterrorism Dr. M. Jane Esther II YR MD(Microbiology) postgraduate, CMCHRC, Trichy, Tamilnadu
  2. 2. Definition • Terrorism : “The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment” • Bioterrorism: bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, toxins or other harmful agents used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants.
  3. 3. Bioterrorism
  4. 4. Why are they used? • Can be easily disseminated, and can cause widespread fear and panic beyond the actual physical damage • Bioterrorism is an attractive weapon because biological agents are relatively easy and inexpensive to obtain. • The use of agents that do not cause harm to humans but disrupt the economy have been discussed. Eg. Foot and mouth disease virus • Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, cannot.
  5. 5. Key Features of Biologic Agents Used as Bioweapons • High morbidity and mortality • Potential for person-to-person spread • Low infective dose and highly infectious by aerosol • Lack of rapid diagnostic capability • Lack of effective vaccine • Potential to cause anxiety • Environmental stability • Potential to be “weaponized”
  6. 6. Earliest attempts at biological warfare • 400 BC – Scythian archers – arrows dipped in blood • 300 BC – Greek & Romans – animal cadavers – contaminate water supplies • 190 BC- Hannibal hurled snakes onto empty ships of King Eumenes
  7. 7. • 1346 – Mongols catapulted bodies of plague victims over city walls • 1718 – Russians tried the same tactic against Sweden • 1763 – British gave small pox inoculated blankets to Indians
  8. 8. 20th century • By the time World war 1 began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations. • Dilger from Germany -infected horses with glanders while they were waiting to be shipped to Britain
  9. 9. • In 1972 police in Chicago arrested two college students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the city's water supply with typhoid bacteria.
  10. 10. 21st century • In Oregon , followers of the Shree Rajneesh attempted to control a local election by incapacitating the local population – Salmonella typhimurium. • Letters laced with infectious anthrax were concurrently delivered to news media offices and the U.S Congress. The letters killed thousands of people
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION • Category A, B and C – CDC Category A •Easily disseminated •High mortality rates •Major public health impact •Public panic and social disruption Category B •Moderately easy to disseminate •Low mortality rates Category C •Emerging pathogens •Could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future
  12. 12. Category A agents Bacteria Viruses •Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) •Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) •Plague (Yersinia pestis) •Smallpox (Variola major) •Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) •Viral hemorrhagic fevers: •Arenaviruses: Lassa, New World (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, and Sabia) •Bunyaviridae: Crimean Congo, Rift Valley •Filoviridae: Ebola, Marburg • •Flaviviridae: Yellow fever; Omsk fever; Kyasanur Forest
  13. 13. Tularemia • Rabbit fever • Inhalation • Respiratory infection • Life threatening pneumonia
  14. 14. Anthrax • Bacillus anthracis • Direct skin contact – cutaneous • Inhalation – pulmonary • Ingestion of carcasses of infected animals – intestinal anthrax
  15. 15. Small pox • Highly contagious • Inhalation • High mortality • Eradicated
  16. 16. Botulinum toxin • Clostridium botulinum • Respiratory failure and paralysis • High mortality
  17. 17. Bubonic plague • Yersinia pestis • Rodents • Flea bite • Bubonic • Pneumonic • Septicaemic
  18. 18. Category B agents • Moderately easy to disseminate • Result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates • Require specifically enhanced diagnostic capacity
  19. 19. Category B agents • Brucellosis (Brucella spp.) • Clostridium perfringens • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) • Melioidosis (B. pseudomallei) • Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) • Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) • Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans) • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B • Typhus fever Food safety threats: Salmonella sp. Escherichia coli Shigella sp. Water safety threats Vibrio cholerae Cryptosporidium parvum
  20. 20. Category C agents • Include emerging pathogens • Could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of availability, ease of production, ease of dissemination • The recent emergence of novel viruses leading to outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Nipah, hantavirus are examples
  21. 21. T2 - mycotoxins • Tricothecene mycotoxins -are nonvolatile compounds produced bi filamentous fungi primarily of the genera Fusarium, Myrotecium, Trichoderma, and Stachybotrys. • Inhalation, Dermal, and Oral. • Involve eyes, skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. • Death rate : 10 to 20 %
  22. 22. Is it really bioterrorism? • Outbreak of a rare disease • Seasonal disease at a wrong time • Unusual age distribution • Unusual clinical symptoms • Unsual epidemiologic features • Outbreak in a region / geographic location where it is not normally seen
  23. 23. How to be prepared for a BT attack? • Familiarize medical staffs with agents of BT Incorporate into disaster planning – • Decontamination & infection control • Communication with key agencies- Laboratory, Respective national health authorities • Contacts to obtain stockpiled supplies – Antibiotics, Immune sera, Vaccines, etc • Security preparations
  24. 24. Preparedness • Laboratories are working on advanced detection systems to provide early warning, identify contaminated areas and populations at risk, and to facilitate prompt treatment.
  25. 25. References • Bioterrorism – emergency preparedness and response – CDC • Bioterrorism – Dr.T.V.Rao ppt • Bioterrorism – Infectious diseases- National academics of science

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