I have been working with colleagues on the Impact of Social Sciences project. We quickly identified how invisible academic work in the social sciences is, much more so than science subjects. Social science academics are less likely to create a profile page, put their publications online or blog about their work. It was one of the reasons we started the four academic blogs that we now run in PPG. I want to talk briefly about some short term steps you can take to make your research more open.
David McKenzie and Berk Özler (2011) ‘Academic blogs are proven to increase dissemination of economic research and improve impact.’ LSE Impact of Social Science blog. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2011/11/15/world-bank-dissemination/.15 November 2011.
Kaisa Puustinen and Rosalind Edwards (2012) ‘Who gives a tweet? After 24 hours and 860 downloads, we think quite a few actually do’. LSE Impact of Social Sciences blog. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2012/05/18/who-gives-a-tweet-860-downloads/. 18 May
Green or gold: What will Open Access mean for the LSE?
Green or gold:What will open access mean for theLSE?8 May 2013LSE Impact of Social Science blog/LSE Library event
LSE Library ServicesUnderstanding Open Access :Background & ContextMartin ReidHead of Academic ServicesLSE Librarym.firstname.lastname@example.org 7955 7616
What is Open Access?The process of making research outputs freely available online to anyonewith an internet connection, in agreement with the author and/or copyrightholder.Involves removing price and permission barriers to access and reuse ofresearchBenefits for:• Authors: Greater exposure for work; increased citations; broader audience• Institutions: Improved knowledge exchange and impact; enhanced reputation• Society: Transparency and accountability; more effective use of researchfunding; more innovation and return on investment
Routes to Open AccessGold• Publication in an Open Access journal: peer reviewed text is immediatelyavailable free of charge – no subscriptions• Publication costs (+ profits) met in other ways: fees for publication –Article Processing Charge (APC); but also subsidiesGreen• Deposit of authoritative version of research in online institutional orsubject repository (e.g. LSE Research Online)• Publication possible in pay-for-access journal at the same time• Can involve delay in making text available in repository - embargos
Finch Report• Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings chaired byJanet Finch - Report published June 2012• Aim to finds ways of expand access to published research without:• undermining scholarly publishing industry and learned societies• affecting standards of peer review and quality of UK research• imposing unsustainable costs on universities• Reconcile conflicting interests: researchers, funders, publishers• Identify Gold Open Access as most effective means of achieving aims as finalpeer reviewed text available immediately• Recognize change has to be made gradually – UK part of global scholarlycommunication system – transitional funding required
Finch Report - RecommendationsKey• Policy direction to support publication in open access journals funded by APCs asmain vehicle for research• RCUK and public funders to establish effective arrangements to meet costs ofpublishing in open access journals• Support for open access publication to be accompanied by policies to minimiserestrictions on use and re-useOther• Develop repositories to concentrate on complementary areas: research data,digital preservation, grey literature• Extended licensing• Negotiation on journal pricing• Investigation of open access publication of monographs• Avoid undermining valuable journals not funded by APCs
Finch Report - RecommendationsFor universities• Establish mechanisms to enable universities to meet costs of APCs• Establish publication funds within universities• Establish arrangements for payment of APCs, minimising transactioncosts• Develop policies and procedures in relation to open access publishingand how it is funded• Develop infrastructure of repositories and enhance interoperability toprovide:• effective access routes for reports, working papers, other grey literature , and theses• mechanism for enhancing links between publication and associated research data• preservation service
Green or gold: What will openaccess mean for the LSE?The School’s responseDavid CoombeDirector of the Research Divisiond.email@example.com May 2013
RCUK open access policy• Step-change from 2005 policy• Applies to (all) RCUK-acknowledged peer-reviewed articles and conferenceproceedings only• RCUK prefers Gold; allows Green• 5-year ‘journey’: 45% compliance (Gold orGreen) in year 1; 75% Gold by year 5• Supported by block grant (£63k)
RCUK open access policy #2• Compliant if journal offers Gold (with CCBY licence) or Green (with CC BY NC)within 12 months for AHRC/ESRC (24months if funding not available)• Compliance will be monitored• RCUK policy will be reviewed in 2014
School response• Support OA for all publications – LSERO• Journal choice: ensure quality and impact– ie highest quality journals• Institutional publication fund for RCUKGold APCs where Green is not allowed• Monitoring and influencing HEFCE REF2020 policy
Issues – sector/institution• Problems with the business model: egpublishers’ ‘double-dipping’• Costs of compliance:– Not supported by block grant nor projectfunding– Opportunity cost: research funding– Reporting costs• International competitors
Issues – institution/individual• Potential constraints on publicationstrategies:– Undermines commitment to world-leadingresearch– Spectre of managing publication strategies• Legal/IP: terms of licensing
Issues – institution/individual• Effects on early career researchers• Implications for collaborative research• Other outputs, eg books• Research material, eg data• Acknowledging RCUK funding• Embargo periods
• Use facilities that the School already provides to openup your research by making it more visible• Blog about your findings on one of the LSE’sacademic blogs• Put all of your publications and other outputs intoLSE Research Online• Create an Experts page as well as a Google ScholarCitations profileIncreased open access won’t happen overnight,in the meantime why not . . .
• Yes.• Using social media such as academic blogging todisseminate your publications increases theirvisibility, which in turn increases their readership.• Placing your work in LSE Research Online means thatwhen people search for you or your work, they find full-text articles to download.• LSE Research Online works with both LSE Experts andGoogle Scholar Citations to allow all of your full-textpublications to be held in one place.Will this really make a difference?
Academic blogging can have a significant effect onthe number of readers for your researchA team from theWorld Bank lookedat the influenceof economicacademic blogs andshowed an increasein readership figuresfor both abstractviews and articledownloads
Twitter can be a useful dissemination tool to raisethe visibility of recent publicationsA team from theNational Centre forResearch Methodscompared twitterto othercommunicationchannels like anemail bulletin anda newsletter for itsaffect on thenumber ofdownloads a paperhad
You don’t need to do all this yourself,the School provides these services alreadyThe readership ofPPG’s four academicblogs have grownsignificantly over thelast year, reachingapprox 150K readersa month.The team edits blogposts and suggestschanges to makethem moreaccessible, wedisseminate viatwitter, facebook andpintrest and archiveposts in LSE ResearchOnline.
LSE Research Online: some key factsOver5.7 millionDownloads from164 countries5.7 million downloads of full-text articles since May 2007 of36,000 articlesMost visitors comefrom searchengines so arelikely to besearching for youor your researchareaIn March 2013, publications were downloadedfrom 164 countries – repositories often reachdifferent audiences to traditional subscriptionjournal content75%trafficcomesfromsearchengines
Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Number ofVisits215,000 469,000 443,000 605,000 691,0000100,000200,000300,000400,000500,000600,000700,000800,0002008 2009 2010 2011 2012Number of Visits• The number of visitors toLSERO has steadilyincreased between 2008and 2012• There are over three timesas many visitors to the sitein 2012 as there were in2008• Only a quarter of LSERO’sholdings are full textarticles• Not all LSE’s Departmentsare equally represented inLSERODownload numbers have been increasing, but morefull-text publications are needed
1Academic sendsarticles, conferencepapers, reports, podcasts to LSEResearch Online2The LSE RO team in the Library check copyright issuesand then upload outputs to the database4LSE Experts pulls in information from LSERO so that the Experts pages are as up todate as possible3These publications are then freely availableto download and are also linked to by GoogleScholarYour LSE Research Online publications then linkto LSE Experts
And full text publications can also be found byGoogle Scholar CitationsThe Schoolisencouragingallacademicsto create aGSC profileand over300 havedone soalready. Itcollects allyourpublicationstogether inone placeand links toco-authors