THE COMMON FACTORS MODEL identifies  and  documents four elements of psychotherapy associated with good outcomes. The pres...
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The Common Factors Model in Psychotherapy Outcomes


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The common factors model of psychotherapy outcomes identifies four factors associated with good outcomes for a variety of treatment models. The four factors are external influences, relationship, client & therapist factors, and therapist technique. Therapist technique accounts for a relatively small amount of outcome, but the four factors are linked. This powerpoint presentation outlines the main features of the common factors model and includes a bibliography.T

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  • The Common Factors Model in Psychotherapy Outcomes

    1. 1. THE COMMON FACTORS MODEL identifies and documents four elements of psychotherapy associated with good outcomes. The present research applied this model to case management in work with children and families. The four factors in this study are the relationships of service users & case managers, external influences, service user & case manager expectancies, and technique. <ul><li>Relationships & Their Interactions with Other Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Working relationships between CMs & SUs are associated with favorable outcomes; negative external factors can be barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships begin to form when CMs demonstrate capacities to understand SU issues, offer warmth, safety, & security, & demonstrate competence to be of service in dealing with client issues </li></ul><ul><li>Good relationships are reciprocal. Social workers and clients work together towards common goals to help clients deal with difficult situations (Perlman, 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>In child welfare settings </li></ul><ul><li>Working with parents who are accused of child maltreatment necessitates good relationships in order to help parents get over their fears and anxieties, and make positive changes towards children’s best interest </li></ul><ul><li>Working with children who may have been traumatized by maltreatment and/or out of home placements requires reassuring and safe relationships </li></ul>The Common Factors Model in Case Management Jane F. Gilgun Alankaar Sharma <ul><li>Examples of External Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Change in client’s living situation </li></ul><ul><li>The issue that affects the clients receives greater attention at the policy level and/or begins to receive greater funding for direct services </li></ul><ul><li>The client joins a community group of other people facing similar issues </li></ul><ul><li>Death of a significant person </li></ul><ul><li>Devon’s older brother was killed in a car accident last week. Devon had been doing well. Now he won’t do his school work, argues with teachers, & gets in fights with classmates. The CM has a good working relationship with Devon’s mother and with Devon & she hopes the family with work through this loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships are important in creating safety & security so that SUs can work on their issues </li></ul><ul><li>CMs & SUs contribute to relationships </li></ul><ul><li>External factors can influence outcomes independently of relationships </li></ul><ul><li>When cases do not turn out as SUs & CMs had wanted, external factors could have been at issue, as could SU & CM expectancies, SU capacities, & SU competence & techniques </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Drisko, James W. (2004). Common factors in psychotherapy outcome. Families in Society, 85 (1), 81-90. </li></ul><ul><li>Lambert, M. (1992). Implications of outcome research for psychotherapy integration. In J. Norcorss & J. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94-129) NY: Basic. </li></ul><ul><li>Perlman, Helen Harris (1957). Social casework: A problem-solving process. Chicago: University of Chicago. </li></ul>The Common Factors Model: Relative Contributions to Outcome Relationship: Quality of the relationships between case managers (CM) & service users (SU). Includes CM sensitivity, reciprocity, trust, SU self-disclosure. 30% SU & CM characteristics contribute to relationships. External Influences : Policies, agency factors, favorable & unfavorable life events. 40% Expectancies: SU and CM characteristics & beliefs that case management will be helpful . 15% Technique: The specific approaches to intervention that CMs use. 15% Drisko (2004) & Lambert (1992) “ I met Mom downtown at a coffee shop to start the case. She told me everything—that she used to use meth and about all the fights and all the violence that the kids have seen and, how she thinks Pete, her husband, is going to kill her one day and why they’re in a battered women’s shelter. The following week I go to school to meet with Mom because she really needs my help. Her six year-old son Eli is failing, doing miserably at school. So I said, ‘OK, I’d love to meet him, I’d love to help you with this meeting. We’ll kill two birds with one stone—I’ll get to meet Eli, and then I’ll get to help you with the school meeting.’” “ We’re going to connect that kid to the community. We’re going to connect them—whether it’s to a karate instructor or to somebody at the library or to some sports team. Or maybe it’s just connecting them to art…. Last week we had a craft fair. They did gingerbread houses.” Wor ds of a case manager ( 2010) Children thrive in the safety of secure relationships Practice is complicated Importance of Relationships Common Factors Model External Factors Reciprocity, Self-Disclosure, & Being of Service Relationships & External Factors Implications of Model