States Of Matter

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Explains how kinetic molecular theory affects phases and changes in states of matter

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States Of Matter

  1. 1. J na i Go le a d nza z-Lord
  2. 2. Q: What is matter? Ma r isa tte nythingthat o c ie s a ea ha c up s p c nd s ms as
  3. 3. what is meant by a state? "s te m a "p ic l ta " e ns hys a s te - s m thingtha ta ” o e t yo c n s ea /o fe l u a e nd r e m in s te o m tte o a ta s f a r r p s - s lid liq a ha e o , uid nd gs a s s nc o c ng sits ub ta e nly ha e p s , no itss ture ha e t truc
  4. 4. Properties of states or phases of matter
  5. 5. Or W t ism tte m d upo ha a r ae f?
  6. 6. Huh? Brownian motion Wha s this t’ ? Ab ut 2 0ye rsa o aBritis o 0 a g, h b ta t b thena eo Ro e o nis y m f b rt Bro n, w slo kinga s m w a o t o e p lle g insthro h his o n ra ug m ro c p a re lis d tha the ic s o e nd a e t y w rem vinga o Furthe e o b ut. r inve tig tio s w d tha isw s s a n ho e t a thew te m le ule tha w re a r o c s t e b tingthep lle g insa o uffe o n ra b ut! Thisra o m tio o p rtic s nd m o n f a le w nt o to b kno n a Brownian e n e w s motion.
  7. 7. Importance of Brownian motion Ma r ism d tte ae up o p rtic s f a le in c ns nt, o ta ra o m tio nd m o n
  8. 8. Further investigation led to Kinetic Mo c r le ula The ry o
  9. 9. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)  Kine Ene y = m vinge rg tic rg o ne y  All m tte m d o p rtic s(m le ule , io o a m ) a r a e f a le o c s ns r to s  P rtic sin c ns nt m tio tova a le o ta o n ryingd g e e re s  All p rtic sha kine e rg to va a le ve tic ne y ryingd g e e re s  Thed g eo m tio isd p nd nt o thee rg o the e re f o n e e e n ne y f p rtic s a le  Thee rg o thep rtic sd te ine thes teo m tte ne y f a le e rm s ta f a r
  10. 10. Key Assumptions of KMT  Thevo eo c ie b the lum c up d y Thefirs 2p intsa n’ t o re t m le ule isd tothes a ein o c s ue pc s tly true–s tric hhh! b tw e them le ule a no the e en o c s nd t m le ule the s lve . o c s me s  Noe rg islo t w n them le ule ne y s he o c s c llid w e c o r o thew lls o e ith a h the r a o the c nta r. f ir o ine  Sta o m tte isd p nd nt o b th te f a r ee e n o thekine e rg o them le ule tic ne y f o c s a w ll a thea c s e s ttra tivefo e rc s b tw e m le ule . e en o c s
  11. 11. Ho d e KMT e la s lid , liq s w os xp in o s uid a gss nd a e ?
  12. 12. Ho d e KMT e la w w g t fro w os xp in ho e e m s lid to liq to g s o uid a?
  13. 13. Phase changes n aio t Me im Fre t n aio ltin ul sb ei zn lim g De g Sub Boiling C nd ns tio o e a n
  14. 14. What are heating/cooling curves? Heating Curve Cooling Curve  Gra hic l re re e tio o p a p s nta n f  Gra hic l re re e tio o p a p s nta n f w t ha p nsw n as s nc ha p e he ub ta e w t ha p nsw n as s nc ha p e he ub ta e ishe te upo r tim a d ve e isc o do r tim o le ve e  Y-a –Te p ra xis m e ture  Y-a –Te p ra xis m e ture  X-a –Tim xis e  X-a –Tim xis e  Sho sm ltinga b iling w e nd o  Sho sc nd ns tio a w o e a n nd p ints o fre zingp ints e o  Sho s3p s s w ha e  Sho s3p s s w ha e
  15. 15. Heating curves s Ga Ab ve m ltingp int, o e o Liq to g s uid a g s isfo e a rm d Bo iling p int o m e ture Be e n m ltinga b ilingp ints tw e e nd o o , uid Te p ra Liq s s nc re a liq ub ta e m ins uid So toliq lid uid Me lting p int o Be wm ltingp int, s lid isfo e lo e o o rm d lid So Time
  16. 16. Heating curve for water am Ste Ab ve 10 °C g s o 0 , a At 10 °C w te turnsto 0 , a r w te tos a a r te m 10 ° C 0 (s a ) isfo e te m rm d s a te m Be e n 0 C a 10 °C w te re a tw e ° nd 0 , a r m ins tr ae At 0 C s lidturning ° , o liq uid W c m le ly toliq o p te uid p s ha e Ic tow te e a r 0 C ° Be w0 C s lid (ic ) isfo e lo ° , o e rm d Time I ce
  17. 17. Cooling curves Ab vec nd ns tio o o e a n Ga s p int, g se ts o a xis . C nd ns tio o e a n Ga toliq s uid p int o Li qu Be e n c nd ns tio tw e o e a n id m e ture a fre zingp ints nd e o , s s nc re a liq ub ta e m ins uid Te p ra Fre zing e Liq to s lid uid o So p int o lid Be wfre zingp int, lo e o s lid isfo e o rm d Time
  18. 18. Cooling curve for water St e Ab vec nd ns tio o o e a n am p int, g se ts o a xis . C nd ns tio o e a n Ste mto w te a a r p int o 10 ° C 0 W at Be e n c nd ns tio tw e o e a n er a fre zingp ints nd e o , w te e ts a r xis W te toic a r e 0 C ° Ice Fre zing e Be wfre zingp int, lo e o p int o ic isfo e e rm d

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