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Lesson PlansDr. SeiterCurriculum & Instruction
Learning has nothing to do  with what the teachercovers. Learning has to do  with what the student      accomplishes.
What research says about       planning...      …effective teachers do it!
No widely accepted planning model.Individual preferencesTime, content, activities are importantClear objectives with ac...
Planning is a guide to actionLinks instruction to real lifeConsiders student attention spans, learning styles and intere...
Teacher planning is often mentalThere is a reason TV is not “live”Planning is not linear, but a processPlanning is flex...
Rarely linear…Must focus on student needs…Must be constantly revised…Must be flexible…with several plansMust have mult...
Variety of plan formatsStandard - the “Book”Madeline HunterDistrict templatesLesson specific plansYear, semesters, mo...
TAMU Plan Format Topic Rationale (includes TEKS) Objectives   TLW   Measurable verbs Materials / resources Focus   ...
Topic        General ideas        Large picture        May be:         Chapter title         Concept         Same or...
Rationale        Essential Question        TEKS        Makes            connections
Objectives        Experiences        RELATED to TEKS        Use verbs:         Measurable         Student-centered
Materials        Texts        Websites        Models        Games        Video        Time
Focus        Pique interest        Pose a problem        Ask a question        Show a demonstration        Display a ...
Instructional Input         Biggest section         Experiences         Student-          centered         Alternative...
Check for Understanding           Questions           Observations           Behaviors
Guided Practice           Whole class or small            group           Practice as you PLAY           Reinforce the ...
Independent Practice           NOT homework           Supervised           Give            encouragement
Closure          NOT the end          Connects to focus          Helps           ‘understanding’          Picture     ...
Evaluation        Mastery        Completion        Student-centered        Must allow re-         testing
What’s the Objective…?Dr. Seiter calls   Breaking down the TEKSit…C&I calls it…      Setting Goals & ObjectivesTexas cal...
What’s the Objective…?Teacher calls   The Daily Problemit…The CoreSubject calls   Chapter Reviewit…                8.2:...
Favorite Learning Experiences HS – 23% MS – 23% ES – 23% College – 30% Relevant, real-life – 69% Active, participati...
Learning ExperiencesTeacher Behaviors:                       Groups                   Experiments                     Fiel...
Learning ExperiencesVerbs used:                 Play                 Use                 Talk                Argue        ...
What activitiesdoes this survey   suggest?
Assessment Plan                  Overview –                   alignment                  Formative                   ass...
Overview           Alignment           Goal & Criteria           Student contexts:            “Styles”            Tec...
Assessment PrinciplesSpecify type of thinking, content and experiencesDesign tasks or tests that target thinking and con...
Formative AssessmentsProcess stepsCriteriaFeedbackArtifactsEvidence of success
Type of thinking What’s the difference  between “the studentunderstands what slope is…” and “the student   can solve multi...
The Poetry LessonTLW be able to interpretpoems         The TestMatch poems with authorsID rhyme & meterWrite an origina...
Assessment PrinciplesSpecify type of thinking, content and experiencesDesign tasks or tests that target thinking and con...
Using the STAAR Standards The “Readiness Standard” is the target                behavior “Supporting Standards” may be use...
8th Grade Social StudiesCategory 1.(4).(A) & (B)http://myfakewall.com/w/Ben+Franklin_1What if _________________ was on Fa...
8th Grade Social StudiesWhy did importsfrom Great Britainto the Americancolonies decline?                              Int...
Grade 3 MathematicsCategory 2.(3.7)(B)Hayden put the same amount of money in his bank account each month. The chart shows...
Experiences
Tasks
Evidence
Topic: Simple Machines           General Science Grade 8       Objectives: Students will be able to:       •Identify six s...
Learning Styles“A human being should be able to change a  diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a  ship, design a ...
Gardner’s  Theory of   MultipleIntelligences      Howard Gardner; published in 1985
Learning StylesStyles are preferences, NOT abilitiesStyles + ability = synergy for learningIndividuals have patterns of...
Verbal/linguisticThinking in wordsUses languageAppreciate complex meaningsJournalists, newscasters, writers
Logical/mathematicalCalculate and quantifyConsider propositions and hypothesisEngineers, accountants, programmers
SpatialThinks in 3 dimensionsManipulates graphicsNavigates in spacePilots, painters, architects
Body/kinestheticFine hand-eye coordinationGood physical skillsDancers, craftsmen, surgeons
MusicalSensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, toneMusicians, composers, sensitive listeners
InterpersonalInteracts effectively with othersAt ease in social situationsTeachers, actors and politicians
IntrapersonalAccurate self-perceptionPlans and directs own lifeTheologians and psychologists
NaturalistAppreciates natural phenomenaRecognizes patternsSensory, hands-on learnersEnvironmentalists, farmers, oceano...
ExistentialistSensitive to “Big Issues”Global ThinkersAsks “Why are we here?”
Lesson Plans   Integrating Multiple Intelligences
Plans are as varied as teachersFormats varySome principals/administrations require particular formatsPlans are NOT sche...
Elements of a planObjectivesAssessmentsProcedures/sequenceMaterials/resourcesRe-teaching strategiesEnrichment strate...
ObjectivesDistrict curriculum mandatedDomainsTaxonomicLearning Styles
AssessmentsMust be tied to the objectivesMust be realisticMust be measurable
ProceduresStep-by-stepFocus on what the students DOSeparate content and skills
Re-teaching StrategiesWhat if they don’t get it?What is the definition of insanity?
EnrichmentWhat if they get it and are ready to move on?What would YOU think is fun?Think of last two levels of Bloom’s ...
Alternatives for Special FriendsDifferent testsAlternative assignmentsVaried homeworkTaped or recorded materialVaried...
Conditions of Quality Schoolwork          What is “quality?”
The Six Conditions William Glasser  1. Warm, supportive environment  2. Useful work  3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort ...
Don’t put in too much...1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4.   Self e...
Have patience…1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4.   Self evaluation ...
Foster routines…1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4.   Self evaluatio...
Think in terms of the student…1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4.   ...
“We’ve taken notes…            “We’ve discussed this…”1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “B...
Language & word choice…1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4.   Self ev...
Multi-tasking…or making                            multiple tasks?1.   Warm, supportive environment2.   Useful work3.   Em...
Concept AttainmentStructured Inquiry          Symetry, congruent,Inductive – many examples    reflective?  / general co...
How…do I teach_____?
The Tool BoxModels of Lesson Organization    Models of Teaching
How…?How…do you eat an elephant?
“Our plea to you is to plan yourobjectives or what to teach andthen plan how to teach it.” page 191
Planning Cycle       6 months – 1 year          3-6 months          3-6 weeks           1-2 weeks             Daily
One year to six monthsResources – visualize, budget, plan…Time –Make data-driven decisions about the school…“…the next ...
Three to six monthsBudget – if it’s not there, don’t plan for it.Make data –driven decisions about your class…“…this is ...
Three to six weeks…Gather resourcesSchedule time with special teachers, labs, videos, librarian, etc.Write your testsD...
One to two weeks…Finalize, write and turn-in your lesson plansFinalize the activitiesCollect resourcesPreview for the ...
DailyKeep notesCollect student work samplesUse the plan as a guide, NOT the bible…
Erickson’s Structure ofKnowledgeGeneralizations or principlesConceptsTopicsFacts
Ten Views for Making UnitPlans  Teams, Themes and Threads
FragmentedTraditional: Teacher presents subject as an independent discipline.
NestedWithin each subject, teacher targets multiple skills and domains.Example: Photosynthesis unit project targets consen...
ConnectedWithin a subject area, content is linked and relates to previous and subsequent learning.Example: Fractions and d...
SequencedConcepts are arranged to coincide with one another.Example: English teacher presents a historical novel while His...
SharedPlanning and teaching overlap concepts in two  disciplines.Example: Science and Math teachers use data  collection, ...
WebbedA theme is used to present topics and concepts.Example: Teacher uses “The Circus” to present various subject areas.
ThreadedCombined curricular approach targets all domains.Example: Staff targets prediction, interpersonal communication an...
Integrated Interdisciplinary approach matches subjects for   overlaps in topics and concepts. Example: Math, Science, ELA,...
ImmersedThe learner filters all content through one “lens” and becomes immersed in their own experience.Example: Naturalis...
NetworkedThe learner filters all learning through the expert’s eyes and makes internal connections.Example: An architect n...
Three General Categories:   Concept Analysis    Task Analysis  Advance Organizer
Concept AnalysisDeductive - large concepts to specific examplesInductive - small examples to discover broader concepts
Deduction
Deductive ModelsDemonstrationsVideos or filmsStudent trialsGuest speakersReadingReportsGames
Induction
Inductive ModelsListsStudent generalizationsBrainstormsQuestioningData analysisResearchApplied experiments
Task AnalysisStep by step organizationSequencing of more complex objectivesTerminal and intermediate (supporting) objec...
Advance OrganizerOverview to specific (deductive)Often referred to as “scaffolding”Use a visual/graphic representation
Organizer ExamplesTimelines      TablesFlow charts    TreesGraphs         ClassificationsNetworks       Venn diagr...
What’s First…?What is to be tested?What task or concept is the hardest?What activity is the most complex?What will gra...
Break
There ought not to be anythingin the whole universe that mancan’t poke his nose into…that’sthe way we’re built and I assum...
Effect SizeMean (average) score of pretest or first testMean score of the posttest, second test, or comparison groupSta...
Effect SizeAn ES of > .02 is not importantAn ES of < .03 is significantAn ES approaching 1.0 is very significant and a ...
Calculate ESPretest – 1st       29 23 26 30 27 22 29 26 27 29 Posttest – 2nd     35 38 29 35 36 30 39 33 34 33    Average ...
Lesson planning & Assessment
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Lesson planning & Assessment

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  • Hi, Gail,

    Glad you could use it. If you need any others, let me know what you are teaching.
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  • This is so timely. I will be creating a professional development lesson plan for distance learners and this is just what I need to frame my lesson. I will be using the ASSURE Model Lesson plan, but talk about good timing. Thanks, Dr. Seiter.
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Lesson planning & Assessment

  1. 1. Lesson PlansDr. SeiterCurriculum & Instruction
  2. 2. Learning has nothing to do with what the teachercovers. Learning has to do with what the student accomplishes.
  3. 3. What research says about planning... …effective teachers do it!
  4. 4. No widely accepted planning model.Individual preferencesTime, content, activities are importantClear objectives with active verbsPlan strategies & activities targeting learning styles
  5. 5. Planning is a guide to actionLinks instruction to real lifeConsiders student attention spans, learning styles and interestSystematically develops objectives, questions and activitiesReflects higher order thinking skills
  6. 6. Teacher planning is often mentalThere is a reason TV is not “live”Planning is not linear, but a processPlanning is flexibleBased on needs
  7. 7. Rarely linear…Must focus on student needs…Must be constantly revised…Must be flexible…with several plansMust have multiple activities
  8. 8. Variety of plan formatsStandard - the “Book”Madeline HunterDistrict templatesLesson specific plansYear, semesters, months, weeks, units, days, activities
  9. 9. TAMU Plan Format Topic Rationale (includes TEKS) Objectives  TLW  Measurable verbs Materials / resources Focus Check for Understanding Instructional Input Guided Practice Independent Practice Closure Evaluation
  10. 10. Topic General ideas Large picture May be: Chapter title Concept Same or similar for a series
  11. 11. Rationale Essential Question TEKS Makes connections
  12. 12. Objectives Experiences RELATED to TEKS Use verbs: Measurable Student-centered
  13. 13. Materials Texts Websites Models Games Video Time
  14. 14. Focus Pique interest Pose a problem Ask a question Show a demonstration Display a model Play a simulation
  15. 15. Instructional Input Biggest section Experiences Student- centered Alternatives Timings
  16. 16. Check for Understanding Questions Observations Behaviors
  17. 17. Guided Practice Whole class or small group Practice as you PLAY Reinforce the important items
  18. 18. Independent Practice NOT homework Supervised Give encouragement
  19. 19. Closure NOT the end Connects to focus Helps ‘understanding’ Picture Activity Solution
  20. 20. Evaluation Mastery Completion Student-centered Must allow re- testing
  21. 21. What’s the Objective…?Dr. Seiter calls Breaking down the TEKSit…C&I calls it… Setting Goals & ObjectivesTexas calls it… Creating meaningful, appropriate goals & objectivesCollege calls Planning the Learner-centered Curriculumit…The “Real Lesson PlanningWorld” callsit…
  22. 22. What’s the Objective…?Teacher calls The Daily Problemit…The CoreSubject calls Chapter Reviewit… 8.2: The student selects and usesTEA/TEKS callit… appropriate operations to solve problems and justify solutions.College calls Business Mathit…The “RealWorld” calls Answering the boss’ questionsit…
  23. 23. Favorite Learning Experiences HS – 23% MS – 23% ES – 23% College – 30% Relevant, real-life – 69% Active, participation, involved – 69% Multimedia, variety of media – 30%
  24. 24. Learning ExperiencesTeacher Behaviors: Groups Experiments Field Trips Excited, enthusiastic Challenging Pushing Fun Available
  25. 25. Learning ExperiencesVerbs used: Play Use Talk Argue Debate Laugh Question Try
  26. 26. What activitiesdoes this survey suggest?
  27. 27. Assessment Plan Overview – alignment Formative assessments Summative assessments
  28. 28. Overview Alignment Goal & Criteria Student contexts: “Styles” Techniques IEPs
  29. 29. Assessment PrinciplesSpecify type of thinking, content and experiencesDesign tasks or tests that target thinking and contentDecide what evidence and how much (criteria) exhibits student mastery
  30. 30. Formative AssessmentsProcess stepsCriteriaFeedbackArtifactsEvidence of success
  31. 31. Type of thinking What’s the difference between “the studentunderstands what slope is…” and “the student can solve multistep problems that involve identifying and calculating slope…”?
  32. 32. The Poetry LessonTLW be able to interpretpoems The TestMatch poems with authorsID rhyme & meterWrite an original poem of 6 lines
  33. 33. Assessment PrinciplesSpecify type of thinking, content and experiencesDesign tasks or tests that target thinking and contentDecide what evidence and how much (criteria) exhibits student mastery
  34. 34. Using the STAAR Standards The “Readiness Standard” is the target behavior “Supporting Standards” may be used or associated with the end product
  35. 35. 8th Grade Social StudiesCategory 1.(4).(A) & (B)http://myfakewall.com/w/Ben+Franklin_1What if _________________ was on Facebook in 1765 after the passing of The Stamp Act? What would they post?
  36. 36. 8th Grade Social StudiesWhy did importsfrom Great Britainto the Americancolonies decline? Intolerable Acts 1774
  37. 37. Grade 3 MathematicsCategory 2.(3.7)(B)Hayden put the same amount of money in his bank account each month. The chart shows how much he had saved after 3 months, 4 months and 5 months. If Hayden keeps saving at the same rate, how many months will it take him to save $49? Number of 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Months Dollars $21 $28 $35 Saved
  38. 38. Experiences
  39. 39. Tasks
  40. 40. Evidence
  41. 41. Topic: Simple Machines General Science Grade 8 Objectives: Students will be able to: •Identify six simple machines. •Identify simple machines within a compound machine. •Calculate the mechanical advantage of a given machine. •Compare and Contrast simple machines and compound machines. Knowledge Comprehension Application AnalysisObjective a 1 1 3 2 7Objective b 1 0 2 3 6Objective c 1 2 4 3 10Objective d 2 1 2 2 7Total 5 (17%) 4(15%) 11(38%) 10 (30%) 30
  42. 42. Learning Styles“A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.”Robert Heinlein in “Time Enough For Love”Also wrote “Stranger in a Strange Land”
  43. 43. Gardner’s Theory of MultipleIntelligences Howard Gardner; published in 1985
  44. 44. Learning StylesStyles are preferences, NOT abilitiesStyles + ability = synergy for learningIndividuals have patterns of stylesStyles vary with task, situationStyles are socializedStyles are teachableCulture, gender, age and education influence styles
  45. 45. Verbal/linguisticThinking in wordsUses languageAppreciate complex meaningsJournalists, newscasters, writers
  46. 46. Logical/mathematicalCalculate and quantifyConsider propositions and hypothesisEngineers, accountants, programmers
  47. 47. SpatialThinks in 3 dimensionsManipulates graphicsNavigates in spacePilots, painters, architects
  48. 48. Body/kinestheticFine hand-eye coordinationGood physical skillsDancers, craftsmen, surgeons
  49. 49. MusicalSensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, toneMusicians, composers, sensitive listeners
  50. 50. InterpersonalInteracts effectively with othersAt ease in social situationsTeachers, actors and politicians
  51. 51. IntrapersonalAccurate self-perceptionPlans and directs own lifeTheologians and psychologists
  52. 52. NaturalistAppreciates natural phenomenaRecognizes patternsSensory, hands-on learnersEnvironmentalists, farmers, oceanographers
  53. 53. ExistentialistSensitive to “Big Issues”Global ThinkersAsks “Why are we here?”
  54. 54. Lesson Plans Integrating Multiple Intelligences
  55. 55. Plans are as varied as teachersFormats varySome principals/administrations require particular formatsPlans are NOT schedulesPlans may be Unit, Weekly or DailyNext week: Format models
  56. 56. Elements of a planObjectivesAssessmentsProcedures/sequenceMaterials/resourcesRe-teaching strategiesEnrichment strategiesAlternatives for special students
  57. 57. ObjectivesDistrict curriculum mandatedDomainsTaxonomicLearning Styles
  58. 58. AssessmentsMust be tied to the objectivesMust be realisticMust be measurable
  59. 59. ProceduresStep-by-stepFocus on what the students DOSeparate content and skills
  60. 60. Re-teaching StrategiesWhat if they don’t get it?What is the definition of insanity?
  61. 61. EnrichmentWhat if they get it and are ready to move on?What would YOU think is fun?Think of last two levels of Bloom’s taxonomy
  62. 62. Alternatives for Special FriendsDifferent testsAlternative assignmentsVaried homeworkTaped or recorded materialVaried supplemental material (leveled reading)Time on tasksVaried product
  63. 63. Conditions of Quality Schoolwork What is “quality?”
  64. 64. The Six Conditions William Glasser 1. Warm, supportive environment 2. Useful work 3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort 4. Self evaluation by students 5. Quality work is fun & feels good 6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  65. 65. Don’t put in too much...1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  66. 66. Have patience…1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  67. 67. Foster routines…1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  68. 68. Think in terms of the student…1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  69. 69. “We’ve taken notes… “We’ve discussed this…”1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  70. 70. Language & word choice…1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  71. 71. Multi-tasking…or making multiple tasks?1. Warm, supportive environment2. Useful work3. Emphasis on “Best”, time & effort4. Self evaluation by students5. Quality work is fun & feels good6. NOT destructive (#1 rule – “Do No Harm!”)
  72. 72. Concept AttainmentStructured Inquiry Symetry, congruent,Inductive – many examples reflective? / general concept Adjective or verb? Theme elements?1. Examples & non-examples Long or short vowel2. Discuss similarities & sound? differences Baby or adult?3. Define a hypothesis or Barrier or not a barrier? working premise
  73. 73. How…do I teach_____?
  74. 74. The Tool BoxModels of Lesson Organization Models of Teaching
  75. 75. How…?How…do you eat an elephant?
  76. 76. “Our plea to you is to plan yourobjectives or what to teach andthen plan how to teach it.” page 191
  77. 77. Planning Cycle 6 months – 1 year 3-6 months 3-6 weeks 1-2 weeks Daily
  78. 78. One year to six monthsResources – visualize, budget, plan…Time –Make data-driven decisions about the school…“…the next time I teach this…”
  79. 79. Three to six monthsBudget – if it’s not there, don’t plan for it.Make data –driven decisions about your class…“…this is what summer is for…”
  80. 80. Three to six weeks…Gather resourcesSchedule time with special teachers, labs, videos, librarian, etc.Write your testsDesign your projects“…what do I want them to know…?”
  81. 81. One to two weeks…Finalize, write and turn-in your lesson plansFinalize the activitiesCollect resourcesPreview for the classMake data-driven decisions about individual students“…*(%^#$@ !!! copy machine!”
  82. 82. DailyKeep notesCollect student work samplesUse the plan as a guide, NOT the bible…
  83. 83. Erickson’s Structure ofKnowledgeGeneralizations or principlesConceptsTopicsFacts
  84. 84. Ten Views for Making UnitPlans Teams, Themes and Threads
  85. 85. FragmentedTraditional: Teacher presents subject as an independent discipline.
  86. 86. NestedWithin each subject, teacher targets multiple skills and domains.Example: Photosynthesis unit project targets consensus seeking, sequencing and plant life cycle.
  87. 87. ConnectedWithin a subject area, content is linked and relates to previous and subsequent learning.Example: Fractions and decimals relates to money, grades, statistics, etc.
  88. 88. SequencedConcepts are arranged to coincide with one another.Example: English teacher presents a historical novel while History teacher presents that historical period.
  89. 89. SharedPlanning and teaching overlap concepts in two disciplines.Example: Science and Math teachers use data collection, charting and graphing and team teaching.
  90. 90. WebbedA theme is used to present topics and concepts.Example: Teacher uses “The Circus” to present various subject areas.
  91. 91. ThreadedCombined curricular approach targets all domains.Example: Staff targets prediction, interpersonal communication and speaking in all areas.
  92. 92. Integrated Interdisciplinary approach matches subjects for overlaps in topics and concepts. Example: Math, Science, ELA, Fine Arts teachers use patterns in “Weather” to create a unit.
  93. 93. ImmersedThe learner filters all content through one “lens” and becomes immersed in their own experience.Example: Naturalist “intelligence” or preference…
  94. 94. NetworkedThe learner filters all learning through the expert’s eyes and makes internal connections.Example: An architect networks with CAD operators to expand knowledge base.
  95. 95. Three General Categories: Concept Analysis Task Analysis Advance Organizer
  96. 96. Concept AnalysisDeductive - large concepts to specific examplesInductive - small examples to discover broader concepts
  97. 97. Deduction
  98. 98. Deductive ModelsDemonstrationsVideos or filmsStudent trialsGuest speakersReadingReportsGames
  99. 99. Induction
  100. 100. Inductive ModelsListsStudent generalizationsBrainstormsQuestioningData analysisResearchApplied experiments
  101. 101. Task AnalysisStep by step organizationSequencing of more complex objectivesTerminal and intermediate (supporting) objectives
  102. 102. Advance OrganizerOverview to specific (deductive)Often referred to as “scaffolding”Use a visual/graphic representation
  103. 103. Organizer ExamplesTimelines TablesFlow charts TreesGraphs ClassificationsNetworks Venn diagrams Outlines
  104. 104. What’s First…?What is to be tested?What task or concept is the hardest?What activity is the most complex?What will grab their attention?
  105. 105. Break
  106. 106. There ought not to be anythingin the whole universe that mancan’t poke his nose into…that’sthe way we’re built and I assumethere’s some reason for it.”Robert Heinlein, author of Stranger in aStrange Land
  107. 107. Effect SizeMean (average) score of pretest or first testMean score of the posttest, second test, or comparison groupStandard deviation of the pretest or first group
  108. 108. Effect SizeAn ES of > .02 is not importantAn ES of < .03 is significantAn ES approaching 1.0 is very significant and a basis for change.An ES above 1.5 is phenomenal…
  109. 109. Calculate ESPretest – 1st 29 23 26 30 27 22 29 26 27 29 Posttest – 2nd 35 38 29 35 36 30 39 33 34 33 Average of the pretest = 26.8 Average of the posttest = 34.2 Std Dev of the pretest is 2.65

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